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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Intestinal Copper Exporter Cua-1 Is Required For Systemic Copper Homeostasis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Haarin Chun, Anuj Kumar Sharma, Jaekwon Lee, Jefferson Chan, Shang Jia, Byung-Eun Kim Nov 2016

The Intestinal Copper Exporter Cua-1 Is Required For Systemic Copper Homeostasis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Haarin Chun, Anuj Kumar Sharma, Jaekwon Lee, Jefferson Chan, Shang Jia, Byung-Eun Kim

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Copper plays key catalytic and regulatory roles in biochemical processes essential for normal growth, development, and health. Defects in copper metabolism cause Menkes and Wilson’s disease, myeloneuropathy, and cardiovascular disease and are associated with other pathophysiological states. Consequently, it is critical to understand the mechanisms by which organisms control the acquisition, distribution, and utilization of copper. The intestinal enterocyte is a key regulatory point for copper absorption into the body; however, the mechanisms by which intestinal cells transport copper to maintain organismal copper homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we identify a mechanism by which organismal copper homeostasis is maintained ...


Assessing The Risk Of Resistance Evolution, Adult And Larval Susceptibility, And Sublethal Effects After Exposure Of Corn Rootworms To Vacuolar Atpase-A And Snf7 Dsrnas, Adriano Elias Pereira Nov 2016

Assessing The Risk Of Resistance Evolution, Adult And Larval Susceptibility, And Sublethal Effects After Exposure Of Corn Rootworms To Vacuolar Atpase-A And Snf7 Dsrnas, Adriano Elias Pereira

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Corn rootworms are Diabroticite beetles from the genus Diabrotica and include the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, as the most important pests in the U.S. Corn Belt. The southern corn rootworm (SCR), D. undecimpunctata howardi Barber, is considered a polyphagous plant pest and feeds in a wide variety of plants including peanuts, cucurbits, soybeans, and especially corn. Resistance to control methods including behavioral resistance to crop rotation and to corn hybrids expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner toxins in WCR has frequently been reported. SCR has been considered a ...


Structural Determinants Allowing Transferase Activity In Sensitive To Freezing 2, Classified As A Family I Glycosyl Hydrolase, Rebecca Roston, Kun Wang, Leslie A. Kuhn, Christoph Benning Sep 2016

Structural Determinants Allowing Transferase Activity In Sensitive To Freezing 2, Classified As A Family I Glycosyl Hydrolase, Rebecca Roston, Kun Wang, Leslie A. Kuhn, Christoph Benning

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2 (SFR2) is classified as a glycosyl hydrolase, and by using glycosyltransferase activity, it modifies membrane lipids to promote freeze tolerance.

Results: Although the active site of SFR2 is identical to hydrolases, adjacent loop regions contribute to its transferase activity.

Conclusion: Transferase activity evolved by modifications external to the core catalytic site.

Significance: Defined structure-function relationships will inform engineering of transferases and freeze tolerance.


Sending Out An Sos: Mitochondria As A Signaling Hub, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk Sep 2016

Sending Out An Sos: Mitochondria As A Signaling Hub, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Normal cellular physiology is critically dependent on numerous mitochondrial activities including energy conversion, cofactor and precursor metabolite synthesis, and regulation of ion and redox homeostasis. Advances in mitochondrial research during the last two decades provide solid evidence that these organelles are deeply integrated with the rest of the cell and multiple mechanisms are in place to monitor and communicate functional states of mitochondria. In many cases, however, the exact molecular nature of various mitochondria-to-cell communication pathways is only beginning to emerge. Here, we review various signals emitted by distressed or dysfunctional mitochondria and the stress-responsive pathways activated in response to ...


Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Jun 2016

Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies Of The Oligomeric State And Quaternary Structure Of The Trifunctional Proline Utilization A (Puta) Flavoprotein From Escherichia Coli, Ranjan K. Singh, John D. Larson, Weidong Zhu, Robert P. Rambo, Greg L. Hura, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Trifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) proteins are multifunctional flavoproteins that catalyze two reactions and repress transcription of the put regulon.

Results: PutA from Escherichia coli is a V-shaped dimer, with the DNA-binding domain mediating dimerization.

Conclusion: Oligomeric state and quaternary structures are not conserved by PutAs.

Significance: The first three-dimensional structural information for any trifunctional PutA is reported.


Determining Gene Specific Chromatin Differences In Sulfolobus Solfataricus: Expression Of Merr Protein For Targeted-Chip Antibody Production, Erica M. North, Sophie Payne, Sam Mccarthy, Tyler Johnson, Paul H. Blum May 2016

Determining Gene Specific Chromatin Differences In Sulfolobus Solfataricus: Expression Of Merr Protein For Targeted-Chip Antibody Production, Erica M. North, Sophie Payne, Sam Mccarthy, Tyler Johnson, Paul H. Blum

UCARE Research Products

In this project the repressor protein MerR from the Sulfolobus solfataricus mercury resistance operon was cloned into pET28b and transformed into Roetta 2 E.coli strains for overexpression and purification. Large quantities of recombinant MerR will be used for subsequent injection into a mammalian host for antibody production. These antibodies will be used in targeted-ChIP studies in which gene specific chromatin modification states will be analyzed. The overproduction of MerR is part of a larger project where future research could produce data on whether gene expression levels and chromatin modifiation states could be correlated at an individual gene level, possibly ...


Methods For Detecting Microbial Methane Production And Consumption By Gas Chromatography, Jared T. Aldridge, Jennie L. Catlett, Megan L. Smith, Nicole R. Buan Mar 2016

Methods For Detecting Microbial Methane Production And Consumption By Gas Chromatography, Jared T. Aldridge, Jennie L. Catlett, Megan L. Smith, Nicole R. Buan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Methane is an energy-dense fuel but is also a greenhouse gas 25 times more detrimental to the environment than CO2. Methane can be produced abiotically by serpentinization, chemically by Sabatier or Fisher-Tropsh chemistry, or biotically by microbes (Berndt et al., 1996; Horita and Berndt, 1999; Dry, 2002; Wolfe, 1982; Thauer, 1998; Metcalf et al., 2002). Methanogens are anaerobic archaea that grow by producing methane gas as a metabolic byproduct (Wolfe, 1982; Thauer, 1998). Our lab has developed and optimized three different gas chromatograph-utilizing assays to characterize methanogen metabolism (Catlett et al., 2015). Here we describe the end point and kinetic ...


Stabilin-1 And Stabilin-2 Are Specific Receptors For The Cellular Internalization Of Phosphorothioate-Modified Antisense Oligonucleotides (Asos) In The Liver, Colton M. Miller, Aaron J. Donnerr, Emma E. Blank, Andrew W. Egger, Brianna M. Kellar, Michael E. Østergaard, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris Feb 2016

Stabilin-1 And Stabilin-2 Are Specific Receptors For The Cellular Internalization Of Phosphorothioate-Modified Antisense Oligonucleotides (Asos) In The Liver, Colton M. Miller, Aaron J. Donnerr, Emma E. Blank, Andrew W. Egger, Brianna M. Kellar, Michael E. Østergaard, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Phosphorothioate (PS)-modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) have been extensively investigated over the past three decades as pharmacological and therapeutic agents. One second generation ASO, KynamroTM, was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and over 35 second generation PS ASOs are at various stages of clinical development. In this report, we show that the Stabilin class of scavenger receptors, which were not previously thought to bind DNA, do bind and internalize PS ASOs. With the use of primary cells from mouse and rat livers and recombinant cell lines each expressing Stabilin-1 and each isoform ...


Astrogliosis In A Dish: Substrate Stiffness Induces Astrogliosis In Primary Rat Astrocytes, Christina L. Wilson, Stephen L. Hayward, Srivatsan Kidambi Jan 2016

Astrogliosis In A Dish: Substrate Stiffness Induces Astrogliosis In Primary Rat Astrocytes, Christina L. Wilson, Stephen L. Hayward, Srivatsan Kidambi

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

Astrogliosis due to brain injury or disease can lead to varying molecular and morphological changes in astrocytes. Magnetic resonance elastography and ultrasound have demonstrated that brain stiffness varies with age and disease state. However, there is a lack in understanding the role of varied stiffness on the progression of astrogliosis highlighting a critical need to engineer in vitro models that mimic disease stages. Such models need to incorporate the dynamic changes in the brain microenvironment including the stiffness changes. In this study we developed a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) based platform that modeled the physiologically relevant stiffness of brain in both ...


Role Of Apoptotic Hepatocytes In Hcv Dissemination: Regulation By Acetaldehyde, Murali Ganesan, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Jinjin Zhang, Justin L. Mott, Larisa I. Poluektova, Benita L. Mcvicker, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Dean J. Tuma, Natalie A. Osna Jan 2016

Role Of Apoptotic Hepatocytes In Hcv Dissemination: Regulation By Acetaldehyde, Murali Ganesan, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Jinjin Zhang, Justin L. Mott, Larisa I. Poluektova, Benita L. Mcvicker, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Dean J. Tuma, Natalie A. Osna

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Alcohol consumption exacerbates hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis and promotes disease progression, although the mechanisms are not quite clear. We have previously observed that acetaldehyde (Ach) continuously produced by the acetaldehyde-generating system (AGS), temporarily enhanced HCV RNA levels, followed by a decrease to normal or lower levels, which corresponded to apoptosis induction. Here, we studied whether Ach-induced apoptosis caused depletion of HCV-infected cells and what role apoptotic bodies (AB) play in HCV-alcohol crosstalk. In liver cells exposed to AGS, we observed the induction of miR-122 and miR-34a. As miR-34a has been associated with apoptotic signaling and miR-122 with HCV replication ...


Evidence For Pipecolate Oxidase In Mediating Protection Against Hydrogen Peroxide Stress, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Justin L. Mott, Donald F. Becker Jan 2016

Evidence For Pipecolate Oxidase In Mediating Protection Against Hydrogen Peroxide Stress, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Justin L. Mott, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Pipecolate, an intermediate of the lysine catabolic pathway, is oxidized to Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C) by the flavoenzyme lpipecolate oxidase (PIPOX). P6C spontaneously hydrolyzes to generate α-aminoadipate semialdehyde, which is then converted into α-aminoadipate acid by α-aminoadipatesemialdehyde dehydrogenase. l-pipecolate was previously reported to protect mammalian cells against oxidative stress. Here, we examined whether PIPOX is involved in the mechanism of pipecolate stress protection. Knockdown of PIPOX by small interference RNA abolished pipecolate protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in HEK293 cells suggesting a critical role for PIPOX. Subcellular fractionation analysis showed that PIPOX is localized in the mitochondria of HEK293 ...


Synthesis And Transfer Of Galactolipids In The Chloroplast Envelope Membranes Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Amélie Kelly, Barbara Kalisch, Georg Hölzl, Sandra Schulze, Juliane Thiele, Michael Melzer, Rebecca L. Roston, Christoph Benning, Peter Dörmann Jan 2016

Synthesis And Transfer Of Galactolipids In The Chloroplast Envelope Membranes Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Amélie Kelly, Barbara Kalisch, Georg Hölzl, Sandra Schulze, Juliane Thiele, Michael Melzer, Rebecca L. Roston, Christoph Benning, Peter Dörmann

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Galactolipids [monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol

(DGDG)] are the hallmark lipids of photosynthetic

membranes. The galactolipid synthases MGD1 and DGD1

catalyze consecutive galactosyltransfer reactions but localize to the

inner and outer chloroplast envelopes, respectively, necessitating

intermembrane lipid transfer. Here we show that the N-terminal

sequence of DGD1 (NDGD1) is required for galactolipid transfer

between the envelopes. Different diglycosyllipid synthases (DGD1,

DGD2, and Chloroflexus glucosyltransferase) were introduced into

the dgd1-1 mutant of Arabidopsis in fusion with N-terminal extensions

(NDGD1 and NDGD2) targeting to the outer envelope. Reconstruction

of DGDG synthesis in the outer envelope membrane was

observed only with diglycosyllipid synthase fusion ...


Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: Targeting Fatp2 As A Gatekeeper Involved In The Transport Of Exogenous Fatty Acids, Paul N. Black, Constance Ahowesso, David Montefusco, Nipun Saini, Concetta C. Dirusso Jan 2016

Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: Targeting Fatp2 As A Gatekeeper Involved In The Transport Of Exogenous Fatty Acids, Paul N. Black, Constance Ahowesso, David Montefusco, Nipun Saini, Concetta C. Dirusso

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The fatty acid transport proteins (FATP) are classified as members of the solute carrier 27 (Slc27) family of proteins based on their ability to function in the transport of exogenous fatty acids. These proteins, when localized to the plasma membrane or at intracellular membrane junctions with the endoplasmic reticulum, function as a gate in the regulated transport of fatty acids and thus represent a therapeutic target to delimit the acquisition of fatty acids that contribute to disease as in the case of fatty acid overload. To date, FATP1, FATP2, and FATP4 have been used as targets in the selection of ...


Mutation In Atg5 Reduces Autophagy And Leads To Ataxia With Developmental Delay, Myungjin Kim, Erin Sandford, Damian Gatica, Yu Qiu, Xu Liu, Yumei Zheng, Brenda A. Schulman, Jishu Xu, Ian Semple, Seung-Hyun Ro, Boyoung Kim, R. Nehir Mavioglu, Aslihan Tolun, Andras Jipa, Szabolcs Takats, Manuela Karpati, Jun Z. Li, Zuhal Yapici, Gabor Juhasz, Jun Hee Lee, Daniel J. Klionsky, Margit Burmeister Jan 2016

Mutation In Atg5 Reduces Autophagy And Leads To Ataxia With Developmental Delay, Myungjin Kim, Erin Sandford, Damian Gatica, Yu Qiu, Xu Liu, Yumei Zheng, Brenda A. Schulman, Jishu Xu, Ian Semple, Seung-Hyun Ro, Boyoung Kim, R. Nehir Mavioglu, Aslihan Tolun, Andras Jipa, Szabolcs Takats, Manuela Karpati, Jun Z. Li, Zuhal Yapici, Gabor Juhasz, Jun Hee Lee, Daniel J. Klionsky, Margit Burmeister

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Autophagy is required for the homeostasis of cellular material and is proposed to be involved in many aspects of health. Defects in the autophagy pathway have been observed in neurodegenerative disorders; however, no genetically-inherited pathogenic mutations in any of the core autophagy-related (ATG) genes have been reported in human patients to date. We identified a homozygous missense mutation, changing a conserved amino acid, in ATG5 in two siblings with congenital ataxia, mental retardation, and developmental delay. The subjects’ cells display a decrease in autophagy flux and defects in conjugation of ATG12 to ATG5. The homologous mutation in yeast demonstrates a ...


Inhibition Of Protein Ubiquitination By Paraquat And 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Impairs Ubiquitin-Dependent Protein Degradation Pathways, Juliana Navarro-Yepes, Anandhan Annadurai, Erin Bradley, Iryna Bohovych, Bo Yarabe, Annemieke De Jong, Huib Ovaa, You Zhou, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega, Rodrigo Franco Jan 2016

Inhibition Of Protein Ubiquitination By Paraquat And 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Impairs Ubiquitin-Dependent Protein Degradation Pathways, Juliana Navarro-Yepes, Anandhan Annadurai, Erin Bradley, Iryna Bohovych, Bo Yarabe, Annemieke De Jong, Huib Ovaa, You Zhou, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega, Rodrigo Franco

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Intracytoplasmic inclusions of protein aggregates in dopaminergic cells (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Ubiquitin (Ub), alpha [α]-synuclein, p62/sequestosome 1 and oxidized proteins are major components of Lewy bodies. However, the mechanisms involved in the impairment of misfolded/oxidized protein degradation pathways in PD are still unclear. PD is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental pesticide exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of the pesticide paraquat (PQ) and the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) on Ub-dependent protein degradation pathways. No increase in the accumulation of Ub-bound proteins or aggregates was observed in ...


Antisense Oligonucleotides: Treatment Strategies And Cellular Internalization, Colton M. Miller, Ed Harris Jan 2016

Antisense Oligonucleotides: Treatment Strategies And Cellular Internalization, Colton M. Miller, Ed Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The clinical application of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) is becoming more of a reality as several drugs have been approved for the treatment of human disorders and many others are in various phases in development and clinical trials. ASOs are short DNA/RNA oligos which are heavily modified to increase their stability in biological fluids and retain the properties of creating RNA-RNA and DNA-RNA duplexes that knock-down or correct genetic expression. This review outlines several strategies that ASOs utilize for the treatment of various congenital diseases and syndromes that develop with aging. In addition, we discuss some of the mechanisms for ...


Engineering A Trifunctional Proline Utilization A Chimaera By Fusing A Dna-Binding Domain To A Bifunctional Puta, Benjamin W. Arentson, Erin L. Hayes, Weidong Zhu, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker Jan 2016

Engineering A Trifunctional Proline Utilization A Chimaera By Fusing A Dna-Binding Domain To A Bifunctional Puta, Benjamin W. Arentson, Erin L. Hayes, Weidong Zhu, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional flavoenzyme with proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5- carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains that catalyses the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate. Trifunctional PutAs also have an N-terminal ribbon–helix–helix (RHH) DNA-binding domain and moonlight as autogenous transcriptional repressors of the put regulon. A unique property of trifunctional PutA is the ability to switch functions from DNA-bound repressor to membrane-associated enzyme in response to cellular nutritional needs and proline availability. In the present study, we attempt to construct a trifunctional PutA by fusing the RHH domain of Escherichia coli PutA (EcRHH ...


Mechanistic Nanotherapeutic Approach Based On Sirna-Mediated Dj-1 Protein Suppression For Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Shannon Khal, Vitaliya Moskal, Vidhi Shah, Adam W. G. Alani, Olena Taratula, Oleh Taratula Jan 2016

Mechanistic Nanotherapeutic Approach Based On Sirna-Mediated Dj-1 Protein Suppression For Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Shannon Khal, Vitaliya Moskal, Vidhi Shah, Adam W. G. Alani, Olena Taratula, Oleh Taratula

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

We report an efficient therapeutic modality for platinum resistant ovarian cancer based on siRNAmediated suppression of a multifunctional DJ-1 protein that is responsible for the proliferation, growth, invasion, oxidative stress and overall survival of various cancers. The developed therapeutic strategy can work alone or in concert with a low dose of the first line chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, to elicit a maximal therapeutic response. To achieve an efficient DJ-1 knockdown, we constructed the polypropylenimine dendrimer-based nanoplatform targeted to LHRH receptors overexpressed on ovarian cancer cells. The quantitative PCR and western immunoblotting analysis, revealed that the delivered DJ-1 siRNA downregulated the expression ...


Polyglycine Acts As A Rejection Signal For Protein Transport At The Chloroplast Envelope, Joshua K. Endow, Agostinho Gomes Rocha, Amy J. Baldwin, Rebecca L. Roston, Toshio Yamaguchi, Hironari Kamikubo, Kentaro Inoue Jan 2016

Polyglycine Acts As A Rejection Signal For Protein Transport At The Chloroplast Envelope, Joshua K. Endow, Agostinho Gomes Rocha, Amy J. Baldwin, Rebecca L. Roston, Toshio Yamaguchi, Hironari Kamikubo, Kentaro Inoue

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

PolyGly is present in many proteins in various organisms. One example is found in a transmembrane β-barrel protein, translocon at the outer-envelope-membrane of chloroplasts 75 (Toc75). Toc75 requires its N-terminal extension (t75) for proper localization. t75 comprises signals for chloroplast import (n75) and envelope sorting (c75) in tandem. n75 and c75 are removed by stromal processing peptidase and plastidic type I signal peptidase 1, respectively. PolyGly is present within c75 and its deletion or substitution causes mistargeting of Toc75 to the stroma. Here we have examined the properties of polyGly-dependent protein targeting using two soluble passenger proteins, the mature portion ...


Pluralistic And Stochastic Gene Regulation: Examples, Models And Consistent Theory, Elisa N. Salas, Jiang Shu, Matyas F. Cserhati, Donald P. Weeks, Istvan Ladunga Jan 2016

Pluralistic And Stochastic Gene Regulation: Examples, Models And Consistent Theory, Elisa N. Salas, Jiang Shu, Matyas F. Cserhati, Donald P. Weeks, Istvan Ladunga

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

We present a theory of pluralistic and stochastic gene regulation. To bridge the gap between empirical studies and mathematical models, we integrate pre-existing observations with our meta-analyses of the ENCODE ChIP-Seq experiments. Earlier evidence includes fluctuations in levels, location, activity, and binding of transcription factors, variable DNA motifs, and bursts in gene expression. Stochastic regulation is also indicated by frequently subdued effects of knockout mutants of regulators, their evolutionary losses/gains and massive rewiring of regulatory sites. We report wide-spread pluralistic regulation in ≈800 000 tightly co-expressed pairs of diverse human genes. Typically, half of ≈50 observed regulators bind to ...


Cadmium And Secondary Structure-Dependent Function Of A Degron In The Pca1p Cadmium Exporter, Nathan Smith, Wenzhong Wel, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Quin, Javier Seravalli, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee Jan 2016

Cadmium And Secondary Structure-Dependent Function Of A Degron In The Pca1p Cadmium Exporter, Nathan Smith, Wenzhong Wel, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Quin, Javier Seravalli, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Protein turnover is a critical cellular process regulating biochemical pathways and destroying terminally misfolded or damaged proteins. Pca1p, a cadmium exporter in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is rapidly degraded by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) system via a cis-acting degron that exists at the 250–350 amino acid region of Pca1p and is transferable to other proteins to serve as a degradation signal. Cadmium stabilizes Pca1p in a manner dependent on the degron. This suggested that cadmium-mediated masking of the degron impedes its interaction with the molecular factors involved in the ERAD. The characteristics and mechanisms of action of the ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Of Pca1p, A Polytopic Protein, Via Interaction With The Proteasome At The Membrane, Nathan Smith, David J. Adle, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Quin, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee Jan 2016

Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Of Pca1p, A Polytopic Protein, Via Interaction With The Proteasome At The Membrane, Nathan Smith, David J. Adle, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Quin, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) plays a critical role for destruction of terminally misfolded proteins at the secretory pathway. The system also regulates expression levels of several proteins such as Pca1p, a cadmium exporter in yeast. To gain better insight into the mechanisms underlying ERAD of Pca1p and other polytopic proteins by the proteasome in the cytosol, our study determined the roles for the molecular factors of ERAD in dislodging Pca1p from the ER. Inactivation of the 20S proteasome leads to accumulation of ubiquitinylated Pca1p in the ER membrane, suggesting a role for the proteasome in extraction of Pca1p from the ...


Potassium And The K+/H+ Exchanger Kha1p Promote Binding Of Copper To Apofet3p Multi-Copper Ferroxidase, Xiaobin Wu, Heejeong Kim, Javier Seravalli, Joseph J. Barycki, P. John Hart, David W. Gohara, Enrico Di Cera, Won Hee Jung, Daniel J. Kosman, Jaekwon Lee Jan 2016

Potassium And The K+/H+ Exchanger Kha1p Promote Binding Of Copper To Apofet3p Multi-Copper Ferroxidase, Xiaobin Wu, Heejeong Kim, Javier Seravalli, Joseph J. Barycki, P. John Hart, David W. Gohara, Enrico Di Cera, Won Hee Jung, Daniel J. Kosman, Jaekwon Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Acquisition and distribution of metal ions support a number of biological processes. Here we show that respiratory growth of and iron acquisition by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on potassium (K+) compartmentalization to the trans-Golgi network via Kha1p, a K+/H+ exchanger. K+ in the trans-Golgi network facilitates binding of copper to the Fet3p multi-copper ferroxidase. The effect of K+ is not dependent on stable binding with Fet3p or alteration of the characteristics of the secretory pathway. The data suggest that K+ acts as a chemical factor in Fet3p maturation, a role similar to that of cations in ...


Analysis Of Oligomerization Properties Of Heme A Synthase Provides Insights Into Its Function In Eukaryotes, Samantha Swenson, Andrew Cannon, Nicholas J. Harris, Nicholas G. Taylor, Jennifer L. Fox, Oleh Khalimonchuk Jan 2016

Analysis Of Oligomerization Properties Of Heme A Synthase Provides Insights Into Its Function In Eukaryotes, Samantha Swenson, Andrew Cannon, Nicholas J. Harris, Nicholas G. Taylor, Jennifer L. Fox, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Heme a is an essential cofactor for function of cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Several evolutionarily conserved enzymes have been implicated in the biosynthesis of heme a, including the heme a synthase Cox15. However, the structure of Cox15 is unknown, its enzymatic mechanism and the role of active site residues remain debated, and recent discoveries suggest additional chaperone-like roles for this enzyme. Here, we investigated Cox15 in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae via several approaches to examine its oligomeric states and determine the effects of active site and human pathogenic mutations. Our results indicate that Cox15 ...


Atomic Resolution Experimental Phase Information Reveals Extensive Disorder And Bound 2-Methyl-2,4-Pentanediol In Ca2+-Calmodulin, Jiusheng Lin, Henry Van Den Bedem, Axel T. Brunger, Mark A. Wilson Jan 2016

Atomic Resolution Experimental Phase Information Reveals Extensive Disorder And Bound 2-Methyl-2,4-Pentanediol In Ca2+-Calmodulin, Jiusheng Lin, Henry Van Den Bedem, Axel T. Brunger, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Calmodulin (CaM) is the primary calcium signaling protein in eukaryotes and has been extensively studied using various biophysical techniques. Prior crystal structures have noted the presence of ambiguous electron density in both hydrophobic binding pockets of Ca2+-CaM, but no assignment of these features has been made. In addition, Ca2+-CaM samples many conformational substates in the crystal and accurately modeling the full range of this functionally important disorder is challenging. In order to characterize these features in a minimally biased manner, a 1.0 A resolution single-wavelength anomalous diffraction data set was measured for selenomethionine-substituted Ca2 ...


Chloroplast Membrane Remodeling During Freezing Stress Is Accompanied By Cytoplasmic Acidification Activating Sensitive To Freezing 2, Allison C. Barnes, Christoph Benning, Rebecca Roston Jan 2016

Chloroplast Membrane Remodeling During Freezing Stress Is Accompanied By Cytoplasmic Acidification Activating Sensitive To Freezing 2, Allison C. Barnes, Christoph Benning, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Low temperature is a seasonal abiotic stress which restricts native plant ranges and crop distributions. Two types of low temperature stress can be distinguished: chilling and freezing. Much work has been done on the mechanisms by which chilling is sensed, but relatively little is known about how plants sense freezing. Recently, SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2 (SFR2) was identified as a protein which responds in a non-transcriptional manner to freezing. Here, we investigate the cellular conditions which allow SFR2 activation. Using a combination of isolated organelle, whole tissue and whole plant assays, we provide evidence that SFR2 is activated by changes ...


Oma1 Links Mitochondrial Protein Quality Control And Tor Signaling To Modulate Physiological Plasticity And Cellular Stress Responses, Iryna Bohovych, Stavroula Kastora, Sara Christianson, Danelle Topil, Heejeong Kim, Teresa Fangman, You J. Zhou, Antoni Barrientos, Jaekwon Lee, Alistair J.P. Brown, Oleh Khalimonchuk Jan 2016

Oma1 Links Mitochondrial Protein Quality Control And Tor Signaling To Modulate Physiological Plasticity And Cellular Stress Responses, Iryna Bohovych, Stavroula Kastora, Sara Christianson, Danelle Topil, Heejeong Kim, Teresa Fangman, You J. Zhou, Antoni Barrientos, Jaekwon Lee, Alistair J.P. Brown, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

A network of conserved proteases known as the intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) system is central to mitochondrial protein homeostasis and cellular health. IMQC proteases also appear to participate in establishment of signaling cues for mitochondrion- to-nucleus communication. However, little is known about this process. Here, we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation of the membrane-bound IMQC protease Oma1 interferes with oxidative-stress responses through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during logarithmic growth and reduced stress signaling via the TORC1-Rim15- Msn2/Msn4 axis. Pharmacological or genetic prevention of ROS accumulation in Oma1-deficient cells restores this defective TOR signaling. Additionally, inactivation ...


Regulation Of Dj-1 By Glutaredoxin 1 In Vivo – Implications For Parkinson’S Disease, William M. Johnson, Marcin Golczak, Kyonghwan Choe, Pierce L. Curran, Olga Gorelenkova Miller, Chen Yao, Wenzhang Wang, Jiusheng Lin, Nicole M. Milkovic, Ajit Ray, Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath, Xiongwei Zhu, Mark A. Wilson, Amy L. Wilson-Delfosse, Shu G. Chen, John J. Mieyal Jan 2016

Regulation Of Dj-1 By Glutaredoxin 1 In Vivo – Implications For Parkinson’S Disease, William M. Johnson, Marcin Golczak, Kyonghwan Choe, Pierce L. Curran, Olga Gorelenkova Miller, Chen Yao, Wenzhang Wang, Jiusheng Lin, Nicole M. Milkovic, Ajit Ray, Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath, Xiongwei Zhu, Mark A. Wilson, Amy L. Wilson-Delfosse, Shu G. Chen, John J. Mieyal

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, caused by the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mutations in PARK7 (DJ-1) result in early onset autosomal recessive PD, and oxidative modification of DJ-1 has been reported to regulate the protective activity of DJ-1 in vitro. Glutathionylation is a prevalent redox modification of proteins resulting from the disulfide adduction of the glutathione moiety to a reactive cysteine-SH; and glutathionylation of specific proteins has been implicated in regulation of cell viability. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1) is the principal deglutathionylating enzyme within cells, and it has been ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Of Pca1p, A Polytopic Protein, Via Interaction With The Proteasome At The Membrane, Nathan Smith, David J. Adle, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Qin, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee Jan 2016

Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Of Pca1p, A Polytopic Protein, Via Interaction With The Proteasome At The Membrane, Nathan Smith, David J. Adle, Miaoyun Zhao, Xiaojuan Qin, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) plays a critical role in the destruction of terminally misfolded proteins at the secretory pathway. The system also regulates expression levels of several proteins such as Pca1p, a cadmium exporter in yeast. To gain better insight into the mechanisms underlying ERAD of Pca1p and other polytopic proteins by the proteasome in the cytosol, our study determined the roles for the molecular factors of ERAD in dislodging Pca1p from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inactivation of the 20S proteasome leads to accumulation of ubiquitinated Pca1p in the ER membrane, suggesting a role for the proteasome in extraction of ...


Caloric Restriction Of Db/Db Mice Reverts Hepatic Steatosis And Body Weight With Divergent Hepatic Metabolism, Kyung Eun Kim, Youngae Jung, Soonki Min, Miso Nam, Rok Won Heo, Byeong Tak Jeon, Dae Hyun Song, Chin-Ok Yi, Eun Ae Jeong, Hwajin Kim, Jeonghyun Kim, Seon-Yong Jeong, Woori Kwak, Do Hyun Ryu, Tamas L. Horvath, Gu Seob Roh, Geum-Sook Hwang Jan 2016

Caloric Restriction Of Db/Db Mice Reverts Hepatic Steatosis And Body Weight With Divergent Hepatic Metabolism, Kyung Eun Kim, Youngae Jung, Soonki Min, Miso Nam, Rok Won Heo, Byeong Tak Jeon, Dae Hyun Song, Chin-Ok Yi, Eun Ae Jeong, Hwajin Kim, Jeonghyun Kim, Seon-Yong Jeong, Woori Kwak, Do Hyun Ryu, Tamas L. Horvath, Gu Seob Roh, Geum-Sook Hwang

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of liver disease and its prevalence is a serious and growing clinical problem. Caloric restriction (CR) is commonly recommended for improvement of obesity-related diseases such as NAFLD. However, the effects of CR on hepatic metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of CR on metabolic dysfunction in the liver of obese diabetic db/db mice. We found that CR of db/db mice reverted insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, body weight and adiposity to those of db/m mice. H-NMR- and UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolite profiling data showed significant metabolic alterations ...