Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 31 - 60 of 291

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

A Mechanistic Computational Model Reveals That Plasticity Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Is A Function Of Cytokine Composition And Dosage, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Robert G. Todd, Akram Mohammed, Deborah M. Brown, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar Jan 2018

A Mechanistic Computational Model Reveals That Plasticity Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Is A Function Of Cytokine Composition And Dosage, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Robert G. Todd, Akram Mohammed, Deborah M. Brown, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

CD4+ T cells provide cell-mediated immunity in response to various antigens. During an immune response, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into specialized effector T helper (Th1, Th2, and Th17) cells and induced regulatory (iTreg) cells based on a cytokine milieu. In recent studies, complex phenotypes resembling more than one classical T cell lineage have been experimentally observed. Herein, we sought to characterize the capacity of T cell differentiation in response to the complex extracellular environment. We constructed a comprehensive mechanistic (logical) computational model of the signal transduction that regulates T cell differentiation. The model’s dynamics were characterized and analyzed ...


Towards The Synthetic Design Of Camelina Oil Enriched In Tailored Acetyl-Triacylglycerols With Medium-Chain Fatty Acids, Sunil Bansal, Hae Jin Kim, Gunnam Na, Megan E. Hamilton, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chaofu Lu, Timothy P. Durrett Jan 2018

Towards The Synthetic Design Of Camelina Oil Enriched In Tailored Acetyl-Triacylglycerols With Medium-Chain Fatty Acids, Sunil Bansal, Hae Jin Kim, Gunnam Na, Megan E. Hamilton, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chaofu Lu, Timothy P. Durrett

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The ability to manipulate expression of key biosynthetic enzymes has allowed the development of genetically modified plants that synthesise unusual lipids that are useful for biofuel and industrial applications. By taking advantage of the unique activities of enzymes from different species, tailored lipids with a targeted structure can be conceived. In this study we demonstrate the successful implementation of such an approach by metabolically engineering the oilseed crop Camelina sativa to produce 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). Different transgenic camelina lines that had been genetically modified to produce MCFAs through the expression of MCFA-specific thioesterases ...


Single-Molecule Unbinding Forces Between The Polysaccharide Hyaluronan And Its Binding Proteins, Fouzia Bano, Markku I. Tammi, David W. Kang, Edward N. Harris, Ralf P. Richter Jan 2018

Single-Molecule Unbinding Forces Between The Polysaccharide Hyaluronan And Its Binding Proteins, Fouzia Bano, Markku I. Tammi, David W. Kang, Edward N. Harris, Ralf P. Richter

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The extracellular polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is ubiquitous in all vertebrate tissues, where its various functions are encoded in the supramolecular complexes and matrices that it forms with HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins). In tissues, these supramolecular architectures are frequently subjected to mechanical stress, yet how this affects the intermolecular bonding is largely unknown. Here, we used a recently developed single-molecule force spectroscopy platform to analyze and compare the mechanical strength of bonds between HA and a panel of hyaladherins from the Link module superfamily, namely the complex of the proteoglycan aggrecan and cartilage link protein, the proteoglycan versican, the inflammation-associated protein TSG-6 ...


A Tlr/Akt/Foxo3 Immune Tolerance–Like Pathway Disrupts The Repair Capacity Of Oligodendrocyte Progenitors, Taasin Srivastava, Parham Diba, Justin M. Dean, Fatima Banine, Daniel Shaver, Matthew Hagen, Xi Gong, Weiping Su, Ben Emery, Daniel L. Marks, Edward N. Harris, Bruce Baggentoss, Paul H. Weigel, Larry S. Sherman, Stephen A. Back Jan 2018

A Tlr/Akt/Foxo3 Immune Tolerance–Like Pathway Disrupts The Repair Capacity Of Oligodendrocyte Progenitors, Taasin Srivastava, Parham Diba, Justin M. Dean, Fatima Banine, Daniel Shaver, Matthew Hagen, Xi Gong, Weiping Su, Ben Emery, Daniel L. Marks, Edward N. Harris, Bruce Baggentoss, Paul H. Weigel, Larry S. Sherman, Stephen A. Back

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) persistently disrupts myelin regeneration by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We identified a specific bioactive hyaluronan fragment (bHAf) that downregulates myelin gene expression and chronically blocks OPC maturation and myelination via a tolerance-like mechanism that dysregulates pro-myelination signaling via AKT. Desensitization of AKT occurs via TLR4 but not TLR2 or CD44. OPC differentiation was selectively blocked by bHAf in a maturation-dependent fashion at the late OPC (preOL) stage by a noncanonical TLR4/TRIF pathway that induced persistent activation of the FoxO3 transcription factor downstream of AKT. Activated FoxO3 selectively localized to oligodendrocyte lineage cells in white ...


3-O Sulfation Of Heparin Leads To Hepatotropism And Longer Circulatory Half-Life, Colton M. Miller, Yongmei Xu, Katrina M. Kudrna, Blake E. Hass, Brianna M. Kellar, Andrew W. Egger, Jian Liu, Edward N. Harris Jan 2018

3-O Sulfation Of Heparin Leads To Hepatotropism And Longer Circulatory Half-Life, Colton M. Miller, Yongmei Xu, Katrina M. Kudrna, Blake E. Hass, Brianna M. Kellar, Andrew W. Egger, Jian Liu, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Introduction: Heparins are common blood anticoagulants that are critical for many surgical and biomedical procedures used in modern medicine. In contrast to natural heparin derived from porcine gut mucosa, synthetic heparins are homogenous by mass, polymer length, and chemistry.

Materials & methods: Stable cell lines expressing the human and mouse Stabilin receptors were used to evaluate endocytosis of natural and synthetic heparin. We chemoenzymatically produced synthetic heparin consisting of 12 sugars (dodecamers) containing 14 sulfate groups resulting in a non-3-O sulfated structure (n12mer). Half of the n12mer was modified with a 3-O sulfate on a single GlcNS sugar producing the 3-O ...


Visualizing The Invisible: A Guide To Designing, Printing, And Incorporating Dynamic 3d Molecular Models To Teach Structure–Function Relationships, Michelle E. Howell, Karin V. Van Dijk, Christine S. Booth, Tomáš Helikar, Brian A. Couch, Rebecca Roston Jan 2018

Visualizing The Invisible: A Guide To Designing, Printing, And Incorporating Dynamic 3d Molecular Models To Teach Structure–Function Relationships, Michelle E. Howell, Karin V. Van Dijk, Christine S. Booth, Tomáš Helikar, Brian A. Couch, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the intricate relationship between macromolecular structure and function represents a central goal of undergraduate biology education (1–3). In teaching complex three-dimensional (3D) concepts, instructors typically depend on static two-dimensional (2D) textbook images or computer-based visualization software, which can lead to unintended misconceptions (4–6). While chemical and molecular kits exist, these models cannot handle the size and detail of macromolecules. Consequently, students may graduate in the life sciences without understanding how structure underlies function or acquiring skills to translate between 2D and 3D molecular models (5, 7).


Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose Mcglauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel Nov 2017

Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose Mcglauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood.

Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo.

Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation ...


Ydj1 Governs Fungal Morphogenesis And Stress Response, And Facilitates Mitochondrial Protein Import Via Mas1 And Mas2, Jinglin L. Xie, Iryna Bohovych, Erin O.Y. Wong, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Anne-Claude Gingras, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Leah E. Cowen, Michelle D. Leach Oct 2017

Ydj1 Governs Fungal Morphogenesis And Stress Response, And Facilitates Mitochondrial Protein Import Via Mas1 And Mas2, Jinglin L. Xie, Iryna Bohovych, Erin O.Y. Wong, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Anne-Claude Gingras, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Leah E. Cowen, Michelle D. Leach

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mitochondria underpin metabolism, bioenergetics, signalling, development and cell death in eukaryotes. Most of the ~1,000 yeast mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and synthesised as precursors in the cytosol, with mitochondrial import facilitated by molecular chaperones. Here, we focus on the Hsp40 chaperone Ydj1 in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, finding that it is localised to both the cytosol and outer mitochondrial membrane, and is required for cellular stress responses and for filamentation, a key virulence trait. Mapping the Ydj1 protein interaction network highlighted connections with co-chaperones and regulators of filamentation. Furthermore, the mitochondrial processing peptidases Mas1 and ...


Identification Of Potential Tissue-Specific Cancer Biomarkers And Development Of Cancer Versus Normal Genomic Classifiers, Akram Mohammed, Greyson Biegert, Jiri Adamec, Tomáš Helikar Sep 2017

Identification Of Potential Tissue-Specific Cancer Biomarkers And Development Of Cancer Versus Normal Genomic Classifiers, Akram Mohammed, Greyson Biegert, Jiri Adamec, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Machine learning techniques for cancer prediction and biomarker discovery can hasten cancer detection and significantly improve prognosis. Recent “OMICS” studies which include a variety of cancer and normal tissue samples along with machine learning approaches have the potential to further accelerate such discovery. To demonstrate this potential, 2,175 gene expression samples from nine tissue types were obtained to identify gene sets whose expression is characteristic of each cancer class. Using random forests classification and ten-fold cross-validation, we developed nine single-tissue classifiers, two multi-tissue cancer-versus-normal classifiers, and one multi-tissue normal classifier. Given a sample of a specified tissue type, the ...


Organ-Specific Regulation Of Atp7a Abundance Is Coordinated With Systemic Copper Homeostasis, Haarin Chun, Tracy Catterson, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Byung-Eun Kim Sep 2017

Organ-Specific Regulation Of Atp7a Abundance Is Coordinated With Systemic Copper Homeostasis, Haarin Chun, Tracy Catterson, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Byung-Eun Kim

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Copper (Cu) is an essential cofactor for various enzymatic activities including mitochondrial electron transport, iron mobilization, and peptide hormone maturation. Consequently, Cu dysregulation is associated with fatal neonatal disease, liver and cardiac dysfunction, and anemia. While the Cu transporter ATP7A plays a major role in both intestinal Cu mobilization to the periphery and prevention of Cu over-accumulation, it is unclear how regulation of ATP7A contributes to Cu homeostasis in response to systemic Cu fluctuation. Here we show, using Cu-deficient mouse models, that steadystate levels of ATP7A are lower in peripheral tissues (including the heart, spleen, and liver) under Cu deficiency ...


Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Roman M. Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk Aug 2017

Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Roman M. Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The inner mitochondrial membrane (IM) is among most protein-rich cellular compartments. The metastable IM sub-proteome where the concentration of proteins is approaching oversaturation creates a challenging protein folding environment with high probability for protein malfunction or aggregation. Failure to maintain protein homeostasis in such a setting can impair functional integrity of the mitochondria and drive clinical manifestations. The IM is equipped with a series of highly conserved, proteolytic complexes dedicated to the maintenance of normal protein homeostasis within this mitochondrial sub-compartment. Particularly important is a group of membrane-anchored metallopeptidases commonly known as m-AAA and i-AAA proteases, and the ATP-independent Oma1 ...


The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran Aug 2017

The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of various biological processes and human diseases. The mechanisms of action involve their interactions with proteins, RNA and genomic DNA. Most lncRNAs display strong nuclear localization. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are important for multiple aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. hnRNPs are also predominantly expressed in the nucleus. This review discusses the interactions of lncRNAs and hnRNPs in regulating gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels or by changing genomic structure, highlighting their involvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, immune response, DNA damage response ...


Quantification Of Cell Signaling Networks Using Kinase Activity Chemosensors, Jon R. Beck, Edward N. Harris, Cliff I. Stains Jan 2017

Quantification Of Cell Signaling Networks Using Kinase Activity Chemosensors, Jon R. Beck, Edward N. Harris, Cliff I. Stains

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The ability to directly determine endogenous kinase activity in tissue homogenates provides valuable insights into signaling aberrations that underlie disease phenotypes. When activity data is collected across a panel of kinases, a unique “signaling fingerprint” is generated that allows for discrimination between diseased and normal tissue. Here we describe the use of peptide-based kinase activity sensors to fingerprint the signaling changes associated with disease states. This approach leverages the phosphorylation-sensitive sulfonamido-oxine (Sox) fluorophore to provide a direct readout of kinase enzymatic activity in unfractionated tissue homogenates from animal models or clinical samples. To demonstrate the application of this technology, we ...


Carbon And Acyl Chain Flux During Stress-Induced Triglyceride Accumulation By Stable Isotopic Labeling Of The Polar Microalga Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea C169, James W. Allen, Concetta C. Dirusso, Paul N. Black Jan 2017

Carbon And Acyl Chain Flux During Stress-Induced Triglyceride Accumulation By Stable Isotopic Labeling Of The Polar Microalga Coccomyxa Subellipsoidea C169, James W. Allen, Concetta C. Dirusso, Paul N. Black

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Deriving biofuels and other lipoid products from algae is a promising future technology directly addressing global issues of atmospheric CO2 balance. To better understand the metabolism of triglyceride synthesis in algae, we examined their metabolic origins in the model species, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C169, using stable isotopic labeling. Labeling patterns arising from [U-13C]glucose, 13CO2, or D2O supplementation were analyzed by GC-MS and/or LC-MS over time courses during nitrogen starvation to address the roles of catabolic carbon recycling, acyl chain redistribution, and de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis during the expansion of the ...


Secs (Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells), Liver Microenvironment, And Fibrosis, Vaishaali Natarajan, Edward N. Harris, Srivatsan Kidambi Jan 2017

Secs (Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells), Liver Microenvironment, And Fibrosis, Vaishaali Natarajan, Edward N. Harris, Srivatsan Kidambi

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Liver fibrosis is awound-healing response to chronic liver injury such as alcoholic/nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and viral hepatitis with no FDA-approved treatments. Liver fibrosis results in a continual accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and paves the way for replacement of parenchyma with nonfunctional scar tissue. The fibrotic condition results in drastic changes in the local mechanical, chemical, and biological microenvironment of the tissue. Liver parenchyma is supported by an efficient network of vasculature lined by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). These nonparenchymal cells are highly specialized resident endothelial cell type with characteristic morphological and functional features. Alterations in ...


Gene Duplication And Neo-Functionalization In The Evolutionary And Functional Divergence Of The Metazoan Copper Transporters Ctr1 And Ctr2, Brandon L. Logeman, L. Kent Wood, Jaekwoon Lee, Dennis J. Thiele Jan 2017

Gene Duplication And Neo-Functionalization In The Evolutionary And Functional Divergence Of The Metazoan Copper Transporters Ctr1 And Ctr2, Brandon L. Logeman, L. Kent Wood, Jaekwoon Lee, Dennis J. Thiele

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Copper is an essential element for proper organismal development and is involved in a range of processes, including oxidative phosphorylation, neuropeptide biogenesis, and connective tissue maturation. The copper transporter (Ctr) family of integral membrane proteins is ubiquitously found in eukaryotes and mediates the high-affinity transport of Cu_ across both the plasma membrane and endomembranes. Although mammalian Ctr1 functions as a Cu_ transporter for Cu acquisition and is essential for embryonic development, a homologous protein, Ctr2, has been proposed to function as a low-affinity Cu transporter, a lysosomal Cu exporter, or a regulator of Ctr1 activity, but its ...


Short Carboxylic Acid-Carboxylate Hydrogen Bonds Can Have Fully Localized Protons, Jiusheng Lin, Edwin Pozharski, Mark A. Wilson Jan 2017

Short Carboxylic Acid-Carboxylate Hydrogen Bonds Can Have Fully Localized Protons, Jiusheng Lin, Edwin Pozharski, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Short hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) have been proposed to play key functional roles in several proteins. The location of the proton in short H-bonds is of central importance, as proton delocalization is a defining feature of low barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs). Experimentally determining proton location in H-bonds is challenging. Here, bond length analysis of atomic (1.15–0.98 Å) resolution X-ray crystal structures of the human protein DJ-1 and its bacterial homolog YajL was used to determine the protonation states of H-bonded carboxylic acids. DJ-1 contains a buried, dimer-spanning 2.49 Å H-bond between Glu15 and Asp23 that satisfies standard ...


Structural And Mechanistic Insights Into Hemoglobincatalyzed Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation And The Fate Of Polysulfide Products, Victor Vitvitsky, Pramod K. Yadav, Sojin An, Javier Seravalli, Uhn-Soo Cho, Ruma V. Banerjee Jan 2017

Structural And Mechanistic Insights Into Hemoglobincatalyzed Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation And The Fate Of Polysulfide Products, Victor Vitvitsky, Pramod K. Yadav, Sojin An, Javier Seravalli, Uhn-Soo Cho, Ruma V. Banerjee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Hydrogen sulfide is a cardioprotective signaling molecule but is toxic at elevated concentrations. Red blood cells can synthesize H2S but, lacking organelles, cannot dispose of H2S via the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway. We have recently shown that at high sulfide concentrations, ferric hemoglobin oxidizes H2S to a mixture of thiosulfate and iron-bound polysulfides in which the latter species predominates. Here, we report the crystal structure of human hemoglobin containing low spin ferric sulfide, the first intermediate in heme-catalyzed sulfide oxidation. The structure provides molecular insights into why sulfide is susceptible to oxidation in human ...


The Assembly Factor Pet117 Couples Heme A Synthase Activity To Cytochrome Oxidase Assembly, Nicholas G. Taylor, Samantha Swenson, Nicholas J. Harris, Edward M. Germany, Jennifer L. Fox, Oleh Khalimonchuk Jan 2017

The Assembly Factor Pet117 Couples Heme A Synthase Activity To Cytochrome Oxidase Assembly, Nicholas G. Taylor, Samantha Swenson, Nicholas J. Harris, Edward M. Germany, Jennifer L. Fox, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Heme a is an essential metalloporphyrin cofactor of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). Its synthesis from heme b requires several enzymes, including the evolutionarily conserved heme a synthase (Cox15). Oligomerization of Cox15 appears to be important for the process of heme a biosynthesis and transfer to maturing CcO. However, the details of this process remain elusive, and the roles of any additional CcO assembly factors that may be involved remain unclear. Here we report the systematic analysis of one such uncharacterized assembly factor, Pet117, and demonstrate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that this evolutionarily conserved protein is necessary for ...


Oxidative Stress, Metabolomics Profiling, And Mechanism Of Local Anesthetic Induced Cell Death In Yeast, Cory Honsinger Thomas Boone, Ryan A. Grove, Dana Adamcova, Javier Seravalli, Jiri Adamec Jan 2017

Oxidative Stress, Metabolomics Profiling, And Mechanism Of Local Anesthetic Induced Cell Death In Yeast, Cory Honsinger Thomas Boone, Ryan A. Grove, Dana Adamcova, Javier Seravalli, Jiri Adamec

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The World Health Organization designates lidocaine as an essential medicine in healthcare, greatly increasing the probability of human exposure. Its use has been associated with ROS generation and neurotoxicity. Physiological and metabolomic alterations, and genetics leading to the clinically observed adverse effects have not been temporally characterized. To study alterations that may lead to these undesirable effects, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on aerobic carbon sources to stationary phase was assessed over 6 h. Exposure of an LC50 dose of lidocaine, increased mitochondrial depolarization and ROS/RNS generation assessed using JC-1, ROS/RNS specific probes, and FACS. Intracellular calcium also increased ...


Significant Enhancement Of Fatty Acid Composition In Seeds Of The Allohexaploid, Camelina Sativa, Using Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing, Wen Zhi Jhang, Isabelle M. Henry, Peter G. Lynagh, Lucia Comai, Edgar B. Cahoon, Donald P. Weeks Jan 2017

Significant Enhancement Of Fatty Acid Composition In Seeds Of The Allohexaploid, Camelina Sativa, Using Crispr/Cas9 Gene Editing, Wen Zhi Jhang, Isabelle M. Henry, Peter G. Lynagh, Lucia Comai, Edgar B. Cahoon, Donald P. Weeks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful and flexible tool for genome editing, and novel applications of this system are being developed rapidly. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the FAD2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the closely related emerging oil seed plant, Camelina sativa, with the goal of improving seed oil composition. We successfully obtained Camelina seeds in which oleic acid content was increased from 16% to over 50% of the fatty acid composition. These increases were associated with significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i.e. a decrease from ~16 ...


Seasonal Switchgrass Ecotype Contributions To Soil Organic Carbon, Deep Soil Microbial Community Composition And Rhizodeposit Uptake During An Extreme Drought, Catherine E. Stewart, Damaris Roosendaal, Karolien Denef, Elizabeth Pruessner, Louise H. Comas, Gautam Sarath, Virginia L. Jin, Marty R. Schmer, Madhavan Soundararajan Jan 2017

Seasonal Switchgrass Ecotype Contributions To Soil Organic Carbon, Deep Soil Microbial Community Composition And Rhizodeposit Uptake During An Extreme Drought, Catherine E. Stewart, Damaris Roosendaal, Karolien Denef, Elizabeth Pruessner, Louise H. Comas, Gautam Sarath, Virginia L. Jin, Marty R. Schmer, Madhavan Soundararajan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The importance of rhizodeposit C and associated microbial communities in deep soil C stabilization is relatively unknown. Phenotypic variability in plant root biomass could impact C cycling through belowground plant allocation, rooting architecture, and microbial community abundance and composition. We used a pulse-chase 13C labeling experiment with compound-specific stable-isotope probing to investigate the importance of rhizodeposit C to deep soil microbial biomass under two switchgrass ecotypes (Panicum virgatum L., Kanlow and Summer) with contrasting root morphology. We quantified root phenology, soil microbial biomass (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA), and microbial rhizodeposit uptake (13C-PLFAs) to 150 cm over one year ...


Toxoplasma Dj-1 Regulates Organelle Secretion By A Direct Interaction With Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1, Matthew A. Child, Megan Garland, Ian Foe, Peter Madzelan, Moritz Treeck, Wouter A. Van Der Linden, Kristina Oresic Bender, Evanthie Weerapana, Mark A. Wilson, John C. Boothroyd, Michael L. Reese Jan 2017

Toxoplasma Dj-1 Regulates Organelle Secretion By A Direct Interaction With Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1, Matthew A. Child, Megan Garland, Ian Foe, Peter Madzelan, Moritz Treeck, Wouter A. Van Der Linden, Kristina Oresic Bender, Evanthie Weerapana, Mark A. Wilson, John C. Boothroyd, Michael L. Reese

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Human DJ-1 is a highly conserved and yet functionally enigmatic protein associated with a heritable form of Parkinson’s disease. It has been suggested to be a redox-dependent regulatory scaffold, binding to proteins to modulate their function. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of the Toxoplasma orthologue Toxoplasma gondii DJ-1 (TgDJ-1) at 2.1-A resolution and show that it directly associates with calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1). The TgDJ-1 structure identifies an orthologously conserved arginine dyad that acts as a phospho-gatekeeper motif to control complex formation. We determined that the binding of TgDJ-1 to CDPK1 is sensitive to oxidation ...


The Intestinal Copper Exporter Cua-1 Is Required For Systemic Copper Homeostasis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Haarin Chun, Anuj Kumar Sharma, Jaekwon Lee, Jefferson Chan, Shang Jia, Byung-Eun Kim Nov 2016

The Intestinal Copper Exporter Cua-1 Is Required For Systemic Copper Homeostasis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Haarin Chun, Anuj Kumar Sharma, Jaekwon Lee, Jefferson Chan, Shang Jia, Byung-Eun Kim

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Copper plays key catalytic and regulatory roles in biochemical processes essential for normal growth, development, and health. Defects in copper metabolism cause Menkes and Wilson’s disease, myeloneuropathy, and cardiovascular disease and are associated with other pathophysiological states. Consequently, it is critical to understand the mechanisms by which organisms control the acquisition, distribution, and utilization of copper. The intestinal enterocyte is a key regulatory point for copper absorption into the body; however, the mechanisms by which intestinal cells transport copper to maintain organismal copper homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we identify a mechanism by which organismal copper homeostasis is maintained ...


Assessing The Risk Of Resistance Evolution, Adult And Larval Susceptibility, And Sublethal Effects After Exposure Of Corn Rootworms To Vacuolar Atpase-A And Snf7 Dsrnas, Adriano Elias Pereira Nov 2016

Assessing The Risk Of Resistance Evolution, Adult And Larval Susceptibility, And Sublethal Effects After Exposure Of Corn Rootworms To Vacuolar Atpase-A And Snf7 Dsrnas, Adriano Elias Pereira

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Corn rootworms are Diabroticite beetles from the genus Diabrotica and include the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, as the most important pests in the U.S. Corn Belt. The southern corn rootworm (SCR), D. undecimpunctata howardi Barber, is considered a polyphagous plant pest and feeds in a wide variety of plants including peanuts, cucurbits, soybeans, and especially corn. Resistance to control methods including behavioral resistance to crop rotation and to corn hybrids expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner toxins in WCR has frequently been reported. SCR has been considered a ...


Structural Determinants Allowing Transferase Activity In Sensitive To Freezing 2, Classified As A Family I Glycosyl Hydrolase, Rebecca Roston, Kun Wang, Leslie A. Kuhn, Christoph Benning Sep 2016

Structural Determinants Allowing Transferase Activity In Sensitive To Freezing 2, Classified As A Family I Glycosyl Hydrolase, Rebecca Roston, Kun Wang, Leslie A. Kuhn, Christoph Benning

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2 (SFR2) is classified as a glycosyl hydrolase, and by using glycosyltransferase activity, it modifies membrane lipids to promote freeze tolerance.

Results: Although the active site of SFR2 is identical to hydrolases, adjacent loop regions contribute to its transferase activity.

Conclusion: Transferase activity evolved by modifications external to the core catalytic site.

Significance: Defined structure-function relationships will inform engineering of transferases and freeze tolerance.


Sending Out An Sos: Mitochondria As A Signaling Hub, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk Sep 2016

Sending Out An Sos: Mitochondria As A Signaling Hub, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Normal cellular physiology is critically dependent on numerous mitochondrial activities including energy conversion, cofactor and precursor metabolite synthesis, and regulation of ion and redox homeostasis. Advances in mitochondrial research during the last two decades provide solid evidence that these organelles are deeply integrated with the rest of the cell and multiple mechanisms are in place to monitor and communicate functional states of mitochondria. In many cases, however, the exact molecular nature of various mitochondria-to-cell communication pathways is only beginning to emerge. Here, we review various signals emitted by distressed or dysfunctional mitochondria and the stress-responsive pathways activated in response to ...


Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Jun 2016

Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Trifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) proteins are multifunctional flavoproteins that catalyze two reactions and repress transcription of the put regulon.

Results: PutA from Escherichia coli is a V-shaped dimer, with the DNA-binding domain mediating dimerization.

Conclusion: Oligomeric state and quaternary structures are not conserved by PutAs.

Significance: The first three-dimensional structural information for any trifunctional PutA is reported.


Determining Gene Specific Chromatin Differences In Sulfolobus Solfataricus: Expression Of Merr Protein For Targeted-Chip Antibody Production, Erica M. North, Sophie Payne, Sam Mccarthy, Tyler Johnson, Paul H. Blum May 2016

Determining Gene Specific Chromatin Differences In Sulfolobus Solfataricus: Expression Of Merr Protein For Targeted-Chip Antibody Production, Erica M. North, Sophie Payne, Sam Mccarthy, Tyler Johnson, Paul H. Blum

UCARE Research Products

In this project the repressor protein MerR from the Sulfolobus solfataricus mercury resistance operon was cloned into pET28b and transformed into Roetta 2 E.coli strains for overexpression and purification. Large quantities of recombinant MerR will be used for subsequent injection into a mammalian host for antibody production. These antibodies will be used in targeted-ChIP studies in which gene specific chromatin modification states will be analyzed. The overproduction of MerR is part of a larger project where future research could produce data on whether gene expression levels and chromatin modifiation states could be correlated at an individual gene level, possibly ...


Methods For Detecting Microbial Methane Production And Consumption By Gas Chromatography, Jared T. Aldridge, Jennie L. Catlett, Megan L. Smith, Nicole R. Buan Mar 2016

Methods For Detecting Microbial Methane Production And Consumption By Gas Chromatography, Jared T. Aldridge, Jennie L. Catlett, Megan L. Smith, Nicole R. Buan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Methane is an energy-dense fuel but is also a greenhouse gas 25 times more detrimental to the environment than CO2. Methane can be produced abiotically by serpentinization, chemically by Sabatier or Fisher-Tropsh chemistry, or biotically by microbes (Berndt et al., 1996; Horita and Berndt, 1999; Dry, 2002; Wolfe, 1982; Thauer, 1998; Metcalf et al., 2002). Methanogens are anaerobic archaea that grow by producing methane gas as a metabolic byproduct (Wolfe, 1982; Thauer, 1998). Our lab has developed and optimized three different gas chromatograph-utilizing assays to characterize methanogen metabolism (Catlett et al., 2015). Here we describe the end point and kinetic ...