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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent May 2019

Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the development of a novel lectin-Fc fusion protein and its antiviral and anti-cancer activity. The molecule, Avaren-Fc (AvFc), is a fusion of a variant of the actinomycete lectin actinohivin (Avaren) and the Fc region of human IgG1, and is selective for the terminal α1,2-mannose residues found at the ends of high-mannose-type glycans that can be found on the surface of certain heavily glycosylated viruses and cancer cells. Here, AvFc was found to be able to neutralize simian immunodeficiency virus as well as Hepatitis C virus with nanomolar IC50 values. Furthermore, AvFc recognizes a number of ...


Cloning, Purification, And Biochemical Characterization Of Human Prolyl Endopeptidase, Travis K. Moore May 2017

Cloning, Purification, And Biochemical Characterization Of Human Prolyl Endopeptidase, Travis K. Moore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Eurygaster integriceps Puton, common name sunn Pest, is one of the primary sources of wheat crop wastes in North Africa, Middle East, and Eastern Europe. It feeds by injecting the wheat grain with an enzyme characterized as prolyl endoprotease (spPEP) that breaks down Gluten, the wheat’s main constitutive protein necessary for bread production (Darkoh et al., 2010). Previously, it has been shown that peptides isolated from Lactobacillus hydrolysates of caseins in bovine milk are able to inhibit mammalian PEP in colon cells, as well as bacterial PEP (Juillerat-Jeanneret et al., 2010). While recombinant versions of these peptides are also ...


Genetically-Programmed Suicide Of Adrenergic Cells In The Mouse Leads To Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction, Impaired Weight Gain, And Symptoms Of Neurological Dysfunction, Aaron Owji Jan 2015

Genetically-Programmed Suicide Of Adrenergic Cells In The Mouse Leads To Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction, Impaired Weight Gain, And Symptoms Of Neurological Dysfunction, Aaron Owji

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) catalyzes the conversion of noradrenaline to adrenaline and is the last enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway. Pnmt serves as a marker for adrenergic cells, and lineage-tracing experiments have identified the embryonic heart and hindbrain region as the first sites of Pnmt expression in the mouse. Pnmt expression in the heart occurs before the adrenal glands have formed and prior to sympathetic innervation, suggesting that the heart is the first site of catecholamine production in the mouse. The function of these Pnmt+ cells in heart development remains unclear. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that (i ...


Functional Identification Of Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (Nts) Barosensitive Neurons: Effect Of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (Cih), Jenya Kolpakova Jan 2015

Functional Identification Of Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (Nts) Barosensitive Neurons: Effect Of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (Cih), Jenya Kolpakova

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) is a model used to study obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previously, we showed that baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) (baroreflex sensitivity) is reduced in CIH rats. While afferent function and HR in response to vagal efferent stimulation are enhanced, the effect of CIH on the central components, in particular NTS, is still not completely understood. F344 rats (3-4 mo) were exposed either to CIH or room air (RA) for 35-50 days. Following CIH exposure, rats were anaesthetized with Ket/Ace. Using single-unit extracellular recording technique, we recorded NTS barosensitive neurons in response to arterial pressure ...


Evaluation Of Intestinal Microbial Diversity And A New Antibiotic Regimen In Crohn's Disease Patients, Karel Alcedo Jan 2015

Evaluation Of Intestinal Microbial Diversity And A New Antibiotic Regimen In Crohn's Disease Patients, Karel Alcedo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory bowel disease involving Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Other microorganisms such as adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) have also been proposed in CD association. To date, only one study investigated both MAP and AIEC simultaneously using peripheral blood but not in affected intestinal tissues. A standardized and effective antibiotic therapy against MAP and/or AIEC is needed for better treatment. Three antibiotic drugs – Clarithromycin (CLA), Rifabutin (RIF), and Clofazimine (CLO) have been used to treat CD patients suspected with MAP infection. However, the outcome has been controversial. The treatment dosage is high ...


Fmf Assay For Assessing Vaccine Generated Antibodies In A Biomimetic Manner, Vipra Dhir Jan 2015

Fmf Assay For Assessing Vaccine Generated Antibodies In A Biomimetic Manner, Vipra Dhir

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Traditional functional assays such as hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and micro-neutralization (MN) assays have been routinely used for assessing the vaccine response, since influenza vaccine has been administered in people (1940). Such assays are not always predictive regarding the protection conferred by the influenza vaccine and are not able to monitor neutralization related to stem region of influenza hemagglutinin responsible for virus membrane fusion in the endosomes. In order to study Influenza vaccine response in a more biomimetic manner and overcome the deficiencies of the traditional functional assays, we developed a fluorescent membrane fusion assay (fMF). The assay uses viruses labeled ...


The Anti-Toxin Properties Of Grape Seed Phenolic Compounds, Patrick Cherubin Jan 2014

The Anti-Toxin Properties Of Grape Seed Phenolic Compounds, Patrick Cherubin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ricinus communis, Shigella dysentariae, and Vibrio cholerae produce AB toxins which share the same basic structural characteristics: a catalytic A subunit attached to a cell-binding B subunit. All AB toxins have cytosolic targets despite an initial extracellular location. AB toxins use different methods to reach the cytosol and have different effects on the target cell. Broad-spectrum inhibitors against these toxins are therefore hard to develop because they use different surface receptors, entry mechanisms, enzyme activities, and cytosolic targets. We have found that grape seed extract provides resistance to five different AB toxins: diphtheria toxin (DT), P ...


In Vitro Characterization Of Unmodified And Pyroglutamylated Alzheimer's Amyloid Beta Peptide, Jason Matos Jan 2014

In Vitro Characterization Of Unmodified And Pyroglutamylated Alzheimer's Amyloid Beta Peptide, Jason Matos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plaques of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) are a hallmark trait of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the precise role of Aβ aggregates is not well understood. Recent studies have identified that naturally occurring N-terminal truncation and pyroglutamylation of Aβ significantly increases its neurotoxicity by an unknown mechanism. Content of pyroglutamylated Aβ (pE-Aβ) in AD brains has been shown to reach up to 50% of total Aβ. Modified pE-Aβ co-aggregates with Aβ by a seeding mechanism and forms structurally distinct and highly toxic oligomers. We studied structural transitions of the full-length Aβ1-42, its pyroglutamylated form AβpE3-42, their 9:1 (Aβ1-42/AβpE3-42 ...


Establishment Of Methods For Isolation Of Pnmt+ Cardiac Progenitor Cells, Namita Varudkar Jan 2014

Establishment Of Methods For Isolation Of Pnmt+ Cardiac Progenitor Cells, Namita Varudkar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Millions of patients suffer each year from endothelial dysfunction and/or debilitating myocardial damage resulting in decreased quality of life and increased risk of death or disablement. Current pharmacological approaches are only partly effective at treating cardiovascular disease, and hence, better strategies are needed to provide significant improvements in treatment options. Cardiac stem/progenitor cells have the potential to regenerate myocardial tissue and repair damaged heart muscle. There are many different types of cardiac progenitor cells, and each may have certain unique properties and characteristics that would likely ...


Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their Phosphatase Activity And Its Control, Atul Dhall Jan 2014

Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their Phosphatase Activity And Its Control, Atul Dhall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cerium oxide nanoparticles are established scavengers of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. They have many potential biomedical applications that depend on their physicochemical properties and mode of preparation. Recent studies have found these nanoparticles possess phosphatase mimetic activity. Studying such catalytic activities will qualify their biomedical applications and render information on their bioavailability and potential toxicity. Two oxidation states of cerium exist in these nanoparticles (3+ or 4+). It is hypothesized that the oxidation state of cerium in the nanoparticles determines the amount of adsorbed water on the crystal lattices. This in turn governs their activity as phosphatases. Nanoparticles with ...


Purification And Characterization Of A Novel Selenocysteine Lyase From Enterococcus Faecalis, Samantha Nelson Jan 2014

Purification And Characterization Of A Novel Selenocysteine Lyase From Enterococcus Faecalis, Samantha Nelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A previous study identified Enterococcus faecalis as one of two bacteria known to have the selD gene and other selenium related genes without having the genes necessary to make selenocysteine or selenouridine. EF2570, a gene in the cluster, was later shown to be upregulated during biofilm formation and also responsible for a selenite- and molybdate-dependent increase in biofilm formation in vitro. The protein encoded was identified as a selenium dependent molybdenum hydroxylase (SDMH), enzymes that contain a labile selenium atom required for activity. While the process of inserting selenocysteine into a protein is well known, the process by which a ...


Mixed Valence Copper(Cu)/Silica Nanocomposite: Synthesis, Characterization And Systematic Antimicrobial Studies, Mikaeel Young Jan 2013

Mixed Valence Copper(Cu)/Silica Nanocomposite: Synthesis, Characterization And Systematic Antimicrobial Studies, Mikaeel Young

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Copper (Cu) compounds are widely used as effective agricultural bactericides. Continuous use of these materials has led to Cu accumulation in soil over time. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is concerned about potential Cu contamination in the environment. Improving biocidal efficacy of Cu is an attractive alternative, allowing reduction of Cu amount per application. In this research, we focused on making watersoluble mixed-valence Copper/Silica composite nanogel (CuSiNG) material. The objective is to improve the efficacy of Cu by manipulating Cu valence states. It has been shown in the literature that Cu (0) and Cu (I) states ...


The Contribution Of Visceral Fat To Positive Insulin Signaling In Ames Dwarf Mice, Vinal Menon Jan 2013

The Contribution Of Visceral Fat To Positive Insulin Signaling In Ames Dwarf Mice, Vinal Menon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ames dwarf (df/df) mice are homozygous for a spontaneous mutation in the prop1 gene due to which there is no development of anterior pituitary cells – somatotrophs, lactotrophs and thyrotrophs, leading to a deficiency of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH). They tend to become obese as they age, but still live longer and healthier lives compared to their wild-type littermates, being very insulin sensitive, showing no signs of diabetes and cancer. These mutant mice also have high circulating levels of anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic adiponectin. Plasma levels of this adipokine usually decrease with an increase in accumulation of ...


Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 (Bmp-7) Polarizes Monocytes Into M2 Macrophages, Crystal Rocher Jan 2013

Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 (Bmp-7) Polarizes Monocytes Into M2 Macrophages, Crystal Rocher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which an accumulation of fatty acids and cholesterol occurs to form a plaque in small and large arteries. Monocyte polarization to classic M1 macrophages or alternative M2 macrophages is an important area of research that can determine the severity of disease progression. BMP-7 is a key growth factor responsible for directing differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into brown fat cells, suggesting a role of BMP-7 in cellular plasticity; however, its role in monocyte polarization is yet to be revealed. In the current study, we hypothesize that monocyte treatment with BMP-7 will significantly result in ...


Characterization Of Motility Alterations Caused By The Impairment Of Dynein/Dynactin Motor Protein Complex, Swaran Nandini Jan 2013

Characterization Of Motility Alterations Caused By The Impairment Of Dynein/Dynactin Motor Protein Complex, Swaran Nandini

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Transport of intracellular cargo is an important and dynamic process required for cell maintenance and survival. Dynein is the motor protein that carries organelles and vesicles from the cell periphery to the cell center along the microtubule network. Dynactin is a protein that activates dynein for this transport process. Together, dynein and dynactin forms a motor protein complex that is essential for transport processes in all the vertebrate cells. Using fluorescent microscope based live cell imaging techniques and kymograph analyses, I studied dynein/dynactin disruptions on the intracellular transport in two different cell systems. In one set of experiments, effects ...


Is Breakdown Of Fatty Acid Peroxides Involved In The Induction Of Apolipoprotein A1?, Rajat Gupta Jan 2013

Is Breakdown Of Fatty Acid Peroxides Involved In The Induction Of Apolipoprotein A1?, Rajat Gupta

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the past few years the number of deaths caused due to cardiovascular diseases has been increasing and is of major concern. In the United States, 75% of cardiovascular-related deaths have been attributed to atherosclerosis. Western diets containing large quantities of peroxidized lipids are considered atherogenic. Heated oil in the form of fried food brings high levels of peroxidized fat and its decomposition products in the diet. Peroxidized lipids are known to increase the susceptibility of serum lipoproteins to undergo oxidation, thereby contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. The intestinal cells are responsible for the absorption of dietary fatty acid ...


A Novel Link Between Akt1 And Twist1 In Ovarian Tumor Cell Motility And Invasiveness, Nirav Shah Jan 2012

A Novel Link Between Akt1 And Twist1 In Ovarian Tumor Cell Motility And Invasiveness, Nirav Shah

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ovarian cancer results in more deaths per year than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. The low survival rate is partly due to the lack of early detection and the susceptibility to relapse. The AKT serine threonine kinase plays a pivotal role in hallmark cellular processes for the progression of ovarian cancer, including tumor cell growth and migration. Therapeutic targeting of pan-AKT has been problematic, in part due to feedback mechanisms and crosstalk with other pathways. The hypothesis for this study is that AKT 1, -2 and -3 isoforms may have different roles and regulate cell processes in ...


Expression Of Lipase From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Nicotiana Tobacum And Lactuca Sativa Chloroplasts, Bethany Lloyd Jan 2012

Expression Of Lipase From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Nicotiana Tobacum And Lactuca Sativa Chloroplasts, Bethany Lloyd

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is a global threat and the leading cause of death among individuals infected with HIV. TB treatment requires multi-drug cocktails, due to the increasing rates of drug resistance of the bacterium. With multi-drug cocktails, strains have been documented to be resistant to all major drugs in the fight against TB. Since the strains are drug resistant, it calls for an increasing need for vaccine and treatment development for the purpose of preventing and managing the disease. The most widely distributed vaccine against TB is Bacillus Calmette-Gue´rin (BCG). Apart from ...


Identification Of Novel Antimalarial Scaffolds From Marine Natural Products, Bracken Roberts Jan 2012

Identification Of Novel Antimalarial Scaffolds From Marine Natural Products, Bracken Roberts

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Malaria, the disease caused by Plasmodium sp., claims the lives of over 1 million people every year, with Plasmodium falciparum causing the highest morbidity. Rapidly acquiring drug resistance is threatening to exhaust our antimalarial drug arsenal and already requires the utilization of combination drug therapy in most cases. The global need for novel antimalarial chemical scaffolds has never been greater. Screening of natural product libraries is known to have higher hit rates than synthetic chemical libraries. This elevated hit rate is somewhat attributed to the greater biodiversity available in natural products. Marine life is the most biodiverse system on the ...


Light-Activated Binary Nucleotide Reagent For Inactivation Of Dna Polymerase, Evan M. Cornett Jan 2012

Light-Activated Binary Nucleotide Reagent For Inactivation Of Dna Polymerase, Evan M. Cornett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This work explores a binary reagent approach to increase the specificity of covalent inhibitors. In this approach, two ligand analogs equipped with inert pre-reactive groups specifically bind a target biopolymer. The binding event brings the pre-reactive groups in proximity with each other. The two groups react, generating active chemical intermediates that covalently modify and inactivate the target. In the present study we compare the new approach with the traditional single-component reagent strategy using DNA polymerase from bacteriophage T4 as a model target biopolymer. We report the design and synthesis of two analogs of deoxythymidine triphosphate, a natural DNA polymerase substrate ...


Amelioration Of Amyloid Burden In Advanced Human And Mouse Alzheimer's Disease Brains By Oral Delivery Of Myelin Basic Protein Bioencapsulated In Plant Cells, Neha Kohli Jan 2012

Amelioration Of Amyloid Burden In Advanced Human And Mouse Alzheimer's Disease Brains By Oral Delivery Of Myelin Basic Protein Bioencapsulated In Plant Cells, Neha Kohli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the amyloid plaque deposition in aging brains by aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. In this study, the effect of chloroplast derived myelin basic protein (MBP) fused with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) was investigated in advanced diseased stage of human and mouse AD brains. The CTB-fusion protein in chloroplasts facilitates transmucosal delivery in the gut by the natural binding ability of CTB pentameric form with GM1 receptors on the intestinal epithelium. Further, bioencapsulation of the MBP within plant cells confers protection from enzymes and acids in the digestive system ...


Expression And Functional Evaluation Of Exendin 4 Fused To Cholera Toxin B Subunit In Tobacco Chloroplast To Treat Type 2 Diabetes, Ramya Nityanandam Jan 2011

Expression And Functional Evaluation Of Exendin 4 Fused To Cholera Toxin B Subunit In Tobacco Chloroplast To Treat Type 2 Diabetes, Ramya Nityanandam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been steadily increasing around the globe. Glucagon like peptide (GLP-1), a powerful incretin increases insulin secretion in a glucose dependent manner. But GLP-1 is subjected to rapid enzymatic degradation (half-life: 2 min in circulation). The commercially available GLP-1 analog, exenatide has a longer half life with potent insulinotropic effects (about 2.4 hr) which requires cold storage and daily subcutaneous injections. In this study, exendin 4 (EX4), lizard derived GLP-1R agonist, was expressed as cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in chloroplasts of tobacco to facilitate transmucosal delivery in the gut by ...


Synthesis, Characterization And Antibacterial Activity Of Silver Embedded Silica Nanoparticle/Nanogel Formulation, Roseline Menezes Jan 2011

Synthesis, Characterization And Antibacterial Activity Of Silver Embedded Silica Nanoparticle/Nanogel Formulation, Roseline Menezes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The antibacterial property of silver (Ag) has been known since ancient time. It is reported in the literature that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibit improved antibacterial properties in comparison to silver ions of equivalent metallic Ag concentration. Such improvement in antibacterial activities is due to the high surface area to volume ratio of AgNPs (which facilitates interaction with the bacterial cells), increased release of silver ions and direct intra-cellular uptake of AgNPs leading to localized release of Ag ions. To date, over 300 consumer products containing AgNPs are available in the market and the inventory is rapidly expanding. The antibacterial efficacy ...


Stable Expression Of Tuberculosis Vaccine Antigen In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Priya Saikumar Lakshmi Jan 2011

Stable Expression Of Tuberculosis Vaccine Antigen In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Priya Saikumar Lakshmi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is one of the leading reasons of death by an infectious bacterial pathogen. The development of TB vaccines has been recognized as a major public health priority by the World Health Organization. In this study, a potential candidate antigen, ESAT-6 (6 kDa early secretory antigenic target) was fused with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Transplastomic lettuce plants were generated expressing these fusion proteins. Site-specific transgene integration into the chloroplast genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. In transplastomic leaves, expression levels of fusion protein (CTB-ESAT6) varied depending upon ...


Expression Of Trichoderma Reesei Beta]-Mannanase In Tobacco Chloroplasts And Its Utilization In Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass Hydrolysis, Pankaj M. Agrawal Jan 2011

Expression Of Trichoderma Reesei Beta]-Mannanase In Tobacco Chloroplasts And Its Utilization In Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass Hydrolysis, Pankaj M. Agrawal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lignocellulosic ethanol offers a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels. One among the major limitations in the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is unavailability of efficient and environmentally biomass degrading technologies. Plantbased production of these enzymes on large scale offers a cost effective solution. Cellulases, hemicellulases including mannanases and other accessory enzymes are required for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. β- mannanase catalyzes endo-hydrolysis of the mannan backbone, a major constituent of woody biomass. In this study, man1 gene encoding β-mannanase was isolated from Trichoderma reesei and expressed via the chloroplast genome. PCR and Southern hybridization analysis confirmed the site-specific ...


Acetazolamide-Induced Decrease Of Apical Fluid Flow In Choroid Plexus Is Independent Of The Concomitant Changes In Aquaporin-1 Expression, Pouya Alexander Ameli Jan 2010

Acetazolamide-Induced Decrease Of Apical Fluid Flow In Choroid Plexus Is Independent Of The Concomitant Changes In Aquaporin-1 Expression, Pouya Alexander Ameli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Acetazolamide (AZA), the only drug approved for treatment of hydrocephalus, is effective in only 25-30% of patients while its effect on fluid flow in the choroid plexus (CP) is unknown. The drug reversibly inhibits Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the most highly expressed „water pore‟ in the brain, and it is postulated that it reduces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production by modulating AQP1 (mostly found in the apical membrane of the CP). In this study, we sought to elucidate the effect of AZA on AQP1 and fluid flow in CP. Primary CP culture from p10 Sprague-Dawley rats and TRCSF-B cell line were grown ...


Low Cost Production Of Proinsulin In Tobacco And Lettuce Chloroplasts For Injectable Or Oral Delivery Of Functional Insulin And, Diane Burberry Jan 2010

Low Cost Production Of Proinsulin In Tobacco And Lettuce Chloroplasts For Injectable Or Oral Delivery Of Functional Insulin And, Diane Burberry

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Current treatment for type I diabetes includes delivery of insulin via injection or pump, which is highly invasive and expensive. The production of chloroplast-derived proinsulin should reduce cost and facilitate oral delivery. Therefore, tobacco and lettuce chloroplasts were transformed with the cholera toxin B subunit fused with human proinsulin (A, B, and C peptides) containing three furin cleavage sites (CTB-PFx3). Transplastomic lines were confirmed for site-specific integration of transgene and homoplasmy. Old tobacco leaves accumulated proinsulin up to 47% of total leaf protein (TLP). Old lettuce leaves accumulated proinsulin up to 53% TLP. Accumulation was so stable that up to ...