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Biotechnology

2019

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Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Chemical Epitope Targeting: Review Of A Novel Screening Technology, Qurrat Ul-Ain, Rene Kandler, Dylan Gillespie, Arundhati Nag Sep 2019

Chemical Epitope Targeting: Review Of A Novel Screening Technology, Qurrat Ul-Ain, Rene Kandler, Dylan Gillespie, Arundhati Nag

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

Chemical Epitope Targeting is a novel technology developed for designing peptide ligands with high affinity and specificity against specific regions of a protein that may be inaccessible to small molecules or antibodies. In this review, we summarize the key steps and significant applications of this technology. Operating on the same principles as antibody-antigen interactions, this technique involves chemically synthesizing the region of interest on the protein, called the epitope, as a polypeptide with a biotin detection tag and a strategically placed alkyne or azide presenting amino acid. The constructed epitope is screened against a comprehensive linear or cyclic One Bead ...


Renal Specific Rnai Delivery By Fibrillar Nanoparticle Excipients, Sam Wong Sep 2019

Renal Specific Rnai Delivery By Fibrillar Nanoparticle Excipients, Sam Wong

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to manipulate the phenotype of an organism by silencing the expression of specific genes and is viewed as a highly promising platform for treating undruggable targets and disorders where small molecule drugs and antibodies would fail. However, development of RNAi based therapies has faced major barriers including cellular and tissue-specific uptake of the Small Interfering RNA (siRNA). Utilizing different nanoparticles as RNAi excipients, cellular uptake and gene silencing potency can be greatly improved. The research in Dr. McDevitt groups has fibrillar carbon nanotubes (CNT) as carriers for siRNA for gene silencing in vitro ...


Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali Aug 2019

Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recently, a novel class of muscular dystrophy has been discovered in a family due to autosomal recessive missense mutation in POGLUT1. Mutation of this enzyme leads to decreased O-glucosyltransferase activity and impaired Notch signaling, the pathways important for skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) quiescence and activation. We hypothesize that reduced POGLUT1 activity and impaired Notch signaling is causative of this limb girdle muscular dystrophy through dysfunction of muscle stem cells and myogenic progenitors.

To test this, we have used iPSCs for disease modeling and rescue experiments. Using a CRISPR based gene targeting method, we aimed to correct the point ...


Some Of The Most Interesting Casp11 Targets Through The Eyes Of Their Authors, Andriy Kryshtafovych, John Moult, Arnaud Basle, Alex Burgin, Timonthy K. Craig, Robert A. Edwards, Deborah Fass, Marcus D. Hartmann, Mateusz Korycinski, Richard J. Lewis, Donald Lorimer, Andrei N. Lupas, Janet Newman, Thomas S. Peat, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Janani Prahlad, Mark J. Van Raaij, Forest Rohwer, Anca M. Segall, Victor Seguritan, Eric J. Sundberg, Abhimanyu K. Singh, Mark A. Wilson, Torsten Schwede Jun 2019

Some Of The Most Interesting Casp11 Targets Through The Eyes Of Their Authors, Andriy Kryshtafovych, John Moult, Arnaud Basle, Alex Burgin, Timonthy K. Craig, Robert A. Edwards, Deborah Fass, Marcus D. Hartmann, Mateusz Korycinski, Richard J. Lewis, Donald Lorimer, Andrei N. Lupas, Janet Newman, Thomas S. Peat, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Janani Prahlad, Mark J. Van Raaij, Forest Rohwer, Anca M. Segall, Victor Seguritan, Eric J. Sundberg, Abhimanyu K. Singh, Mark A. Wilson, Torsten Schwede

Kurt Piepenbrink

The Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment would not have been possible without the prediction targets provided by the experimental structural biology community. In this article, selected crystallographers providing targets for the CASP11 experiment discuss the functional and biological significance of the target proteins, highlight their most interesting structural features, and assess whether these features were correctly reproduced in the predictions submitted to CASP11.


Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink Jun 2019

Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink

Kurt Piepenbrink

Bacterial uptake of DNA through type IV filaments is an essential component of natural competence in numerous gram-positive and gram-negative species. Recent advances in the field have broadened our understanding of the structures used to take up extracellular DNA. Here, we review seminal experiments in the literature describing DNA binding by type IV pili, competence pili and the flp pili of Micrococcus luteus; collectively referred to here as type IV filaments. We compare the current state of the field on mechanisms of DNA uptake for these three appendage systems and describe the current mechanistic understanding of both DNA-binding and DNA-uptake ...


Compositional Optimization Of Amyloid-Graphene Oxide Nanohybrids For Biomaterials, Claire L. Drewery Jun 2019

Compositional Optimization Of Amyloid-Graphene Oxide Nanohybrids For Biomaterials, Claire L. Drewery

Materials Engineering

Amyloid nanofibrils are natural materials capable of self-assembling into precise structures with tunable functionalities, while exhibiting excellent mechanical properties. In combination with highly conductive graphene oxide (GO), the 1-D amyloid nanofibrils and 2-D nanosheets of GO can produce a robust and bio-functional nanohybrid, hypothesized to exhibit multi-domain functional properties useful for enzyme sensing, water purification, drug delivery, and tissue scaffolding applications. Here, we examine the properties of an amyloid-graphene oxide nanohybrid film made with amyloids derived from hen egg white lysozymes in an attempt to explore the diverse toolbox of amyloid derivatives and establish ideal fabrication methods and formulations of ...


Study Of Paper Microbial Fuel Cells For Use In On-Site Wastewater Testing, William A. Tolmasoff, William A. Tolmasoff Jun 2019

Study Of Paper Microbial Fuel Cells For Use In On-Site Wastewater Testing, William A. Tolmasoff, William A. Tolmasoff

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This study demonstrated a technique for fabricating simple, low-cost Paper Microbial fuel cells (PMFC’s) in the model of a previous study to, for the first time, produce voltage from wastewater effluent. The PMFC’s were created by stacking and gluing the main components of an MFC together: reservoir layer; anode; cation exchange membrane (CEM); air cathode. A wax printer was used to create the hydrophobic borders of the PMFC’s on filter paper, and graphite paint was applied to the paper to create the anode. The CEM’s considered were filter paper, wax, and Nafion, with Nafion being the ...


Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan May 2019

Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan

Quest

Independent Research Paper

Research in progress for PHYS 2426: University Physics II

Faculty Mentor: Raji Kannampuzha, Ph.D.

The following paper represents research work done by students in a University Physics 2426 class, the second half of a two-semester introductory course in physics. It is a calculus-based physics course, intended primarily for physics, chemistry, math, and engineering majors. Students are introduced to the concept of academic research by learning to ask research-focused questions and then use the library resources to pursue outside research to find answers. For this assignment, students are asked to investigate a physical science, biological science, or ...


Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent May 2019

Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the development of a novel lectin-Fc fusion protein and its antiviral and anti-cancer activity. The molecule, Avaren-Fc (AvFc), is a fusion of a variant of the actinomycete lectin actinohivin (Avaren) and the Fc region of human IgG1, and is selective for the terminal α1,2-mannose residues found at the ends of high-mannose-type glycans that can be found on the surface of certain heavily glycosylated viruses and cancer cells. Here, AvFc was found to be able to neutralize simian immunodeficiency virus as well as Hepatitis C virus with nanomolar IC50 values. Furthermore, AvFc recognizes a number of ...


Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes which provide insight into the disease's process. With rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic features is far greater than the number of subjects. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genomic features related to survival outcome; however, the Cox model assumes proportional ...


Supervised Dimension Reduction For Large-Scale "Omics" Data With Censored Survival Outcomes Under Possible Non-Proportional Hazards, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Supervised Dimension Reduction For Large-Scale "Omics" Data With Censored Survival Outcomes Under Possible Non-Proportional Hazards, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

The past two decades have witnessed significant advances in high-throughput ``omics" technologies such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and radiomics. These technologies have enabled simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of tens of thousands of features from individual patient samples and have generated enormous amounts of data that require analysis and interpretation. One specific area of interest has been in studying the relationship between these features and patient outcomes, such as overall and recurrence-free survival, with the goal of developing a predictive ``omics" profile. Large-scale studies often suffer from the presence of a large fraction of censored observations and potential ...


Allosteric Mechanism Of The Circadian Protein Vivid Resolved Through Markov State Model And Machine Learning Analysis, Hongyu Zhou, Zheng Dong, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao Feb 2019

Allosteric Mechanism Of The Circadian Protein Vivid Resolved Through Markov State Model And Machine Learning Analysis, Hongyu Zhou, Zheng Dong, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The fungal circadian clock photoreceptor Vivid (VVD) contains a photosensitive allosteric light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domain that undergoes a large N-terminal conformational change. The mechanism by which a blue-light driven covalent bond formation leads to a global conformational change remains unclear, which hinders the further development of VVD as an optogenetic tool. We answered this question through a novel computational platform integrating Markov state models, machine learning methods, and newly developed community analysis algorithms. Applying this new integrative approach, we provided a quantitative evaluation of the contribution from the covalent bond to the protein global conformational change, and proposed an ...


Method Development For Structural Assessment Of Nanolipoprotein Particles With And Without Cross-Linked Lipids, Emma J. Mullen, Wei He, Sean Gilmore, Matthias Frank, Matthew Coleman, Megan Shelby Jan 2019

Method Development For Structural Assessment Of Nanolipoprotein Particles With And Without Cross-Linked Lipids, Emma J. Mullen, Wei He, Sean Gilmore, Matthias Frank, Matthew Coleman, Megan Shelby

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Membrane proteins make up approximately 30% of the cellular proteome and account for over 60% of pharmaceutical targets.1 Determining the structures of this class of proteins is critical to our understanding of disease states and will advance rational drug design. But membrane proteins have limited solubility, rarely form large crystals that diffract well, and often misfold outside of a bilayer, hindering crystallographic studies.1 Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) have arisen as a platform to readily solubilize membrane proteins while mimicking a native lipid environment. NLPs consist of a discoidal phospholipid bilayer encircled by an apolipoprotein belt. In an effort to ...


Genome‐Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Phenotyped At Five Locations In Asia And North America, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks Jan 2019

Genome‐Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Phenotyped At Five Locations In Asia And North America, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

To improve the efficiency of breeding of Miscanthus for biomass yield, there is a need to develop genomics‐assisted selection for this long‐lived perennial crop by relating genotype to phenotype and breeding value across a broad range of environments. We present the first genome‐wide association (GWA) and genomic prediction study of Miscanthus that utilizes multilocation phenotypic data. A panel of 568 Miscanthus sinensis accessions was genotyped with 46,177 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluated at one subtropical and five temperate locations over 3 years for biomass yield and 14 yield‐component traits. GWA and genomic prediction were ...


Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Evaluated At Five Locations Revealed Individuals With Exceptional Potential, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks Jan 2019

Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Evaluated At Five Locations Revealed Individuals With Exceptional Potential, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

To breed improved biomass cultivars of Miscanthus ×giganteus, it will be necessary to select the highest‐yielding and best‐adapted genotypes of its parental species, Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus. We phenotyped a diverse clonally propagated panel of 569 M. sinensis and nine natural diploid M. ×giganteus at one subtropical (Zhuji, China) and five temperate locations (Sapporo, Japan; Leamington, Ontario, Canada; Fort Collins, CO; Urbana, IL; and Chuncheon, Korea) for dry biomass yield and 14 yield‐component traits, in trials grown for 3 years. Notably, dry biomass yield of four Miscanthus accessions exceeded 80 Mg/ha in Zhuji, China, approaching ...


Visualizing The Invisible: A Guide To Designing, Printing, And Incorporating Dynamic 3d Molecular Models To Teach Structure–Function Relationships, Michelle Howell, Karin Van Dijk, Christine S. Booth, Tomáš Helikar, Brain A. Couch, Rebecca Roston Jan 2019

Visualizing The Invisible: A Guide To Designing, Printing, And Incorporating Dynamic 3d Molecular Models To Teach Structure–Function Relationships, Michelle Howell, Karin Van Dijk, Christine S. Booth, Tomáš Helikar, Brain A. Couch, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the intricate relationship between macromolecular structure and function represents a central goal of undergraduate biology education (1–3). In teaching complex three-dimensional (3D) concepts, instructors typically depend on static two-dimensional (2D) textbook images or computer-based visualization software, which can lead to unintended misconceptions (4–6). While chemical and molecular kits exist, these models cannot handle the size and detail of macromolecules. Consequently, students may graduate in the life sciences without understanding how structure underlies function or acquiring skills to translate between 2D and 3D molecular models (5, 7). Building on recent technological advances, 3D printing (3DP) potentiates an era ...


Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo Jan 2019

Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function. In recent studies, hyperactive autophagy in WAT was observed in obese and diabetic patients, and inhibition of adipose autophagy ...


Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink Jan 2019

Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Bacterial uptake of DNA through type IV filaments is an essential component of natural competence in numerous gram-positive and gram-negative species. Recent advances in the field have broadened our understanding of the structures used to take up extracellular DNA. Here, we review seminal experiments in the literature describing DNA binding by type IV pili, competence pili and the flp pili of Micrococcus luteus; collectively referred to here as type IV filaments. We compare the current state of the field on mechanisms of DNA uptake for these three appendage systems and describe the current mechanistic understanding of both DNA-binding and DNA-uptake ...


Student Understanding Of Dna Structure–Function Relationships Improves From Using 3d Learning Modules With Dynamic 3d Printed Models, Michelle E. Howell, Christine S. Booth, Sharmin M. Sikich, Tomáš Helikar, Rebecca Roston, Brain A. Couch, Karin Van Dijk Jan 2019

Student Understanding Of Dna Structure–Function Relationships Improves From Using 3d Learning Modules With Dynamic 3d Printed Models, Michelle E. Howell, Christine S. Booth, Sharmin M. Sikich, Tomáš Helikar, Rebecca Roston, Brain A. Couch, Karin Van Dijk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the relationship between molecular structure and function represents an important goal of undergraduate life sciences. Although evidence suggests that handling physical models supports gains in student understanding of structure–function relationships, such models have not been widely implemented in biochemistry classrooms. Three-dimensional (3D) printing represents an emerging cost-effective means of producing molecular models to help students investigate structure–function concepts. We developed three interactive learning modules with dynamic 3D printed models to help biochemistry students visualize biomolecular structures and address particular misconceptions. These modules targeted specific learning objectives related to DNA and RNA structure, transcription factor-DNA interactions, and DNA ...


Downregulation Of A Cyp74 Rubber Particle Protein Increases Natural Rubber Production In Parthenium Argentatum, Dante F. Placido, Niu Dong, Chen Dong, Von Mark V. Cruz, David A. Dierig, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Byung-Guk Kang, Trinh Huynh, Maureen Whalen, Grisel Ponciano, Colleen Mcmahan Jan 2019

Downregulation Of A Cyp74 Rubber Particle Protein Increases Natural Rubber Production In Parthenium Argentatum, Dante F. Placido, Niu Dong, Chen Dong, Von Mark V. Cruz, David A. Dierig, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Byung-Guk Kang, Trinh Huynh, Maureen Whalen, Grisel Ponciano, Colleen Mcmahan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

We report functional genomics studies of a CYP74 rubber particle protein from Parthenium argentatum, commonly called guayule. Previously identified as an allene oxide synthase (AOS), this CYP74 constitutes the most abundant protein found in guayule rubber particles. Transgenic guayule lines with AOS gene expression down-regulated by RNAi (AOSi) exhibited strong phenotypes that included agricultural traits conducive to enhancing rubber yield. AOSi lines had higher leaf and stem biomass, thicker stembark tissues, increased stem branching and improved net photosynthetic rate. Importantly, the rubber content was significantly increased in AOSi lines compared to the wild-type (WT), vector control and AOS overexpressing (AOSoe ...


Ligand Binding And Signaling Of Hare/Stabilin-2, Edward N. Harris, Fatima Cabral Jan 2019

Ligand Binding And Signaling Of Hare/Stabilin-2, Edward N. Harris, Fatima Cabral

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The Stabilin receptors are a two-member family in the type H class of scavenger receptors. These dynamic receptors bind and internalize multiple ligands from the cell surface for the purpose of clearing extracellular material including some synthetic drugs and for sensing the external environment of the cell. Stabilin-1 was the first receptor to be cloned, though the biological activity of Hyaluronic Acid Receptor for Endocytosis (HARE)/Stabilin-2 was observed about 10 years prior to the cloning of Stabilin-1. Stabilin-1 has a more diverse expression profile among the tissues than HARE/Stabilin-2. This review will focus on HARE/Stabilin-2 and its ...


Winter Hardiness Of Miscanthus (Iii): Genome‐Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Overwintering Ability In Miscanthus Sinensis, Hongxu Dong, Lindsay V. Clark, Alexander E. Lipka, Joe E. Brummer, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan C. Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks Jan 2019

Winter Hardiness Of Miscanthus (Iii): Genome‐Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Overwintering Ability In Miscanthus Sinensis, Hongxu Dong, Lindsay V. Clark, Alexander E. Lipka, Joe E. Brummer, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan C. Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Overwintering ability is an important selection criterion for Miscanthus breeding in temperate regions. Insufficient overwintering ability of the currently leading Miscanthus biomass cultivar, M. ×giganteus (M×g) ‘1993–1780’, in regions where average annual minimum temperatures are −26.1°C (USDA hardiness zone 5) or lower poses a pressing need to develop new cultivars with superior cold tolerance. To facilitate breeding of Miscanthus, this study characterized phenotypic and genetic variation of overwintering ability in an M. sinensis germplasm panel consisting of 564 accessions, evaluated in field trials at three locations in North America and two in Asia. Genome‐wide association ...