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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips May 2017

B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer-based immunotherapy has led the evolution of biologics that can stimulate immune responses towards tumor eradication. The synthesis of small to intermediate size molecules with the targeting and effector functions of mAb may represent a novel class of immunotherapeutics that may overcome the limitations of their biological counterparts.Towards this objective, B7H6 has been identified as a protein ligand localized on the cell surface of transformed tumor cells. B7H6 binds specifically to the activating receptor NKp30, constitutively expressed on all resting and active NK cells. Upon ligand:receptor binding, B7H6 triggers NK cell activation and release of chemokines and pro-inflammatory ...


Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee Jan 2017

Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee

Summer Research

Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) proteins regulate a number of important cellular processes, including cell growth and division. Humans have three PRL proteins: PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. An accumulation of evidence has shown that elevated levels of PRLs are strongly correlated with uncontrollable growth and metastasis of tumors. However, contradictory findings have arisen indicating that PRLs instead function to halt cell division thereby preventing uncontrollable tumor growth. In light of these results, the underlying mechanisms regarding how PRLs function within cellular processes remains unclear. To investigate the functions of PRLs, we will create transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) with knockout ...


Systems Perturbation Analysis Of A Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates For Cancer Therapeutics, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Laura Allen, Colleen Hochfelde, Mahbubul Majumder, Tomáš Helikar Jan 2016

Systems Perturbation Analysis Of A Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates For Cancer Therapeutics, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Laura Allen, Colleen Hochfelde, Mahbubul Majumder, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model's components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components ...


The Creation Of Α2nc1 Transgenic Drosophila Melanogaster, Jordan Olberding Aug 2013

The Creation Of Α2nc1 Transgenic Drosophila Melanogaster, Jordan Olberding

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The α2 isoform of collagen IV’s noncollagenous 1 domain (α2NC1 or canstatin) has shown promise as an anti-cancer molecule, possessing both angiostatic and pro-apoptotic properties. This work aims to further the knowledge of α2NC1 by conducting a truly in vivo study in which the Gal4-induced endogenous overexpression of α2NC1 in Drosophila melanogaster will be used to assess the effects of α2NC1 upon normal development as well as tumorigenesis. To this end, transgenic fly lines capable of overexpressing α2NC1 were created. Initial overexpression studies indicated no developmental phenotype was caused by abundance of α2NC1. However, future overexpression studies in which ...


Microrna Function In Human Diseases, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mary Anne Smith, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ashley M. Mohr, Justin L. Mott Jan 2013

Microrna Function In Human Diseases, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mary Anne Smith, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ashley M. Mohr, Justin L. Mott

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

MicroRNAs are emerging as a hot topic in research, and rightfully so. They show great promise as targets of treatment and as markers for common human diseases, such as cancer and metabolic diseases. In this review, we address some of the basic questions regarding micro- RNA function in human disease and the clinical significance of microRNAs. Specifically, micro- RNAs in epigenetics, cancer, and metabolic diseases are discussed, with examples taken from cholangiocarcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.


Design, Synthesis, And Anticancer Activity Of Ruthenium Complexes, Brock S. Howerton Jan 2012

Design, Synthesis, And Anticancer Activity Of Ruthenium Complexes, Brock S. Howerton

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Ruthenium complexes show promise as light activated photodynamic therapy (PDT) prodrugs. Strained octahedral complexes were synthesized that produce a cytotoxic species upon light activation. pUC19 DNA damage in vitro experiments were carried out to determine the type of damage observed. In vivo cell experiments were carried out on the non-small lung cancer A549 cell line to determine the phototherapeutic window of the synthesized complexes. One mechanism of drug resistance via elevated levels of glutathione was addressed through in vitro binding studies carried out with UV-Vis spectroscopy and in vivo glutathione titrations in the A549 cell line. Several complexes were shown ...


Treg Depletion Inhibits Efficacy Of Cancer Immunotherapy: Implications For Clinical Trials., James Curtin, Marianela Candolfi, Tamer Fakhouri, Chunyan Liu, Anderson Alden, Matthew Edwards, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro Apr 2008

Treg Depletion Inhibits Efficacy Of Cancer Immunotherapy: Implications For Clinical Trials., James Curtin, Marianela Candolfi, Tamer Fakhouri, Chunyan Liu, Anderson Alden, Matthew Edwards, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

BACKGROUND: Regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) infiltrate human glioblastoma (GBM); are involved in tumor progression and correlate with tumor grade. Transient elimination of Tregs using CD25 depleting antibodies (PC61) has been found to mediate GBM regression in preclinical models of brain tumors. Clinical trials that combine Treg depletion with tumor vaccination are underway to determine whether transient Treg depletion can enhance anti-tumor immune responses and improve long term survival in cancer patients. FINDINGS: Using a syngeneic intracrabial glioblastoma (GBM) mouse model we show that systemic depletion of Tregs 15 days after tumor implantation using PC61 resulted in a decrease in Tregs ...


Soluble Fibrin Inhibits Lymphocyte Adherence And Cytotoxicity Against Tumor Cells: Implications For Cancer Metastasis And Immunotherapy, John Biggerstaff, Brandy Weidow, Judith Dexheimer, Gary Warnes, Jacqueline Vidosh, Shonak Patel, Michael Newman, Pretesh Patel Mar 2008

Soluble Fibrin Inhibits Lymphocyte Adherence And Cytotoxicity Against Tumor Cells: Implications For Cancer Metastasis And Immunotherapy, John Biggerstaff, Brandy Weidow, Judith Dexheimer, Gary Warnes, Jacqueline Vidosh, Shonak Patel, Michael Newman, Pretesh Patel

John Biggerstaff

Circulating soluble fibrin (sFn) is elevated in many cancer patients. It is a marker for ongoing disseminated intravascular coagulation and may have prognostic significance. We have demonstrated that sFn inhibited monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity by a mechanism involving blockade of monocyte αMβ2 and tumor cell CD54. It was, therefore, hypothesized that sFn also inhibits lymphocyte and interleukin-2—activated lymphocyte (LAK) adherence and cytotoxicity against tumor cells. This study sought to identify the lymphocyte subset responsible for adherence and killing of A375 melanoma cells and whether sFn inhibited these parameters. Lymphocyte and LAK cell adherence and cytotoxicity, which was adherence dependent ...