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2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 30

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Development Of A Genetic Modification System In Clostridium Scatologenes Atcc 25775 For Generation Of Mutants, Prasanna Tamarapu Parthasarathy Dec 2010

Development Of A Genetic Modification System In Clostridium Scatologenes Atcc 25775 For Generation Of Mutants, Prasanna Tamarapu Parthasarathy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

3-Methyl indole (3-MI) is a malodorant in food and animal waste and Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775 is the model organism for the study of 3-MI production. 3-MI is an anaerobic degradation product of L-tryptophan and can cause pulmonary disorders and death in cattle and goats. To elucidate the 3-MI biosynthesis pathway and the underlying genes, it is necessary to develop a system to allow genetic modification in Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775. Bacteriophages and transposons are useful tools to achieve this goal. Isolation of Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775 bacteriophage was attempted by prophage induction and enrichments using environmental sources. To induce ...


Molecular Cloning And Characterization Of The Porcine Fto Promoter And Coding Regions.Pdf, Jinming Huang, Yunzhou Yang, Gang Liu, Jibin Zhang, Xinxing Dong, Ying Bai, Meiying Fang Nov 2010

Molecular Cloning And Characterization Of The Porcine Fto Promoter And Coding Regions.Pdf, Jinming Huang, Yunzhou Yang, Gang Liu, Jibin Zhang, Xinxing Dong, Ying Bai, Meiying Fang

Jibin Zhang

The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been widely reported to be associated with fat mass or fat deposition in different species. In the present study, we cloned both promoter and codingregions of the gene in pigs with over 5 Kb of sequence for the former region and 1,596 bp for the latter region. Comparative analysis of the promoter region among 20 species including pig revealed four conserved regions that harbor transcriptional factors involved in adipose differentiation. Using a pooled DNA sequencing approach, we discovered 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pig FTO gene and four ...


Genomic Methods For Studying The Post-Translational Regulation Of Transcription Factors, Logan J. Everett Aug 2010

Genomic Methods For Studying The Post-Translational Regulation Of Transcription Factors, Logan J. Everett

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The spatiotemporal coordination of gene expression is a fundamental process in cellular biology. Gene expression is regulated, in large part, by sequence-specific transcription factors that bind to DNA regions in the proximity of each target gene. Transcription factor activity and specificity are, in turn, regulated post-translationally by protein-modifying enzymes. High-throughput methods exist to probe specific steps of this process, such as protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, but few computational tools exist to integrate this information in a principled, model-oriented manner. In this work, I develop several computational tools for studying the functional implications of transcription factor modification. I establish the first ...


Synthesis, Kinetic And Photocatalytic Studies Of Porphyrin-Ruthenium-Oxo Complexes, Yan Huang Aug 2010

Synthesis, Kinetic And Photocatalytic Studies Of Porphyrin-Ruthenium-Oxo Complexes, Yan Huang

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Macrocyclic ligand-complexed transition metal-oxo intermediates are the active oxidizing species in a variety of important biological and catalytic oxidation reactions. Many transition metal catalysts have been designed to mimic the predominant oxidation catalysts in Nature, namely the cytochrome P450 enzymes. Ruthenium porphyrin complexes have been the center of the research and have successfully been utilized, as catalysts, in major oxidation reactions such as the hydroxylation of alkanes. This study focuses on kinetic and photocatalytic studies of oxidation reactions with wellcharacterized high-valent ruthenium-oxo porphyrin complexes.
The trans-dioxoruthenium(VI) porphyrins have been among the best characterized metal-oxo intermediates and their involvement ...


Species Boundaries And Evolutionary Lineages In The Blue Green Damselfishes Chromis Viridis And Chromis Atripectoralis (Pomacentridae), Philadelphia University Jul 2010

Species Boundaries And Evolutionary Lineages In The Blue Green Damselfishes Chromis Viridis And Chromis Atripectoralis (Pomacentridae), Philadelphia University

Philadelphia University, Jordan

No abstract provided.


Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson Jun 2010

Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The mammary alveolar cell-T (MAC-T) cell line is able to uniformly differentiate and secrete casein proteins in response to dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin and is extensively used to study bovine mammary epithelial cell function. Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to increase milk protein synthesis both in vivo and in mammary cell models, and induce cytoskeletal rearrangement in 3T3 fibroblast cell line and a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. Few studies have focused on identifying the mechanisms involved in differentiated MAC-T cells’ response to GH. We tested the hypothesis that MAC-T cells would respond directly to GH and that ...


An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora G. Shrode, Jennifer R. Duncan, Wendy Holliday Apr 2010

An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora G. Shrode, Jennifer R. Duncan, Wendy Holliday

Library Faculty & Staff Publications

Librarians from Utah State University explain recent efforts to encourage subject librarians to take a more holistic view of their roles. We are shifting from a traditional emphasis primarily on collection development and refocusing on natural connections between collections, instruction, liaison, and reference service. The poster provides background about Utah State University’s situation and explains our approach to analyzing local needs and culture to inform development of a new organizational structure. We describe our vision of subject librarianship, the process by which we assessed librarians’ ideas and goals for performing as subject librarians, and the actions we are taking ...


An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora G. Shrode, Jennifer R. Duncan, Wendy Holliday Apr 2010

An Entrepreneurial Approach To Librarianship, Flora G. Shrode, Jennifer R. Duncan, Wendy Holliday

Flora Shrode

Librarians from Utah State University explain recent efforts to encourage subject librarians to take a more holistic view of their roles. We are shifting from a traditional emphasis primarily on collection development and refocusing on natural connections between collections, instruction, liaison, and reference service. The poster provides background about Utah State University’s situation and explains our approach to analyzing local needs and culture to inform development of a new organizational structure. We describe our vision of subject librarianship, the process by which we assessed librarians’ ideas and goals for performing as subject librarians, and the actions we are taking ...


The Genomics Education Partnership: Successful Integration Of Research Into Laboratory Classes At A Diverse Group Of Undergraduate Institutions, Christopher D. Shaffer, Consuelo Alvarez, Cheryl Bailey, Daron Barnard, Satish Bhalla, Chitra Chandrasekaran, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Hui-Min Chung, Douglas R. Dorer, Chunguang Du, Todd T. Eckdahl, Jeff L. Poet, Donald Frohlich, Anya L. Goodman, Yuying Gossner, Charles Hauser, Laura L.M. Hoopes, Diana Johnson, Christopher J. Jones, Marian Kaehler, Nighat Kokan, Olga R. Kopp, Gary A. Kuleck, Gerard Mcneil, Robert Moss, Jennifer L. Myka, Alexis Nagengast, Robert Morris, Paul J. Overvoorde, Elizabeth Shoop, Susan Parrish, Kelynne Reed, E. Gloria Regisford, Dennis Revie, Anne G. Rosenwald, Ken Saville, Stephanie Schroeder, Mary Shaw, Gary Skuse, Christopher Smith, Mary Smith, Eric P. Spana, Mary Spratt, Joyce Stamm, Jeff S. Thompson, Matthew Wawersik, Barbara A. Wilson, Jim Youngblom, Wilson Leung, Jeremy Buhler, Elaine R. Mardis, David Lopatto, Sarah C.R. Elgin Apr 2010

The Genomics Education Partnership: Successful Integration Of Research Into Laboratory Classes At A Diverse Group Of Undergraduate Institutions, Christopher D. Shaffer, Consuelo Alvarez, Cheryl Bailey, Daron Barnard, Satish Bhalla, Chitra Chandrasekaran, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Hui-Min Chung, Douglas R. Dorer, Chunguang Du, Todd T. Eckdahl, Jeff L. Poet, Donald Frohlich, Anya L. Goodman, Yuying Gossner, Charles Hauser, Laura L.M. Hoopes, Diana Johnson, Christopher J. Jones, Marian Kaehler, Nighat Kokan, Olga R. Kopp, Gary A. Kuleck, Gerard Mcneil, Robert Moss, Jennifer L. Myka, Alexis Nagengast, Robert Morris, Paul J. Overvoorde, Elizabeth Shoop, Susan Parrish, Kelynne Reed, E. Gloria Regisford, Dennis Revie, Anne G. Rosenwald, Ken Saville, Stephanie Schroeder, Mary Shaw, Gary Skuse, Christopher Smith, Mary Smith, Eric P. Spana, Mary Spratt, Joyce Stamm, Jeff S. Thompson, Matthew Wawersik, Barbara A. Wilson, Jim Youngblom, Wilson Leung, Jeremy Buhler, Elaine R. Mardis, David Lopatto, Sarah C.R. Elgin

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Genomics is not only essential for students to understand biology but also provides unprecedented opportunities for undergraduate research. The goal of the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP), a collaboration between a growing number of colleges and universities around the country and the Department of Biology and Genome Center of Washington University in St. Louis, is to provide such research opportunities. Using a versatile curriculum that has been adapted to many different class settings, GEP undergraduates undertake projects to bring draft-quality genomic sequence up to high quality and/or participate in the annotation of these sequences. GEP undergraduates have improved more than ...


Examination Of Promotor Hypermethylation Patterns In Magnetically Enriched Exfoliated Breast Milk Epithelial Cells, Chung M. Wong Jan 2010

Examination Of Promotor Hypermethylation Patterns In Magnetically Enriched Exfoliated Breast Milk Epithelial Cells, Chung M. Wong

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Suppression of genes involved in DNA repair, tumor suppression and detoxification through epigenetic modifications has been implicated in the etiology of cancer. As such analysis of promoter methylation patterns in genes frequently down regulated in breast cancer in non-cancerous subjects may serve as an indicator of breast cancer risk. CpG-island hypermethylation of single genes has been detected in cells isolated from nipple aspirate and ductal lavage, yet both isolation methods yield insufficient cells to complete an extensive analysis on any one donor sample.

As an alternative we have turned to magnetic separation of human mammary epithelial cells from breast milk ...


Cug Start Codon Generates Thioredoxin/Glutathione Reductase Isoforms In Mouse Testes, Maxim Gerashchenko, Dan Su, Vadim Gladyshev Jan 2010

Cug Start Codon Generates Thioredoxin/Glutathione Reductase Isoforms In Mouse Testes, Maxim Gerashchenko, Dan Su, Vadim Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mammalian cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductases are essential selenocysteine-containing enzymes that control thioredoxin functions. Thioredoxin/glutathione reductase (TGR) is a third member of this enzyme family. It has an additional glutaredoxin domain and shows highest expression in testes. Herein, we found that human and several other mammalian TGR genes lack any AUG codons that could function in translation initiation. Although mouse and rat TGRs have such codons, we detected protein sequences upstream of them by immunoblot assays and direct proteomic analyses. Further gene engineering and expression analyses demonstrated that a CUG codon, located upstream of the sequences previously thought to ...


Incorporating Genomics And Bioinformatics Across The Life Sciences Curriculum, Jayna L. Ditty, Christopher A. Kvaal, Brad Goodner, Sharyn K. Freyermuth, Cheryl Bailey, Robert A. Britton, Stuart G. Gordon, Sabine Heinhorst, Kelynne Reed, Zhaohui Xu, Erin R. Sanders-Lorenz, Seth Axen, Edwin Kim, Mitrick Johns, Kathleen Scott, Cheryl A. Kerfeld Jan 2010

Incorporating Genomics And Bioinformatics Across The Life Sciences Curriculum, Jayna L. Ditty, Christopher A. Kvaal, Brad Goodner, Sharyn K. Freyermuth, Cheryl Bailey, Robert A. Britton, Stuart G. Gordon, Sabine Heinhorst, Kelynne Reed, Zhaohui Xu, Erin R. Sanders-Lorenz, Seth Axen, Edwin Kim, Mitrick Johns, Kathleen Scott, Cheryl A. Kerfeld

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Undergraduate life sciences education needs an overhaul, as clearly described in the National Research Council of the National Academies’ publication BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. Among BIO 2010’s top recommendations is the need to involve students in working with real data and tools that reflect the nature of life sciences research in the 21st century [1]. Education research studies support the importance of utilizing primary literature, designing and implementing experiments, and analyzing results in the context of a bona fide scientific question [1–12] in cultivating the analytical skills necessary to become a scientist. Incorporating ...


The Role Of Coa2 In Hemylation Of Yeast Cox1 Revealed By Its Genetic Interaction With Cox10, Megan Bestwick, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Fabien Pierrel, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2010

The Role Of Coa2 In Hemylation Of Yeast Cox1 Revealed By Its Genetic Interaction With Cox10, Megan Bestwick, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Fabien Pierrel, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) assembly factor Coa2 are impaired in Cox1 maturation and exhibit a rapid degradation of newly synthesized Cox1. The respiratory deficiency of coa2 Δ cells is suppressed either by the presence of a mutant allele of the Cox10 farnesyl transferase involved in heme a biosynthesis or through impaired proteolysis by the disruption of the mitochondrial Oma1 protease. Cox10 with an N196K substitution functions as a robust gain-of-function suppressor of the respiratory deficiency of coa2 Δ cells but lacks suppressor activity for two other CcO assembly mutant strains, the coa1 Δ and shy1 ...


Mzm1 Influences A Labile Pool Of Mitochondrial Zinc Important For Respiratory Function, Aaron Atkinson, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Pamela Smith, Hana Sabic, David Eide, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2010

Mzm1 Influences A Labile Pool Of Mitochondrial Zinc Important For Respiratory Function, Aaron Atkinson, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Pamela Smith, Hana Sabic, David Eide, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Zinc is essential for function of mitochondria as a cofactor for

several matrix zinc metalloproteins. We demonstrate that a

labile cationic zinc component of low molecular mass exists in

the yeast mitochondrial matrix. This zinc pool is homeostatically

regulated in response to the cellular zinc status. This pool

of zinc is functionally important because matrix targeting of a

cytosolic zinc-binding protein reduces the level of labile zinc

and interferes with mitochondrial respiratory function. We

identified a series of proteins that modulate the matrix zinc

pool, one of which is a novel conserved mitochondrial protein

designated Mzm1. Mutant mzm1∆ cells have ...


Formation Of The Redox Cofactor Centers During Cox1 Maturation In Yeast Cytochrome Oxidase, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Megan Bestwick, Brigitte Meunier, Talina C. Watts, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2010

Formation Of The Redox Cofactor Centers During Cox1 Maturation In Yeast Cytochrome Oxidase, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Megan Bestwick, Brigitte Meunier, Talina C. Watts, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase initiates with synthesis and maturation of the mitochondrionencoded Cox1 subunit prior to the addition of other subunits. Cox1 contains redox cofactors, including the low-spin heme a center and the heterobimetallic heme a3:CuB center. We sought to identify the step in the maturation of Cox1 in which the redox cofactor centers are assembled. Newly synthesized Cox1 is incorporated within one early assembly intermediate containing Mss51 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequent Cox1 maturation involves the progression to downstream assembly intermediates involving Coa1 and Shy1. We show that the two heme a cofactor sites in ...


Electric Pulses To Prepare Feeder Cells For Sustaining And Culturing Of Undifferentiated Embryonic Stem Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2010

Electric Pulses To Prepare Feeder Cells For Sustaining And Culturing Of Undifferentiated Embryonic Stem Cells, Lauren M. Browning, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Current challenges in embryonic-stem-cell (ESC) research include inability of sustaining and culturing of undifferentiated ESCs over time. Growth-arrested feeder cells are essential to the culture and sustaining of undifferentiated ESCs, and they are currently prepared using gammaradiation and chemical inactivation. Both techniques have severe limitations. In this study, we developed a new, simple and effective technique (pulsed-electric-fields, PEFs) to produce viable growth-arrested cells (RTS34st) and used them as high-quality feeder cells to culture and sustain undifferentiated zebrafish ESCs over time. The cells were exposed to 25 sequential 10- nanosecond-electric-pulses (10nsEPs) of 25, 40 and 150 kV/cm with 1s pulse ...


Evolution Of New Enzymatic Function By Structural Modulation Of Cysteine Reactivity In Pseudomonas Fluorescens Isocyanide Hydratase, Mahadevan Lakshminarasimhan, Peter Madzelan, Ruth Nan, Nicole Marie Milkovic, Mark A. Wilson Jan 2010

Evolution Of New Enzymatic Function By Structural Modulation Of Cysteine Reactivity In Pseudomonas Fluorescens Isocyanide Hydratase, Mahadevan Lakshminarasimhan, Peter Madzelan, Ruth Nan, Nicole Marie Milkovic, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Isocyanide (formerly isonitrile) hydratase (EC 4.2.1.103) is an enzyme of the DJ-1 superfamily that hydrates isocyanides to yield the corresponding N-formamide. In order to understand the structural basis for isocyanide hydratase (ICH) catalysis, we determined the crystal structures of wild-type and several site-directed mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens ICH at resolutions ranging from 1.0 to 1.9 Å. We also developed a simple UV-visible spectrophotometric assay for ICH activity using 2-naphthyl isocyanide as a substrate. ICH contains a highly conserved cysteine residue (Cys101) that is required for catalysis and interacts with Asp17, Thr102, and an ordered ...


Quantitative Nuclear Proteomics Identifies Mtor Regulation Of Dna Damage Response, Sricharan Bandhakavi, Young-Mi Kim, Seung-Hyun Ro, Hongwei Xie, Getiria Onsongo, Chang-Bong Jun, Do-Hyung Kim, Timothy J. Griffin Jan 2010

Quantitative Nuclear Proteomics Identifies Mtor Regulation Of Dna Damage Response, Sricharan Bandhakavi, Young-Mi Kim, Seung-Hyun Ro, Hongwei Xie, Getiria Onsongo, Chang-Bong Jun, Do-Hyung Kim, Timothy J. Griffin

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Cellular nutritional and energy status regulates a wide range of nuclear processes important for cell growth, survival, and metabolic homeostasis. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in the cellular responses to nutrients. However, the nuclear processes governed by mTOR have not been clearly defined. Using isobaric peptide tagging coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis to identify nuclear processes in human cells under control of mTOR. Within 3 h of inhibiting mTOR with rapamycin in HeLa cells, we observed downregulation of nuclear abundance of many proteins involved in translation and RNA modification ...


Regulation Of Sealing Ring Formation By L-Plastin And Cortactin In Osteoclasts, Tao Ma, Kavitha Sadashivalah, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Meenakshi A. Chellaia Jan 2010

Regulation Of Sealing Ring Formation By L-Plastin And Cortactin In Osteoclasts, Tao Ma, Kavitha Sadashivalah, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Meenakshi A. Chellaia

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The aim of this study is to identify the exact mechanism(s) by which cytoskeletal structures are modulated during bone resorption. In this study, we have shown the possible role of different actin-binding and signaling proteins in the regulation of sealing ring formation. Our analyses have demonstrated a significant increase in cortactin and a corresponding decrease in L-plastin protein levels in osteoclasts subjected to bone resorption for 18 h in the presence of RANKL, M-CSF, and native bone particles. Time-dependent changes in the localization of L-plastin (in actin aggregates) and cortactin (in the sealing ring) suggest that these proteins may ...


Structural Basis For Feedback And Pharmacological Inhibition Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Glutamate Cysteine Ligase, Ekaterina I Biterova, Joseph J. Barycki Jan 2010

Structural Basis For Feedback And Pharmacological Inhibition Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Glutamate Cysteine Ligase, Ekaterina I Biterova, Joseph J. Barycki

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Structural characterization of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), the enzyme that catalyzes the initial, rate-limiting step in glutathione biosynthesis, has revealed many of the molecular details of substrate recognition. To further delineate the mechanistic details of this critical enzyme, we have determined the structures of two inhibited forms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCL (ScGCL), which shares significant sequence identity with the human enzyme. In vivo, GCL activity is feedback regulated by glutathione. Examination of the structure of ScGCL-glutathione complex (2.5 A ; R = 19.9%, Rfree = 25.1%) indicates that the inhibitor occupies both the glutamate- and the presumed cysteine- binding ...


Functional Hybrid Rubisco Enzymes With Plant Small Subunits And Algal Large Subunits Engineered Rbcs Cdna For Expression In Chlamydomonas, Todor Genkov, Moritz Meyer, Howard Griffiths, Robert J. Spreitzer Jan 2010

Functional Hybrid Rubisco Enzymes With Plant Small Subunits And Algal Large Subunits Engineered Rbcs Cdna For Expression In Chlamydomonas, Todor Genkov, Moritz Meyer, Howard Griffiths, Robert J. Spreitzer

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

There has been much interest in the chloroplast-encoded large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) as a target for engineering an increase in net CO2 fixation in photosynthesis. Improvements in the enzyme would lead to an increase in the production of food, fiber, and renewable energy. Although the large subunit contains the active site, a family of rbcS nuclear genes encodes the Rubisco small subunits, which can also influence the carboxylation catalytic efficiency and CO2/O2 specificity of the enzyme. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, small subunits from spinach ...


Analysis Of Leigh Syndrome Mutations In The Yeast Surf1 Homolog Reveals A New Member Of The Cytochrome Oxidase Assembly Factor Family, Megan Bestwick, Mi-Young Jeong, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Hyung Kim, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2010

Analysis Of Leigh Syndrome Mutations In The Yeast Surf1 Homolog Reveals A New Member Of The Cytochrome Oxidase Assembly Factor Family, Megan Bestwick, Mi-Young Jeong, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Hyung Kim, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Three missense SURF1 mutations identified in patients with Leigh syndrome (LS) were evaluated in the yeast homolog Shy1 protein. Introduction of two of the Leigh mutations, F249T and Y344D, in Shy1 failed to significantly attenuate the function of Shy1 in cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) biogenesis as seen with the human mutations. In contrast, a G137E substitution in Shy1 results in a nonfunctional protein conferring a CcO deficiency. The G137E Shy1 mutant phenocopied shy1 Δ cells in impaired Cox1 hemylation and low mitochondrial copper. A genetic screen for allele-specific suppressors of the G137E ...


Diversity Of Protein And Mrna Forms Of Mammalian Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B1 Due To Intronization And Protein Processing, Xinwen Liang, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Deame Hua, Alaattin Kaya, Vadim N. Gladyshev Jan 2010

Diversity Of Protein And Mrna Forms Of Mammalian Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B1 Due To Intronization And Protein Processing, Xinwen Liang, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Deame Hua, Alaattin Kaya, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are repair enzymes that protect proteins from oxidative stress by catalyzing stereospecific reduction of oxidized methionine residues. MsrB1 is a selenocysteine-containing cytosolic/nuclear Msr with high expression in liver and kidney.

Principal Findings: Here, we identified differences in MsrB1 gene structure among mammals. Human MsrB1 gene consists of four, whereas the corresponding mouse gene of five exons, due to occurrence of an additional intron that flanks the stop signal and covers a large part of the 39-UTR. This intron evolved in a subset of rodents through intronization of exonic sequences, whereas the human gene structure ...


Identification And Characterization Of Small Compound Inhibitors Of Human Fatp2, Angel Sandoval, Aalap Chokshi, Elliot D. Jesch, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso Jan 2010

Identification And Characterization Of Small Compound Inhibitors Of Human Fatp2, Angel Sandoval, Aalap Chokshi, Elliot D. Jesch, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are bifunctional proteins, which transport long chain fatty acids into cells and activate very long chain fatty acids by esterification with coenzyme A. In an effort to understand the linkage between cellular fatty acid transport and the pathology associated with excessive accumulation of exogenous fatty acids, we targeted FATP-mediated fatty acid transport in a high throughput screen of more than 100,000 small diverse chemical compounds in yeast expressing human FATP2 (hsFATP2). Compounds were selected for their ability to depress the transport of the fluorescent long chain fatty acid analogue, C1-BODIPY-C12. Among ...


Identification And Characterization Of Oxalate Oxidoreductase, A Novel Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Dependent 2-Oxoacid Oxidoreductase That Enables Anaerobic Growth On Oxalate, Elizabeth Pierce, Donald F. Becker, Stephen W. Ragsdale Jan 2010

Identification And Characterization Of Oxalate Oxidoreductase, A Novel Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Dependent 2-Oxoacid Oxidoreductase That Enables Anaerobic Growth On Oxalate, Elizabeth Pierce, Donald F. Becker, Stephen W. Ragsdale

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Moorella thermoacetica is an anaerobic acetogen, a class of bacteria that is found in the soil, the animal gastrointestinal tract, and the rumen. This organism engages the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO2 fixation for heterotrophic or autotrophic growth. This paper describes a novel enzyme, oxalate oxidoreductase (OOR), that enables M. thermoacetica to grow on oxalate, which is produced in soil and is a common component of kidney stones. Exposure to oxalate leads to the induction of three proteins that are subunits of OOR, which oxidizes oxalate coupled to the production of two electrons and CO2 or bicarbonate. Like ...


Structure Of The Proline Utilization A Proline Dehydrogenase Domain Inactivated By N-Propargylglycine Provides Insight Into Conformational Changes Induced By Substrate Binding And Flavin Reduction, Dhiraj Srivastava, Weidong Zhu, William H. Johnson Jr., Christian P. Whitman, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Jan 2010

Structure Of The Proline Utilization A Proline Dehydrogenase Domain Inactivated By N-Propargylglycine Provides Insight Into Conformational Changes Induced By Substrate Binding And Flavin Reduction, Dhiraj Srivastava, Weidong Zhu, William H. Johnson Jr., Christian P. Whitman, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline utilization A (PutA) from Escherichia coli is a flavoprotein that has mutually exclusive roles as a transcriptional repressor of the put regulon and a membrane-associated enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate. Previous studies have shown that the binding of proline in the proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) active site and subsequent reduction of the FAD trigger global conformational changes that enhance PutA-membrane affinity. These events cause PutA to switch from its repressor to enzymatic role, but the mechanism by which this signal is propagated from the active site to the distal membrane-binding domain is largely unknown. Here, it ...


Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller Jan 2010

Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy is an attractive method for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, using current strategies, induction of gene expression at therapeutic levels is often inefficient. In this study, we show a novel electroporation (EP) method to enhance the delivery of a plasmid expressing an angiogenic growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), which is a molecule previously documented to stimulate revascularization in coronary artery disease. DNA expression plasmids were delivered in vivo to the porcine heart with or without coadministered EP to determine the potential effect of electrically mediated delivery. The results showed that plasmid delivery through EP significantly ...


Increased Perfusion And Angiogenesis In A Hindlimb Ischemia Model With Plasmid Fgf-2 Delivered By Noninvasive Electroporation, B. Ferraro, Y. L. Cruz, M. Baldwin, D. Coppola, R. Heller Jan 2010

Increased Perfusion And Angiogenesis In A Hindlimb Ischemia Model With Plasmid Fgf-2 Delivered By Noninvasive Electroporation, B. Ferraro, Y. L. Cruz, M. Baldwin, D. Coppola, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy approaches delivering fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) have shown promise as a potential treatment for increasing blood flow to ischemic limbs. Currently, effective noninvasive techniques to deliver plasmids encoding genes of therapeutic interest, such as FGF-2, are limited. We sought to determine if intradermal injection of plasmid DNA encoding FGF-2 (pFGF) followed by noninvasive cutaneous electroporation (pFGFE+) could increase blood flow and angiogenesis in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia. pFGFE+ or control treatments were administered on postoperative day 0. Compared to injection of pFGF alone (pFGFE-), delivery of pFGFE+ significantly increased FGF-2 expression for 10 days. Further, the ...


Acetazolamide-Induced Decrease Of Apical Fluid Flow In Choroid Plexus Is Independent Of The Concomitant Changes In Aquaporin-1 Expression, Pouya Alexander Ameli Jan 2010

Acetazolamide-Induced Decrease Of Apical Fluid Flow In Choroid Plexus Is Independent Of The Concomitant Changes In Aquaporin-1 Expression, Pouya Alexander Ameli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Acetazolamide (AZA), the only drug approved for treatment of hydrocephalus, is effective in only 25-30% of patients while its effect on fluid flow in the choroid plexus (CP) is unknown. The drug reversibly inhibits Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the most highly expressed „water pore‟ in the brain, and it is postulated that it reduces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production by modulating AQP1 (mostly found in the apical membrane of the CP). In this study, we sought to elucidate the effect of AZA on AQP1 and fluid flow in CP. Primary CP culture from p10 Sprague-Dawley rats and TRCSF-B cell line were grown ...


Low Cost Production Of Proinsulin In Tobacco And Lettuce Chloroplasts For Injectable Or Oral Delivery Of Functional Insulin And, Diane Burberry Jan 2010

Low Cost Production Of Proinsulin In Tobacco And Lettuce Chloroplasts For Injectable Or Oral Delivery Of Functional Insulin And, Diane Burberry

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Current treatment for type I diabetes includes delivery of insulin via injection or pump, which is highly invasive and expensive. The production of chloroplast-derived proinsulin should reduce cost and facilitate oral delivery. Therefore, tobacco and lettuce chloroplasts were transformed with the cholera toxin B subunit fused with human proinsulin (A, B, and C peptides) containing three furin cleavage sites (CTB-PFx3). Transplastomic lines were confirmed for site-specific integration of transgene and homoplasmy. Old tobacco leaves accumulated proinsulin up to 47% of total leaf protein (TLP). Old lettuce leaves accumulated proinsulin up to 53% TLP. Accumulation was so stable that up to ...