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Biotechnology

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 58

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Design, Assessment, And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Computational Model Illustrating The Role Of Cav1 In Cd4+ T-Lymphocytes, Brittany D. Conroy, Tyler A. Herek, Timonthy D. Shew, Matthew Latner, Joshua J. Larson, Laura Allen, Paul H. Davis, Tomáš Helikar, Christine E. Cutucache Dec 2014

Design, Assessment, And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Computational Model Illustrating The Role Of Cav1 In Cd4+ T-Lymphocytes, Brittany D. Conroy, Tyler A. Herek, Timonthy D. Shew, Matthew Latner, Joshua J. Larson, Laura Allen, Paul H. Davis, Tomáš Helikar, Christine E. Cutucache

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a vital scaffold protein heterogeneously expressed in both healthy and malignant tissue. We focus on the role of CAV1 when overexpressed in T-cell leukemia. Previously, we have shown that CAV1 is involved in cell-to-cell communication, cellular proliferation, and immune synapse formation; however, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated.We hypothesize that the role of CAV1 in immune synapse formation contributes to immune regulation during leukemic progression, thereby warranting studies of the role of CAV1 in CD4+ T-cells in relation to antigen-presenting cells. To address this need, we developed a computational model of a CD4+ immune effector ...


Variability Of Vitamins B1, B2 And Minerals Content In Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Leaves In East And West Africa, Hyacinthe Traore, Charles Parkouda, Adama Korbo, Diarra Compaoré/Sérémé, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Jan J. Svejgaard, Bréhima Diawara Nov 2014

Variability Of Vitamins B1, B2 And Minerals Content In Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Leaves In East And West Africa, Hyacinthe Traore, Charles Parkouda, Adama Korbo, Diarra Compaoré/Sérémé, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Jan J. Svejgaard, Bréhima Diawara

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

The regional variability and age-age correlation on vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and minerals (Ca, Mg, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn) concentration in baobab leaves were investigated. Baobab was cultivated from seeds from 11 african countries. Vitamins B1 and B2 content were assessed using microbiological VitaFast kits methods and minerals by atomic absorption and flame spectrometry methods. Overall, the results showed a higher content of vitamin B2 compared to vitamin B1 with the highest vitamin B2 content (1.04 +- 0.05 mg/100 g DM) from Senegal. The highest iron (Fe) content of 26.39 mg/100 g ...


The Complexity Of Molecular Interactions And Bindings Between Cyclic Peptide And Inhibit Polymerase A And B1 (Pac-Pb1n) H1n1, Arli A. Parikesit, Harry Noviardi Hn, Djati Kerami Dk, Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan Usft Nov 2014

The Complexity Of Molecular Interactions And Bindings Between Cyclic Peptide And Inhibit Polymerase A And B1 (Pac-Pb1n) H1n1, Arli A. Parikesit, Harry Noviardi Hn, Djati Kerami Dk, Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan Usft

Arli A Parikesit

The influenza/H1N1 virus has caused hazard in the public health of many countries. Hence, existing influenza drugs could not cope with H1N1 infection due to the high mutation rate of the virus. In this respect, new method to block the virus was devised. The polymerase pac-pb1n enzyme is responsible for the replication of H1N1 virus. Thus, novel inhibitors were developed to ward off the functionality of the enzyme. In this research, cyclic peptides has been chosen to inhibit PAc-PB1n due to its proven stability in reaching the drug target. Thus, computational method for elucidating the molecular interaction between cyclic ...


Use Of Cysteine-Reactive Crosslinkers To Probe Conformational Flexibility Of Human Dj-1 Demonstrates That Glu18 Mutations Are Dimers, Janani Prahlad, David N. Hauser, Nicole M. Milkovic, Mark R. Cookson, Mark A. Wilson Sep 2014

Use Of Cysteine-Reactive Crosslinkers To Probe Conformational Flexibility Of Human Dj-1 Demonstrates That Glu18 Mutations Are Dimers, Janani Prahlad, David N. Hauser, Nicole M. Milkovic, Mark R. Cookson, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The oxidation of a key cysteine residue (Cys106) in the parkinsonism-associated protein DJ-1 regulates its ability to protect against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Cys106 interacts with a neighboring protonated Glu18 residue, stabilizing the Cys106-SO2 (sulfinic acid) form of DJ-1. To study this important post-translational modification, we previously designed several Glu18 mutations (E18N, E18D, E18Q) that alter the oxidative propensity of Cys106. However, recent results suggest these Glu18 mutations cause loss of DJ-1 dimerization, which would severely compromise the protein’s function. The purpose of this study was to conclusively determine the oligomerization state of these mutants using X-ray ...


Sensitivity Analysis Of Biological Boolean Networks Using Information Fusion Based On Nonadditive Set Functions, Naomi Kochi, Tomáš Helikar, Laura Allen, Jim A. Rogers, Zhenyuan Wang, Mihaela T. Matache Sep 2014

Sensitivity Analysis Of Biological Boolean Networks Using Information Fusion Based On Nonadditive Set Functions, Naomi Kochi, Tomáš Helikar, Laura Allen, Jim A. Rogers, Zhenyuan Wang, Mihaela T. Matache

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: An algebraic method for information fusion based on nonadditive set functions is used to assess the joint contribution of Boolean network attributes to the sensitivity of the network to individual node mutations. The node attributes or characteristics under consideration are: in-degree, out-degree, minimum and average path lengths, bias, average sensitivity of Boolean functions, and canalizing degrees. The impact of node mutations is assessed using as target measure the average Hamming distance between a non-mutated/wild-type network and a mutated network.

Results: We find that for a biochemical signal transduction network consisting of several main signaling pathways whose nodes represent ...


The Effect Of Transient Hmg-Coa Reductase And 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Synthase Overexpression On Terpene Production In Transgenic Tomato Fruits, Scott A. Gentry, Michael Gutensohn, Laura Henry, Natalia Dudareva Aug 2014

The Effect Of Transient Hmg-Coa Reductase And 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Synthase Overexpression On Terpene Production In Transgenic Tomato Fruits, Scott A. Gentry, Michael Gutensohn, Laura Henry, Natalia Dudareva

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Isoprenoids are secondary metabolites that control numerous plant functions including signaling, growth, photosynthesis, and membrane structure. The bioengineering of isoprenoid synthesis could produce plants with a variety of beneficial traits. Plants form isoprenoids using two different pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the methylerithritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, which cooperate via metabolic cross-talk. Transgenic tomato lines expressing both the plastidic and cytosolic forms of the snapdragon nerolidol/linalool terpene synthase under a fruit ripening specific promoter were transiently transformed to overexpress key enzymes in the two isoprenoid pathways. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is the rate limiting enzyme in the MVA pathway ...


Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris Aug 2014

Applications And Improvements In The Molecular Modeling Of Protein And Ligand Interactions, Jason Bret Harris

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding protein and ligand interactions is fundamental to treat disease and avoid toxicity in biological organisms. Molecular modeling is a helpful but imperfect tool used in computer-aided toxicology and drug discovery. In this work, molecular docking and structural informatics have been integrated with other modeling methods and physical experiments to better understand and improve predictions for protein and ligand interactions. Results presented as part of this research include:

1.) an application of single-protein docking for an intermediate state structure, specifically, modeling an intermediate state structure of alpha-1-antitrypsin and using the resulting model to virtually screen for chemical inhibitors that can ...


Characterization Of A Recently Purified Thermophilic Dnase From A Novel Thermophilic Fungus, Kyle Landry, Robert Levin Jul 2014

Characterization Of A Recently Purified Thermophilic Dnase From A Novel Thermophilic Fungus, Kyle Landry, Robert Levin

Kyle S Landry

A newly isolated thermophilic fungus was found to produce a partially inducible extracellular DNase. This manuscript focuses on the characterization of this novel thermophilic DNase in terms of optimal enzyme conditions, molecular weight, and certain kinetic properties. The DNase was found to be inactivated by the presence of EDTA demonstrating its dependence on metal cofactors for activity. Maximum activity occurred at pH 6.0 with no activity at pH 2.0 or 10.0. The optimal temperature for the purified DNase was 65 °C. The thermophilic DNase was found to be an exonuclease with an estimated molecular weight of 56 ...


Experimental Demonstration Of Bindingless Signal Delivery In Human Cells Via Microfluidics, Fang-Tzu Chuang Jul 2014

Experimental Demonstration Of Bindingless Signal Delivery In Human Cells Via Microfluidics, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

The cellular signal transduction is commonly believed to rely on the direct “contact” or “binding” of the participating molecule reaction that depends positively on the corresponding molecule concentrations. In living systems, however, it is somewhat difficult to precisely match the corresponding rapid “binding,” depending on the probability of molecular collision, existing in the cellular receptor-ligand interactions. Thus, a question arises that if there is another mechanism (i.e., bindingless) that could promote this signal communication. According to this hypothesis, we report a cellular model based on the examination of intracellular calcium concentration to explore whether the unidentified signal delivery in ...


Biokimia Dan Teknologi Farmasi: Desain Obat Dan Vaksin Dengan Pendekatan Biomedis Molekular, Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan Usft, Arli A. Parikesit Aap Jun 2014

Biokimia Dan Teknologi Farmasi: Desain Obat Dan Vaksin Dengan Pendekatan Biomedis Molekular, Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan Usft, Arli A. Parikesit Aap

Arli A Parikesit

No abstract provided.


Targeted Mutagenesis Of A Therapeutic Human Monoclonal Igg1 Antibody Prevents Gelation At High Concentrations, Paul Casaz, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Rachel Wollacott, Sadettin S. Ozturk, William D. Thomas Jr., Yan Wang May 2014

Targeted Mutagenesis Of A Therapeutic Human Monoclonal Igg1 Antibody Prevents Gelation At High Concentrations, Paul Casaz, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Rachel Wollacott, Sadettin S. Ozturk, William D. Thomas Jr., Yan Wang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

A common challenge encountered during development of high concentration monoclonal antibody formulations is preventing self-association. Depending on the antibody and its formulation, self-association can be seen as aggregation, precipitation, opalescence or phase separation. Here we report on an unusual manifestation of self-association, formation of a semi-solid gel or “gelation”. Therapeutic monoclonal antibody C4 was isolated from human B cells based on its strong potency in neutralizing bacterial toxin in animal models. The purified antibody possessed the unusual property of forming a firm, opaque white gel when it was formulated at concentrations >40 mg/mL and the temperature was <6oC. Gel formation was reversible and was affected by salt concentration or pH, suggesting a charge interaction between IgG monomers. However, formulation optimization could not completely prevent gelation at high concentrations so a protein engineering approach was sought to resolve the problem. A comparison of the heavy and light chain amino acid sequences to consensus germline sequences revealed 16 amino acid sequence differences in the framework regions that could be involved with gelation. Restoring the C4 framework sequence to consensus germline residues by targeted mutagenesis resulted in no gel formation at 50 mg/ml at temperatures as low as 0oC. Additional genetic analysis was used to identify the key residue(s) involved in the gelation. A single substitution in the native antibody, replacing heavy chain glutamate 23 with lysine, was found sufficient to prevent gelation, while a double mutation, replacing heavy chain serine 85 and threonine 87 with arginine, increased the temperature at which gel formation initiated. These results indicate that the temperature dependence of gelation may be related to conformational changes near the charged residues or the regions interact with. Our work provided a molecular strategy that can be applied to improve the solubility of other therapeutic antibodies.


Identification Of The Transcriptional Co-Repressor Complex And Its Functions In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Barsha Shrestha May 2014

Identification Of The Transcriptional Co-Repressor Complex And Its Functions In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Barsha Shrestha

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Deregulation Of Fatty Acid Transport In Escherichia Coli For Enhanced Control Of Biodegradable Plastic Copolymer Production, Ryan A. Scheel May 2014

Deregulation Of Fatty Acid Transport In Escherichia Coli For Enhanced Control Of Biodegradable Plastic Copolymer Production, Ryan A. Scheel

Honors Theses

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are one possible alternative for petroleum-based plastics that have been shown to be produced effectively in bacterial systems utilizing fatty acids. The global regulatory genes arcA and ompR are known to regulate steps involved in fatty acid transport and metabolism, making them promising candidates for research. In this study, we deleted the arcA and ompR genes in order to deregulate fatty acid uptake. To measure the effect of these deletions, copolymers were produced using recombinant E. coli and the repeating unit composition was analyzed. Residual fatty acid levels in media were also measured to determine a difference in ...


Porphyrin Cross-Linkers For Generating Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Polymers From Polyethyleneimine, Mohammed R. Elshaer May 2014

Porphyrin Cross-Linkers For Generating Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Polymers From Polyethyleneimine, Mohammed R. Elshaer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Molecular recognition is vital to many biochemical processes and is at the heart of promising bio-medically related technologies. Molecular imprinting has a long-standing history as a successful method for mimicking the molecular recognition phenomena exhibited by nature, whereby artificial receptors are prepared for a given target molecule based on synthetic polymers. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) contains a three dimensional network with a memorized cavity specific to the shape and functionality of the templated target molecule. The utility of traditional MIPs has been limited due to an inherent lack of solubility. We have worked toward developing a system that allows ...


Value-Added Lignin Based Carbon Fiber From Organosolv Fractionation Of Poplar And Switchgrass, Andreas Attwenger May 2014

Value-Added Lignin Based Carbon Fiber From Organosolv Fractionation Of Poplar And Switchgrass, Andreas Attwenger

Masters Theses

Carbon fiber has unique properties that include high strength, low density and excellent chemical and thermal resistance. However, they have a low level of utilization because of their high price; typically around $30/kg for an entry level polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based carbon fiber. Low-cost carbon fibers derived from lignin are currently being investigated at the University of Tennessee, because using lignin as a precursor could significantly reduce production costs. Lignin obtained from the pulp and paper and the emerging biofuel industries have the potential to be used for carbon fiber production, however, they are typically unsuitable because of the high ...


The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang Apr 2014

The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Project 1: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in adipocytes through multiple pathways, with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) generally facilitating, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) generally opposing these reductions. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone/protein deacetylase that affects energy homeostasis, often functions coordinately with AMPK, and is capable of binding to PPARγ, thereby inhibiting its activity. This study investigated the role of SIRT1 in the response of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to t10c12 CLA by testing the following hypotheses: 1) SIRT1 is functionally required for robust TG reduction ...


A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change With Increased Investment In Instructional Time, Christopher D. Shaffer, Cheryl Bailey, Students And Tas In Genomics Education Partnership Courses Apr 2014

A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change With Increased Investment In Instructional Time, Christopher D. Shaffer, Cheryl Bailey, Students And Tas In Genomics Education Partnership Courses

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge.We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a coursebased research experience for students at a diverse group of schools and offers the opportunity to tailor this experience to local curriculum and institution-specific student needs. We assessed both attitude and knowledge gains, looking for insights into how students respond given this wide range of curricular and institutional variables. While different approaches all appear to result in learning gains, we find that a significant ...


Structures Of The Puta Peripheral Membrane Flavoenzyme Reveal A Dynamic Substrate-Channeling Tunnel And The Quinone-Binding Site, Harkewal Singh, Benjamin W. Arentson, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Mar 2014

Structures Of The Puta Peripheral Membrane Flavoenzyme Reveal A Dynamic Substrate-Channeling Tunnel And The Quinone-Binding Site, Harkewal Singh, Benjamin W. Arentson, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline utilization A (PutA) proteins are bifunctional peripheral membrane flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of L-proline to L-glutamate by the sequential activities of proline dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase domains. Located at the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, PutAs play a major role in energy metabolism by coupling the oxidation of proline imported from the environment to the reduction of membrane-associated quinones. Here, we report seven crystal structures of the 1,004- residue PutA from Geobacter sulfurreducens, along with determination of the protein oligomeric state by small-angle X-ray scattering and kinetic characterization of substrate channeling and quinone reduction. The structures reveal ...


Genome-Wide Rnai Ionomics Screen Reveals New Genes And Regulation Of Human Trace Element Metabolism, Mikalai I. Malinouski, Nesrin M. Hasan, Yan Zhang, Javier Seravalli, Jie Lin, Andrei Avanesov, Svetlana Lutsenko, Vadim N. Gladyshev Feb 2014

Genome-Wide Rnai Ionomics Screen Reveals New Genes And Regulation Of Human Trace Element Metabolism, Mikalai I. Malinouski, Nesrin M. Hasan, Yan Zhang, Javier Seravalli, Jie Lin, Andrei Avanesov, Svetlana Lutsenko, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Trace elements are essential for human metabolism and dysregulation of their homoeostasis is associated with numerous disorders. Here we characterize mechanisms that regulate trace elements in human cells by designing and performing a genome-wide high-throughput siRNA/ionomics screen, and examining top hits in cellular and biochemical assays. The screen reveals high stability of the ionomes, especially the zinc ionome, and yields known regulators and novel candidates. We further uncover fundamental differences in the regulation of different trace elements. Specifically, selenium levels are controlled through the selenocysteine machinery and expression of abundant selenoproteins; copper balance is affected by lipid metabolism and ...


Development Of A Novel Affinity Membrane Purification System For Deoxyribonuclease, Kyle Landry, Robert Levin Jan 2014

Development Of A Novel Affinity Membrane Purification System For Deoxyribonuclease, Kyle Landry, Robert Levin

Kyle S Landry

A membrane based affinity purification system was developed for the purification of the DNA specific nuclease, DNase I. Single stranded DNA was bound to unmodified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes which were used to purify DNase I from a solution of bovine serum albumin. Using coated membranes, a 6-fold increase in specific activity was achieved with 80 % enzyme recovery. This method provides a simple yet effective way to purify DNase I and can be very useful for the purification of other DNA specific enzymes.


Measuring Radiation Exposure In Human Blood Using Gene Expression, Krystal Naranjo, Melissa Bentley, Harsha Konery, Matthew Coleman Jan 2014

Measuring Radiation Exposure In Human Blood Using Gene Expression, Krystal Naranjo, Melissa Bentley, Harsha Konery, Matthew Coleman

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Mammalian cells are known to express genes that are associated with repairing damaged DNA. The transcript CDKN1A is one of several cell cycle regulator genes expressed in response to cell damage by ionizing radiation (IR). In this study, male and female lymphocytes; previously exposed ex vivo to IR, were used to demonstrate linear gene expression responses that may vary between genders. We used qRT-PCR to generate response curves for CDKN1A. No differences were identified for the endogenous control gene GAPDH. CDKN1A expression demonstrated average fold changes well above three fold for three of the four healthy patient donors at 24 ...


Genetic Modification Of Plants, Alice Cheung, Hen-Ming Wu Jan 2014

Genetic Modification Of Plants, Alice Cheung, Hen-Ming Wu

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

No abstract provided.


Pharmacokinetic And Biodistribution Assessment Of A Near Infrared-Labeled Psma-Specific Small Molecule In Tumor-Bearing Mice, Joy L. Kovar, Lael L. Cheung, Melanie A. Simpson, D. Michael Olive Jan 2014

Pharmacokinetic And Biodistribution Assessment Of A Near Infrared-Labeled Psma-Specific Small Molecule In Tumor-Bearing Mice, Joy L. Kovar, Lael L. Cheung, Melanie A. Simpson, D. Michael Olive

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Prostate cancer is themost frequently diagnosed cancer in men and often requires surgery. Use of near infrared (NIR) technologies to perform image-guided surgery may improve accurate delineation of tumor margins. To facilitate preclinical testing of such outcomes, here we developed and characterized a PSMA-targeted small molecule, YC-27. IRDye 800CW was conjugated to YC-27 or an anti-PSMA antibody used for reference. Human 22Rv1, PC3M-LN4, and/or LNCaP prostate tumor cells were exposed to the labeled compounds. In vivo targeting and clearance properties were determined in tumor-bearing mice. Organs and tumors were excised and imaged to assess probe localization. YC-27 exhibited a ...


Understanding The Chemical Gymnastics Of Enzyme-Catalyzed 1’-1 And 1’-3 Triterpene Linkages, Stephen A. Bell Jan 2014

Understanding The Chemical Gymnastics Of Enzyme-Catalyzed 1’-1 And 1’-3 Triterpene Linkages, Stephen A. Bell

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Squalene synthase (SS) is an essential enzyme in eukaryotic systems responsible for an important branch point in isoprenoid metabolism that leads to sterol formation. The mechanistic complexity of SS has made it a difficult enzyme to study. The green alga Botryococcus braunii race B possesses several squalene synthase-like (SSL) enzymes that afford a unique opportunity to study the complex mechanism of triterpene biosynthesis. SSL-1 catalyzes presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) formation, which can either be converted to squalene by SSL-2 or botryococcene by SSL-3. A rationally designed mutant study of B. braunii squalene synthase (BbSS) and SSL-3 was conducted to understand structure-function ...


Xiap Antagonist Embelin Inhibited Proliferation Of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ashley R. Gutwein, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mary Anne Phillippi, Justin L. Mott Jan 2014

Xiap Antagonist Embelin Inhibited Proliferation Of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ashley R. Gutwein, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mary Anne Phillippi, Justin L. Mott

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Cholangiocarcinoma cells are dependent on antiapoptotic signaling for survival and resistance to death stimuli. Recent mechanistic studies have revealed that increased cellular expression of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) impairs TRAIL- and chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity, promoting survival of cholangiocarcinoma cells. This study was undertaken to determine if pharmacologic antagonism of XIAP protein was sufficient to sensitize cholangiocarcinoma cells to cell death. We employed malignant cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and used embelin to antagonize XIAP protein. Embelin treatment resulted in decreased XIAP protein levels by 8 hours of treatment with maximal effect at 16 hours in KMCH and Mz-ChA-1 ...


Arabidopsis Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis Is Negatively Regulated By The Dewax Gene Encoding An Ap2/Erf-Type Transcription Factor, Young Sam Go, Hyojin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Mi Chung Suh Jan 2014

Arabidopsis Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis Is Negatively Regulated By The Dewax Gene Encoding An Ap2/Erf-Type Transcription Factor, Young Sam Go, Hyojin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Mi Chung Suh

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The aerial parts of plants are protected from desiccation and other stress by surface cuticular waxes. The total cuticular wax loads and the expression of wax biosynthetic genes are significantly downregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana under dark conditions. We isolated Decrease Wax Biosynthesis (DEWAX), which encodes an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor that is preferentially expressed in the epidermis and induced by darkness. Disruption of DEWAX leads to an increase in total leaf and stem wax loads, and the excess wax phenotype of dewax was restored to wild type levels in complementation lines. Moreover, overexpression of DEWAX resulted in a reduction in ...


Homogeneous Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins With Reversible Anticoagulant Activity, Yongmei Xu, Chao Cai, Kasemsiri Chandarajoti, Po-Hung Hsieh, Lingyun Li, Truong Q. Pham, Erica M. Sparkenbaugh, Juzheng Sheng, Nigel S. Key, Rafal Pawlinski, Edward N. Harris, Robert J. Linhardt, Jian Liu Jan 2014

Homogeneous Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins With Reversible Anticoagulant Activity, Yongmei Xu, Chao Cai, Kasemsiri Chandarajoti, Po-Hung Hsieh, Lingyun Li, Truong Q. Pham, Erica M. Sparkenbaugh, Juzheng Sheng, Nigel S. Key, Rafal Pawlinski, Edward N. Harris, Robert J. Linhardt, Jian Liu

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are carbohydrate-based anticoagulants clinically used to treat thrombotic disorders, but impurities, structural heterogeneity or functional irreversibility can limit treatment options. We report a series of synthetic LMWHs prepared by cost-effective chemoenzymatic methods. The high activity of one defined synthetic LMWH against human factor Xa (FXa) was reversible in vitro and in vivo using protamine, demonstrating that synthetically accessible constructs can have a critical role in the next generation of LMWHs.


Saturated Free Fatty Acids Induce Cholangiocyte Lipoapoptosis, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Sally A. Ingham, Ashley M. Mohr, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Anuttoma Ray, Sohini Roy, Sophie C. Cazanave, Mary Anne Phillippi, Justin L. Mott Jan 2014

Saturated Free Fatty Acids Induce Cholangiocyte Lipoapoptosis, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Sally A. Ingham, Ashley M. Mohr, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Anuttoma Ray, Sohini Roy, Sophie C. Cazanave, Mary Anne Phillippi, Justin L. Mott

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Recent studies have identified a cholestatic variant of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with portal inflammation and ductular reaction. Based on reports of biliary damage, as well as increased circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) in NAFLD, we hypothesized the involvement of cholangiocyte lipoapoptosis as a mechanism of cellular injury. Here, we demonstrate that the saturated FFAs palmitate and stearate induced robust and rapid cell death in cholangiocytes. Palmitate and stearate induced cholangiocyte lipoapoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in multiple cholangiocyte-derived cell lines. The mechanism of lipoapoptosis relied on the activation of caspase 3/7 activity. There was also a significant ...


Ycf1-Mediated Cadmium Resistance In Yeast Is Dependent On Copper Metabolism And Antioxidant Enzymes, Wenzhong Wei, Nathan Smith, Xiaobin Wu, Heejeong Kim, Javier Seravalli, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jaekwon Lee Jan 2014

Ycf1-Mediated Cadmium Resistance In Yeast Is Dependent On Copper Metabolism And Antioxidant Enzymes, Wenzhong Wei, Nathan Smith, Xiaobin Wu, Heejeong Kim, Javier Seravalli, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jaekwon Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Aims: Acquisition and detoxification of metal ions are vital biological processes. Given the requirement of metallochaperones in cellular copper distribution and metallation of cuproproteins, this study investigates whether the metallochaperones also deliver metal ions for transporters functioning in metal detoxification. Results: Resistance to excess cadmium and copper of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is conferred by PCA1 and CaCRP1 metal efflux P-type ATPases, respectively, does not rely on known metallochaperones, Atx1p, Ccs1p, and Cox17p. Copper deficiency induced by the expression of CaCRP1 encoding a copper exporter occurs in the absence of Atx1p. Intriguingly, CCS1 encoding the copper chaperone for superoxide ...


Kinetic And Structural Characterization Of Tunnel-Perturbing Mutants In Bradyrhizobium Japonicum Proline Utilization A, Benjamin W. Arentson, Min Luo, Travis A. Pemberton, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker Jan 2014

Kinetic And Structural Characterization Of Tunnel-Perturbing Mutants In Bradyrhizobium Japonicum Proline Utilization A, Benjamin W. Arentson, Min Luo, Travis A. Pemberton, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline utilization A from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) is a bifunctional flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate using fused proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains. Recent crystal structures and kinetic data suggest an intramolecular channel connects the two active sites, promoting substrate channeling of the intermediate Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate/glutamate-γ-semialdehyde (P5C/GSA). In this work, the structure of the channel was explored by inserting large side chain residues at four positions along the channel in BjPutA. Kinetic analysis of the different mutants revealed replacement of D779 with Tyr (D779Y) or Trp (D779W) significantly decreased ...