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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

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Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Solvent Stable Microbial Lipases: Current Understanding And Biotechnological Applications, Barry Ryan, Priyanka Priyanka, Yeqi Tan, Gemma K Kinsella, Gary T. Henehan Dec 2018

Solvent Stable Microbial Lipases: Current Understanding And Biotechnological Applications, Barry Ryan, Priyanka Priyanka, Yeqi Tan, Gemma K Kinsella, Gary T. Henehan

Articles

Objective: This review examines on our current understanding of microbial lipase solvent tolerance, with a specific focus on the molecular strategies employed to improve lipase stability in a non-aqueous environment.

Results: It provides an overview of known solvent tolerant lipases and of approaches to improving solvent stability such as; enhancing stabilising interactions, modification of residue flexibility and surface charge alteration. It shows that judicious selection of lipase source supplemented by appropriate enzyme stabilisation, can lead to a wide application spectrum for lipases.

Conclusion: Organic solvent stable lipases are, and will continue to be, versatile and adaptable biocatalytic workhorses commonly employed ...


The Goldilocks Approach: A Review Of Employing Design Of Experiments In Prokaryotic Recombinant Protein Production, Barry Ryan, Albert Uhoraningoga, Gemma K. Kinsella, Gary T. .. Henehan Dec 2018

The Goldilocks Approach: A Review Of Employing Design Of Experiments In Prokaryotic Recombinant Protein Production, Barry Ryan, Albert Uhoraningoga, Gemma K. Kinsella, Gary T. .. Henehan

Articles

The production of high yields of soluble recombinant protein is one of the main objectives of protein biotechnology. Several factors, such as expression system, vector, host, media composition and induction conditions can influence recombinant protein yield. Identifying the most important factors for optimum protein expression may involve significant investment of time and considerable cost. To address this problem statistical models, such as Design of Experiments (DoE), have been used to optimise recombinant protein production. This review explores the application of DoE in the production of recombinant proteins, focusing on prokaryotic expression systems with a specific emphasis on media composition and ...


A Review On Bioconversion Of Agro-Industrial Wastes To Industrially Important Enzymes, Rajeev Ravindran, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K, Jaiswal Oct 2018

A Review On Bioconversion Of Agro-Industrial Wastes To Industrially Important Enzymes, Rajeev Ravindran, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K, Jaiswal

Articles

Agro-industrial waste is highly nutritious in nature and facilitates microbial growth. Most agricultural wastes are lignocellulosic in nature; a large fraction of it is composed of carbohydrates. Agricultural residues can thus be used for the production of various value-added products, such as industrially important enzymes. Agro-industrial wastes, such as sugar cane bagasse, corn cob and rice bran, have been widely investigated via different fermentation strategies for the production of enzymes. Solid-state fermentation holds much potential compared with submerged fermentation methods for the utilization of agro-based wastes for enzyme production. This is because the physical–chemical nature of many lignocellulosic substrates ...


Theobromine And Related Methylxanthines As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, Padraig Shanahan, Jeffrey O’Sullivan, Keith Tipton, Gemma Kinsella, Barry Ryan, Gary Henehan Oct 2018

Theobromine And Related Methylxanthines As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, Padraig Shanahan, Jeffrey O’Sullivan, Keith Tipton, Gemma Kinsella, Barry Ryan, Gary Henehan

Articles

Methylxanthines are the most widely consumed drugs in the world and evidence of their health benefits has been growing in recent years. Primary Amine Oxidase (PrAO) has been recognised as a therapeutic target for amelioration of inflammatory, vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous work in our laboratories showed that caffeine inhibited Bovine PrAO with a Ki of 1.0mM using benzylamine as substrate.

This study aimed to extend our previous work and explore the possibility that related methylxanthines might influence PrAO activity. While paraxanthine, theophylline and 7-methylxanthine had little effect on PrAO, theobromine was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of ...


Electric Field Standing Wave Effects In Ft-Ir Transflection Spectra Of Biological Tissue Sections: Simulated Models Of Experimental Variability, Tomasz P. Wrobel, Barbara Wajnchold, Hugh J. Byrne, Malgorzata Baranska Jan 2013

Electric Field Standing Wave Effects In Ft-Ir Transflection Spectra Of Biological Tissue Sections: Simulated Models Of Experimental Variability, Tomasz P. Wrobel, Barbara Wajnchold, Hugh J. Byrne, Malgorzata Baranska

Articles

The so-called electric field standing wave effect (EFSW) has recently been demonstrated to significantly distort FT-IR spectra acquired in a transflection mode, both experimentally and in simulated models, bringing into question the appropriateness of the technique for sample characterization, particularly in the field of spectroscopy of biological materials. The predicted effects are most notable in the regime where the sample thickness is comparable to the source wavelength. In this work, the model is extended to sample thicknesses more representative of biological tissue sections and to include typical experimental factors which are demonstrated to reduce the predicted effects. These include integration ...


Quantitative Reagent-Free Detection Of Fibrinogen Levels In Human Blood Plasma Using Raman Spectroscopy, Kelvin Poon, Fiona Lyng, Peter Knief, Orla Howe, Aidan Meade, James Curtin, Hugh Byrne, Joseph Vaughan Jan 2012

Quantitative Reagent-Free Detection Of Fibrinogen Levels In Human Blood Plasma Using Raman Spectroscopy, Kelvin Poon, Fiona Lyng, Peter Knief, Orla Howe, Aidan Meade, James Curtin, Hugh Byrne, Joseph Vaughan

Articles

Fibrinogen assays are commonly used as part of clinical screening tests to investigate haemorrhagic states, for detection of disseminated intravascular coagulation and as a predictor of a variety of cardiovascular events. The Clauss assay, which measures thrombin clotting time, is the most commonly used method for measuring fibrinogen levels. Nevertheless, inconsistencies are present in inter-manufacturer reagent sources, calibration standards and methodologies. Automated coagulation analysers, which measure changes in optical density during the prothrombin time (PT-Fg), have found use in many hospitals. However, the PT-Fg method is found to give falsely elevated values due to varying choices of calibrants, reagents and ...


Hmgb1 Mediates Endogenous Tlr2 Activation And Brain Tumor Regression, James Curtin, Naiyou Liu, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Hikmat Assi, Kader Yagiz, Matthew Edwards, Kathrin Michelsen, Kurt Kroeger, Chunyan Liu, Akm Ghulam Muhammad, Mary Clark, Moshe Arditi, Begonya Comin-Anduix, Antoni Ribas, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro Jan 2009

Hmgb1 Mediates Endogenous Tlr2 Activation And Brain Tumor Regression, James Curtin, Naiyou Liu, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Hikmat Assi, Kader Yagiz, Matthew Edwards, Kathrin Michelsen, Kurt Kroeger, Chunyan Liu, Akm Ghulam Muhammad, Mary Clark, Moshe Arditi, Begonya Comin-Anduix, Antoni Ribas, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor that carries a 5-y survival rate of 5%. Attempts at eliciting a clinically relevant anti-GBM immune response in brain tumor patients have met with limited success, which is due to brain immune privilege, tumor immune evasion, and a paucity of dendritic cells (DCs) within the central nervous system. Herein we uncovered a novel pathway for the activation of an effective anti-GBM immune response mediated by high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1), an alarmin protein released from dying tumor cells, which acts as an endogenous ligand for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling ...


Treg Depletion Inhibits Efficacy Of Cancer Immunotherapy: Implications For Clinical Trials., James Curtin, Marianela Candolfi, Tamer Fakhouri, Chunyan Liu, Anderson Alden, Matthew Edwards, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro Apr 2008

Treg Depletion Inhibits Efficacy Of Cancer Immunotherapy: Implications For Clinical Trials., James Curtin, Marianela Candolfi, Tamer Fakhouri, Chunyan Liu, Anderson Alden, Matthew Edwards, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

BACKGROUND: Regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) infiltrate human glioblastoma (GBM); are involved in tumor progression and correlate with tumor grade. Transient elimination of Tregs using CD25 depleting antibodies (PC61) has been found to mediate GBM regression in preclinical models of brain tumors. Clinical trials that combine Treg depletion with tumor vaccination are underway to determine whether transient Treg depletion can enhance anti-tumor immune responses and improve long term survival in cancer patients. FINDINGS: Using a syngeneic intracrabial glioblastoma (GBM) mouse model we show that systemic depletion of Tregs 15 days after tumor implantation using PC61 resulted in a decrease in Tregs ...


Turning The Gene Tap Off; Implications Of Regulating Gene Expression For Cancer Therapeutics, James Curtin, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro Mar 2008

Turning The Gene Tap Off; Implications Of Regulating Gene Expression For Cancer Therapeutics, James Curtin, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

Cancer poses a tremendous therapeutic challenge worldwide, highlighting the critical need for developing novel therapeutics. A promising cancer treatment modality is gene therapy, which is a form of molecular medicine designed to introduce into target cells genetic material with therapeutic intent. Anticancer gene therapy strategies currently used in preclinical models, and in some cases in the clinic, include proapoptotic genes, oncolytic/replicative vectors, conditional cytotoxic approaches, inhibition of angiogenesis, inhibition of growth factor signaling, inactivation of oncogenes, inhibition of tumor invasion and stimulation of the immune system. The translation of these novel therapeutic modalities from the preclinical setting to the ...


Regulated Expression Of Adenoviral Vectors-Based Gene Therapies: Therapeutic Expression Of Toxins And Immune-Modulators, James Curtin, Marianela Candolfi, Mariana Puntel, Weidong Xiong, Akm Ghulam Muhammad, Kurt Kroeger, Sonali Mondkar, Chunyan Liu, Niyati Bondale, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro Jan 2008

Regulated Expression Of Adenoviral Vectors-Based Gene Therapies: Therapeutic Expression Of Toxins And Immune-Modulators, James Curtin, Marianela Candolfi, Mariana Puntel, Weidong Xiong, Akm Ghulam Muhammad, Kurt Kroeger, Sonali Mondkar, Chunyan Liu, Niyati Bondale, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

Regulatable promoter systems allow gene expression to be tightly controlled in vivo. This is highly desirable for the development of safe, efficacious adenoviral vectors that can be used to treat human diseases in the clinic. Ideally, regulatable cassettes should have minimal gene expression in the "OFF" state, and expression should quickly reach therapeutic levels in the "ON" state. In addition, the components of regulatable cassettes should be non-toxic at physiological concentrations and should not be immunogenic, especially when treating chronic illness that requires long-lasting gene expression. In this chapter, we will describe in detail protocols to develop and validate first ...