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Articles 1 - 28 of 28

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya Dec 2011

Aptamer Functionalized Microcantilever Sensors For Cocaine Detection, Kyungho Kang, Ashish Sachan, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Pranav Shrotriya

Mechanical Engineering Publications

A cocaine-specific aptamer was used as a receptor molecule in a microcantilever-based surface stress sensor for detection of cocaine molecules. An interferometric technique that relies on measuring differential displacement between two microcantilevers (a sensing/reference pair) was utilized to measure the cocaine/aptamer binding induced surface stress changes. Sensing experiments were performed for different concentrations of cocaine from 25 to 500 μM in order to determine the sensor response as a function of cocaine concentration. In the lower concentration range from 25 to 100 μM, surface stress values increased proportionally to coverage of aptamer/cocaine complexes from 11 to 26 ...


Boron Stress Activates The General Amino Acid Control Mechanism And Inhibits Protein Synthesis, Irem Uluisik, Alaattin Kaya, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Huseyin C. Karakaya, Bradley A. Carlson, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Ahmet Koc Nov 2011

Boron Stress Activates The General Amino Acid Control Mechanism And Inhibits Protein Synthesis, Irem Uluisik, Alaattin Kaya, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Huseyin C. Karakaya, Bradley A. Carlson, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Ahmet Koc

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and it is beneficial for animals. However, at high concentrations boron is toxic to cells although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. Atr1 has recently been identified as a boron efflux pump whose expression is upregulated in response to boron treatment. Here, we found that the expression of ATR1 is associated with expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. These mechanisms are strictly controlled by the transcription factor Gcn4 in response to boron treatment. Further analyses have shown that boron impaired protein synthesis by promoting phosphorylation of eIF2α in a ...


Characterization Of The Activities Of The Cpey, Cpez, And Cpes Bilin Lyases In Phycoerythrin Biosynthesis In Fremyella Diplosiphon Strain Utex 481*, Wendy Schluchter Oct 2011

Characterization Of The Activities Of The Cpey, Cpez, And Cpes Bilin Lyases In Phycoerythrin Biosynthesis In Fremyella Diplosiphon Strain Utex 481*, Wendy Schluchter

Wendy M Schluchter

When grown in green light, Fremyella diplosiphon strain UTEX481 produces the red-colored protein phycoerythrin (PE) to maximize photosynthetic light harvesting. PE is composed of two subunits, CpeA and CpeB, which carry two and three phycoerythrobilin (PEB) chromophores, respectively, that are attached to specific Cys residues via thioether linkages. Specific bilin lyases are hypothesized to catalyze each PEB ligation. Using a heterologous, coexpression system in Escherichia coli, the PEB ligation activities of putative lyase subunits CpeY, CpeZ, and CpeS were tested on the CpeA and CpeB subunits from F. diplosiphon. Purified His6-tagged CpeA, obtained by coexpressing cpeA, cpeYZ, and the genes ...


Iron Insufficiency Compromises Motor Neurons And Their Mitochondrial Function In Irp2-Null Mice, Suh Young Jeong, Daniel R. Crooks, Hayden Wilson-Ollivierre, Manik C. Ghosh, Rachid Sougrat, Jaekwon Lee, Sharon Cooperman, James B. Mitchell, Carole Beaumont, Tracey A. Rouault Oct 2011

Iron Insufficiency Compromises Motor Neurons And Their Mitochondrial Function In Irp2-Null Mice, Suh Young Jeong, Daniel R. Crooks, Hayden Wilson-Ollivierre, Manik C. Ghosh, Rachid Sougrat, Jaekwon Lee, Sharon Cooperman, James B. Mitchell, Carole Beaumont, Tracey A. Rouault

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Genetic ablation of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2), which post-transcriptionally regulates iron metabolism genes, causes a gait disorder in mice that progresses to hind-limb paralysis. Here we have demonstrated that misregulation of iron metabolism from loss of Irp2 causes lower motor neuronal degeneration with significant spinal cord axonopathy. Mitochondria in the lumbar spinal cord showed significantly decreased Complex I and II activities, and abnormal morphology. Lower motor neurons appeared to be the most adversely affected neurons, and we show that functional iron starvation due to misregulation of iron import and storage proteins, including transferrin receptor 1 and ferritin, may ...


Forward Osmosis Bag: Ground Testing The Prospect Of Using Alternative Water Sources For Drinking Water, Michaela Marie Brant, Ariella Yendler, Mona Hammoudeh, Michael T. Flynn Aug 2011

Forward Osmosis Bag: Ground Testing The Prospect Of Using Alternative Water Sources For Drinking Water, Michaela Marie Brant, Ariella Yendler, Mona Hammoudeh, Michael T. Flynn

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

On the STS-135 Space Shuttle mission, to be launched July 8, 2011, a forward osmosis bag (FOB) study will be conducted. At NASA Ames this summer, the ground truth testing is being conducted for results comparisons. The FOB technology is derived from a commercial product, the X-Pack water filter. Forward osmosis operates by utilizing an established concentration gradient across a semi-permeable membrane to move water molecules from one side of the membrane to the other. This concept is exploited to harvest drinking water from grey water sources such as urine, sea water, or vehicle water. In this experiment, potassium chloride ...


W271 Improving Switchgrass Yields For Bioenergy Production, Jason P. De Koff, Donald D. Tyler Jul 2011

W271 Improving Switchgrass Yields For Bioenergy Production, Jason P. De Koff, Donald D. Tyler

Biofuels

Version 3.0


Protein Engineering For The Enhanced Photo-Production Of Hydrogen By Cyanobacterial Photosystem I, Ifeyinwa Jane Iwuchukwu May 2011

Protein Engineering For The Enhanced Photo-Production Of Hydrogen By Cyanobacterial Photosystem I, Ifeyinwa Jane Iwuchukwu

Doctoral Dissertations

Photosystem I (PSI) from plants, algae, and cyanobacteria can mediate H2 evolution in vivo and in vitro. A simple, self-platinization procedure that permits stable PSI-mediated H2 evolution in vitro has been developed. The H2 evolution capabilities of PSI from Thermosynechococcus elongatus have been characterized. This organism utilizes cytochrome c6 (cyt c6) as the e- donor to P700. Using a solution-based, self-organized platinization of the PSI nanoparticles, this study demonstrates a sodium ascorbate-cyt-PSI-Pt-H2 electron transport and proton reduction system that yields light-dependent H2. The system was thermostable with H2 evolution increasing up to 55°C. In addition, stability studies have shown ...


Evaluation Of Delivery Conditions For Cutaneous Plasmid Electrotransfer Using A Multielectrode Array, Bernadette Ferraro, Loree C. Heller, Yolmari L. Cruz, Siqi Guo, Amy Donate, Richard Heller May 2011

Evaluation Of Delivery Conditions For Cutaneous Plasmid Electrotransfer Using A Multielectrode Array, Bernadette Ferraro, Loree C. Heller, Yolmari L. Cruz, Siqi Guo, Amy Donate, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Electroporation (EP) is a simple in vivo method to deliver normally impermeable molecules, such as plasmid DNA, to a variety of tissues. Delivery of plasmid DNA by EP to a large surface area is not practical because the distance between the electrode pairs, and therefore the applied voltage, must be increased to effectively permeabilize the cell membrane. The design of the multielectrode array (MEA) incorporates multiple electrode pairs at a fixed distance to allow for delivery of plasmid DNA to the skin, potentially reducing the sensation associated with in vivo EP. In this report, we evaluate the effects of field ...


Microscopy Techniques For Investigating Interactions In Microbial Systems, Amanda Nicole Edwards May 2011

Microscopy Techniques For Investigating Interactions In Microbial Systems, Amanda Nicole Edwards

Doctoral Dissertations

Biological interactions occur on multiple length scales, ranging from molecular to population wide interactions. This work describes the study of two specific areas of biological interactions in microbial systems: intracellular protein-protein interactions and cell-to-cell interactions. The implementation of optical and atomic force microscopy and the methodologies developed during this study proved to be invaluable tools for investigating these systems.

Identifying and characterizing protein interactions are fundamental steps toward understanding complex cellular networks. We have developed a unique methodology which combines an imaging-based protein interaction assay with a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique (FRAP). Protein interactions are readily detected by co-localization ...


Generation, Cloning, And Expression Of Full-Length Human Evc Gene, Trey Polvadore Apr 2011

Generation, Cloning, And Expression Of Full-Length Human Evc Gene, Trey Polvadore

Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Sp704-A Potential Impacts On Wildlife Of Switchgrass Grown For Biofuels, Craig A. Harper, Patrick D. Keyser Mar 2011

Sp704-A Potential Impacts On Wildlife Of Switchgrass Grown For Biofuels, Craig A. Harper, Patrick D. Keyser

Biofuels

Version 3.0


Differential Precipitation And Solubilization Of Proteins., Barry Ryan Jan 2011

Differential Precipitation And Solubilization Of Proteins., Barry Ryan

Books/Book Chapters

Differential protein precipitation is a rapid and economical step in protein purification and is based on exploiting the inherent physico-chemical properties of the polypeptide. Precipitation of recombinant proteins, lysed from the host cell, is commonly used to concentrate the protein of choice before further polishing steps with more selective purification columns (e.g. His-Tag, Size Exclusion etc.). Recombinant proteins can also precipitate naturally as inclusion bodies due to various influences during over-expression in the host cell. Although this phenomenon permits easier initial separation from native proteins, these inclusion bodies must carefully be differentially solubilised so as to reform functional, correctly ...


Targeted Deletion Of The Mouse Mitoferrin1 Gene: From Anemia To Protoporphyria, Marie-Berengere Troadec, David Warner, Jared Wallace, Kirk Thomas, Gerald J. Spangrude, John Phillips, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Barry H. Paw, Diane Mcvey Ward, Jerry Kaplan Jan 2011

Targeted Deletion Of The Mouse Mitoferrin1 Gene: From Anemia To Protoporphyria, Marie-Berengere Troadec, David Warner, Jared Wallace, Kirk Thomas, Gerald J. Spangrude, John Phillips, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Barry H. Paw, Diane Mcvey Ward, Jerry Kaplan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mitoferrin1 is 1 of 2 homologous mitochondrial iron transporters and is required for mitochondrial iron delivery in developing erythroid cells. We show that total deletion of Mfrn1 in embryos leads to embryonic lethality. Selective deletion of Mfrn1 in adult hematopoietic tissues leads to severe anemia because of a deficit in erythroblast formation. Deletion of Mfrn1 in hepatocytes has no phenotype or biochemical effect under normal conditions. In the presence of increased porphyrin synthesis, however, deletion of Mfrn1 in hepatocytes results in a decreased ability to convert protoporphyrin IX into heme, leading to protoporphyria, cholestasis, and bridging cirrhosis. Our results show ...


Escherichia Coli Thioredoxin-Like Protein Ybbn Contains An Atypical Tetratricopeptide Repeat Motif And Is A Negative Regulator Of Groel, Jiusheng Lin, Mark A. Wilson Jan 2011

Escherichia Coli Thioredoxin-Like Protein Ybbn Contains An Atypical Tetratricopeptide Repeat Motif And Is A Negative Regulator Of Groel, Jiusheng Lin, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Many proteins contain a thioredoxin (Trx)-like domain fused with one or more partner domains that diversify protein function by the modular construction of new molecules. The Escherichia coli protein YbbN is a Trx-like protein that contains a C-terminal domain with low homology to tetratricopeptide repeat motifs. YbbN has been proposed to act as a chaperone or co-chaperone that aids in heat stress response andDNAsynthesis. We report the crystal structure of YbbN, which is an elongated molecule with a mobile Trx domain and four atypical tetratricopeptide repeat motifs. The Trx domain lacks a canonical CXXC active site architecture and is ...


In Vivo Liver Endocytosis Followed By Purification Of Liver Cells By Liver Perfusion, Sandhya Gopalakrishnan, Edward N. Harris Jan 2011

In Vivo Liver Endocytosis Followed By Purification Of Liver Cells By Liver Perfusion, Sandhya Gopalakrishnan, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The liver is the metabolic center of the mammalian body and serves as a filter for the blood. The basic architecture of the liver is illustrated in figure 1 in which more than 85% of the liver mass is composed of hepatocytes and the remaining 15% of the cellular mass is composed of Kupffer cells (KCs), stellate cells (HSCs), and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). SECs form the blood vessel walls within the liver and contain specialized morphology called fenestrae within in the cytoplasm. Fenestration of the cytoplasm is the appearance of holes (˜100 μm) within the cells so that the ...


Rpir Homologues May Link Staphylococcus Aureus Rnaiii Synthesis And Pentose Phosphate Pathway Regulation, Yefei Zhu, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Marat R. Sadykov, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Thanh T. Luong, Rosmarie Gaupp, Chia Y. Lee, Greg Somerville Jan 2011

Rpir Homologues May Link Staphylococcus Aureus Rnaiii Synthesis And Pentose Phosphate Pathway Regulation, Yefei Zhu, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Marat R. Sadykov, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Thanh T. Luong, Rosmarie Gaupp, Chia Y. Lee, Greg Somerville

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Staphylococcus aureus is a medically important pathogen that synthesizes a wide range of virulence determinants. The synthesis of many staphylococcal virulence determinants is regulated in part by stress-induced changes in the activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. One metabolic change associated with TCA cycle stress is an increased concentration of ribose, leading us to hypothesize that a pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)-responsive regulator mediates some of the TCA cycle-dependent regulatory effects. Using bioinformatics, we identified three potential ribose-responsive regulators that belong to the RpiR family of transcriptional regulators. To determine whether these RpiR homologues affect PPP activity and virulence ...


Defining A Relationship Between Dietary Fatty Acids And The Cytochrome P450 System In A Mouse Model Of Fatty Liver Disease, Monika Gonzalez, Whitney Sealls, Elliot D. Jesch, M. Julia Brosnan, Istvan Ladunga, Xinxin Ding, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso Jan 2011

Defining A Relationship Between Dietary Fatty Acids And The Cytochrome P450 System In A Mouse Model Of Fatty Liver Disease, Monika Gonzalez, Whitney Sealls, Elliot D. Jesch, M. Julia Brosnan, Istvan Ladunga, Xinxin Ding, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Liver-specific ablation of cytochrome P450 reductase in mice (LCN) results in hepatic steatosis that can progress to steatohepatitis characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. The specific cause of the fatty liver phenotype is poorly understood but is hypothesized to result from elevated expression of genes encoding fatty acid synthetic genes. Since expression of these genes is known to be suppressed by polyunsaturated fatty acids, we performed physiological and genomics studies to evaluate the effects of dietary linoleic and linolenic fatty acids (PUFA) or arachidonic and decosahexaenoic acids (HUFA) on the hepatic phenotypes of control and LCN mice by comparison with a ...


Functional Diversification Of Thylakoidal Processing Peptidases In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shih-Chi Hsu, Joshua K. Endow, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Rebecca Roston, Amy J. Baldwin, Kentaro Inoue Jan 2011

Functional Diversification Of Thylakoidal Processing Peptidases In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shih-Chi Hsu, Joshua K. Endow, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Rebecca Roston, Amy J. Baldwin, Kentaro Inoue

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Thylakoidal processing peptidase (TPP) is responsible for removing amino-terminal thylakoid-transfer signals from several proteins in the thylakoid lumen. Three TPP isoforms are encoded by the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies showed that one of them termed plastidic type I signal peptidase 1 (Plsp1) was necessary for processing three thylakoidal proteins and one protein in the chloroplast envelope in vivo. The lack of Plsp1 resulted in seedling lethality, apparently due to disruption of proper thylakoid development. The physiological roles of the other two TPP homologs remain unknown. Here we show that the three A. thaliana TPP isoforms evolved to ...


Enzymatic Defects Underlying Hereditary Glutamate Cysteine Ligase Deficiency Are Mitigated By Association Of The Catalytic And Regulatory Subunits, Melanie Neely Willis, Yilin Liu, Ekaterina I. Biterova, Melanie A. Simpson, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Joseph J. Barycki Jan 2011

Enzymatic Defects Underlying Hereditary Glutamate Cysteine Ligase Deficiency Are Mitigated By Association Of The Catalytic And Regulatory Subunits, Melanie Neely Willis, Yilin Liu, Ekaterina I. Biterova, Melanie A. Simpson, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Joseph J. Barycki

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive trait that compromises

production of glutathione, a critical redox buffer and enzymatic cofactor. Patients have markedly

reduced levels of erythrocyte glutathione, leading to hemolytic anemia and in some cases,

impaired neurological function. Human glutamate cysteine ligase is a heterodimer comprised of a

catalytic (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM), which catalyzes the initial rate limiting step

in glutathione production. Four clinical missense mutations have been identified within GCLC:

Arg127Cys, Pro158Leu, His370Leu, and Pro414Leu. Here, we have evaluated the impacts of

these mutations on enzymatic function in vivo and in vitro ...


The Lyr Protein Mzm1 Functions In The Insertion Of The Rieske Fe/S Protein In Yeast Mitochondria, Aaron Atkinson, Pamela Smith, Jennifer L. Fox, Tie-Shong Cui, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2011

The Lyr Protein Mzm1 Functions In The Insertion Of The Rieske Fe/S Protein In Yeast Mitochondria, Aaron Atkinson, Pamela Smith, Jennifer L. Fox, Tie-Shong Cui, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The assembly of the cytochrome bc1 complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is shown to be conditionally dependent on a novel factor, Mzm1. Cells lacking Mzm1 exhibit a modest bc1 defect at 30°C, but the defect is exacerbated at elevated temperatures. Formation of bc1 is stalled in mzm1 Δ cells at a late assembly intermediate lacking the Rieske iron-sulfur protein Rip1. Rip1 levels are markedly attenuated in mzm1 Δ cells at elevated temperatures. Respiratory growth can be restored in the mutant cells by the overexpression of the Rip1 subunit. Elevated levels of Mzm1 enhance the stabilization of Rip1 ...


A 4-Selenocysteine, 2-Selenocysteine Insertion Sequence (Secis) Element Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase From Metridium Senile Reveals A Non-Catalytic Function Of Selenocysteines, Byung Cheon Lee, Alexey V. Lobanov, Stefano M. Marino, Alaattin Kaya, Javier Seravalli, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Jan 2011

A 4-Selenocysteine, 2-Selenocysteine Insertion Sequence (Secis) Element Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase From Metridium Senile Reveals A Non-Catalytic Function Of Selenocysteines, Byung Cheon Lee, Alexey V. Lobanov, Stefano M. Marino, Alaattin Kaya, Javier Seravalli, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Selenocysteine (Sec) residues occur in thiol oxidoreductase families, and functionally characterized selenoenzymes typically have a single Sec residue used directly for redox catalysis. However, how new Sec residues evolve and whether non-catalytic Sec residues exist in proteins is not known. Here, we computationally identified several genes with multiple Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) elements, one of which was a methionine-Rsulfoxide reductase (MsrB) homolog from Metridium senile that has four in-frame UGA codons and two nearly identical SECIS elements. One of the UGA codons corresponded to the conserved catalytic Sec or Cys in MsrBs, whereas the three other UGA codons evolved recently ...


Reduced Utilization Of Selenium By Naked Mole Rats Due To A Specific Defect In Gpx1 Expression, Marina V. Kasaikina, Alexei V. Lobanov, Mikalai I. Malinouski, Byung Cheon Lee, Javier Seravalli, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Anton A. Turanov, Lydia Finney, Stefan Vogt, Thomas J. Park, Richard A. Miller, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Jan 2011

Reduced Utilization Of Selenium By Naked Mole Rats Due To A Specific Defect In Gpx1 Expression, Marina V. Kasaikina, Alexei V. Lobanov, Mikalai I. Malinouski, Byung Cheon Lee, Javier Seravalli, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Anton A. Turanov, Lydia Finney, Stefan Vogt, Thomas J. Park, Richard A. Miller, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase activities were similar in mice and MR. However, glutathione peroxidase activity was an order of magnitude lower inMRliver and kidney than ...


Mne1 Is A Novel Component Of The Mitochondrial Splicing Apparatus Responsible For Processing Of A Cox1 Group I Intron In Yeast, Talina Watts, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Rachel Z. Wolf, Edward M. Turk, Georg Mohr, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2011

Mne1 Is A Novel Component Of The Mitochondrial Splicing Apparatus Responsible For Processing Of A Cox1 Group I Intron In Yeast, Talina Watts, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Rachel Z. Wolf, Edward M. Turk, Georg Mohr, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking Mne1 are deficient in

intron splicing in the gene encoding the Cox1 subunit of cytochrome

oxidase but contain wild-type levels of the bc1 complex.

Thus, Mne1 has no role in splicing of COB introns or expression

of the COB gene. Northern experiments suggest that splicing of

the COX1 aI5β intron is dependent on Mne1 in addition to the

previously known Mrs1, Mss116, Pet54, and Suv3 factors. Processing

of the aI5_ intron is similarly impaired in mne1∆ and

mrs1∆ cells and overexpression of Mrs1 partially restores the

respiratory function of mne1∆ cells. Mrs1 is known to ...


Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed To Different Cellular Compartments, Mikalai Malinouski, You Zhou, Vsevolod V. Belousov, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Jan 2011

Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed To Different Cellular Compartments, Mikalai Malinouski, You Zhou, Vsevolod V. Belousov, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells.

Principal Findings: Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed ...


Stable Expression Of Tuberculosis Vaccine Antigen In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Priya Saikumar Lakshmi Jan 2011

Stable Expression Of Tuberculosis Vaccine Antigen In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Priya Saikumar Lakshmi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is one of the leading reasons of death by an infectious bacterial pathogen. The development of TB vaccines has been recognized as a major public health priority by the World Health Organization. In this study, a potential candidate antigen, ESAT-6 (6 kDa early secretory antigenic target) was fused with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Transplastomic lettuce plants were generated expressing these fusion proteins. Site-specific transgene integration into the chloroplast genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. In transplastomic leaves, expression levels of fusion protein (CTB-ESAT6) varied depending upon ...


Synthesis, Characterization And Antibacterial Activity Of Silver Embedded Silica Nanoparticle/Nanogel Formulation, Roseline Menezes Jan 2011

Synthesis, Characterization And Antibacterial Activity Of Silver Embedded Silica Nanoparticle/Nanogel Formulation, Roseline Menezes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The antibacterial property of silver (Ag) has been known since ancient time. It is reported in the literature that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibit improved antibacterial properties in comparison to silver ions of equivalent metallic Ag concentration. Such improvement in antibacterial activities is due to the high surface area to volume ratio of AgNPs (which facilitates interaction with the bacterial cells), increased release of silver ions and direct intra-cellular uptake of AgNPs leading to localized release of Ag ions. To date, over 300 consumer products containing AgNPs are available in the market and the inventory is rapidly expanding. The antibacterial efficacy ...


Expression And Functional Evaluation Of Exendin 4 Fused To Cholera Toxin B Subunit In Tobacco Chloroplast To Treat Type 2 Diabetes, Ramya Nityanandam Jan 2011

Expression And Functional Evaluation Of Exendin 4 Fused To Cholera Toxin B Subunit In Tobacco Chloroplast To Treat Type 2 Diabetes, Ramya Nityanandam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been steadily increasing around the globe. Glucagon like peptide (GLP-1), a powerful incretin increases insulin secretion in a glucose dependent manner. But GLP-1 is subjected to rapid enzymatic degradation (half-life: 2 min in circulation). The commercially available GLP-1 analog, exenatide has a longer half life with potent insulinotropic effects (about 2.4 hr) which requires cold storage and daily subcutaneous injections. In this study, exendin 4 (EX4), lizard derived GLP-1R agonist, was expressed as cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in chloroplasts of tobacco to facilitate transmucosal delivery in the gut by ...


Expression Of Trichoderma Reesei Beta]-Mannanase In Tobacco Chloroplasts And Its Utilization In Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass Hydrolysis, Pankaj M. Agrawal Jan 2011

Expression Of Trichoderma Reesei Beta]-Mannanase In Tobacco Chloroplasts And Its Utilization In Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass Hydrolysis, Pankaj M. Agrawal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lignocellulosic ethanol offers a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels. One among the major limitations in the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is unavailability of efficient and environmentally biomass degrading technologies. Plantbased production of these enzymes on large scale offers a cost effective solution. Cellulases, hemicellulases including mannanases and other accessory enzymes are required for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. β- mannanase catalyzes endo-hydrolysis of the mannan backbone, a major constituent of woody biomass. In this study, man1 gene encoding β-mannanase was isolated from Trichoderma reesei and expressed via the chloroplast genome. PCR and Southern hybridization analysis confirmed the site-specific ...