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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Design, Assessment, And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Computational Model Illustrating The Role Of Cav1 In Cd4+ T-Lymphocytes, Brittany D. Conroy, Tyler A. Herek, Timonthy D. Shew, Matthew Latner, Joshua J. Larson, Laura Allen, Paul H. Davis, Tomáš Helikar, Christine E. Cutucache Dec 2014

Design, Assessment, And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Computational Model Illustrating The Role Of Cav1 In Cd4+ T-Lymphocytes, Brittany D. Conroy, Tyler A. Herek, Timonthy D. Shew, Matthew Latner, Joshua J. Larson, Laura Allen, Paul H. Davis, Tomáš Helikar, Christine E. Cutucache

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a vital scaffold protein heterogeneously expressed in both healthy and malignant tissue. We focus on the role of CAV1 when overexpressed in T-cell leukemia. Previously, we have shown that CAV1 is involved in cell-to-cell communication, cellular proliferation, and immune synapse formation; however, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated.We hypothesize that the role of CAV1 in immune synapse formation contributes to immune regulation during leukemic progression, thereby warranting studies of the role of CAV1 in CD4+ T-cells in relation to antigen-presenting cells. To address this need, we developed a computational model of a CD4+ immune effector ...


Sensitivity Analysis Of Biological Boolean Networks Using Information Fusion Based On Nonadditive Set Functions, Naomi Kochi, Tomáš Helikar, Laura Allen, Jim A. Rogers, Zhenyuan Wang, Mihaela T. Matache Sep 2014

Sensitivity Analysis Of Biological Boolean Networks Using Information Fusion Based On Nonadditive Set Functions, Naomi Kochi, Tomáš Helikar, Laura Allen, Jim A. Rogers, Zhenyuan Wang, Mihaela T. Matache

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: An algebraic method for information fusion based on nonadditive set functions is used to assess the joint contribution of Boolean network attributes to the sensitivity of the network to individual node mutations. The node attributes or characteristics under consideration are: in-degree, out-degree, minimum and average path lengths, bias, average sensitivity of Boolean functions, and canalizing degrees. The impact of node mutations is assessed using as target measure the average Hamming distance between a non-mutated/wild-type network and a mutated network.

Results: We find that for a biochemical signal transduction network consisting of several main signaling pathways whose nodes represent ...


Use Of Cysteine-Reactive Crosslinkers To Probe Conformational Flexibility Of Human Dj-1 Demonstrates That Glu18 Mutations Are Dimers, Janani Prahlad, David N. Hauser, Nicole M. Milkovic, Mark R. Cookson, Mark A. Wilson Sep 2014

Use Of Cysteine-Reactive Crosslinkers To Probe Conformational Flexibility Of Human Dj-1 Demonstrates That Glu18 Mutations Are Dimers, Janani Prahlad, David N. Hauser, Nicole M. Milkovic, Mark R. Cookson, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The oxidation of a key cysteine residue (Cys106) in the parkinsonism-associated protein DJ-1 regulates its ability to protect against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Cys106 interacts with a neighboring protonated Glu18 residue, stabilizing the Cys106-SO2 (sulfinic acid) form of DJ-1. To study this important post-translational modification, we previously designed several Glu18 mutations (E18N, E18D, E18Q) that alter the oxidative propensity of Cys106. However, recent results suggest these Glu18 mutations cause loss of DJ-1 dimerization, which would severely compromise the protein’s function. The purpose of this study was to conclusively determine the oligomerization state of these mutants using X-ray ...


The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang Apr 2014

The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Project 1: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in adipocytes through multiple pathways, with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) generally facilitating, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) generally opposing these reductions. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone/protein deacetylase that affects energy homeostasis, often functions coordinately with AMPK, and is capable of binding to PPARγ, thereby inhibiting its activity. This study investigated the role of SIRT1 in the response of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to t10c12 CLA by testing the following hypotheses: 1) SIRT1 is functionally required for robust TG reduction ...


A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change With Increased Investment In Instructional Time, Christopher D. Shaffer, Cheryl Bailey, Students And Tas In Genomics Education Partnership Courses Apr 2014

A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change With Increased Investment In Instructional Time, Christopher D. Shaffer, Cheryl Bailey, Students And Tas In Genomics Education Partnership Courses

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge.We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a coursebased research experience for students at a diverse group of schools and offers the opportunity to tailor this experience to local curriculum and institution-specific student needs. We assessed both attitude and knowledge gains, looking for insights into how students respond given this wide range of curricular and institutional variables. While different approaches all appear to result in learning gains, we find that a significant ...


Structures Of The Puta Peripheral Membrane Flavoenzyme Reveal A Dynamic Substrate-Channeling Tunnel And The Quinone-Binding Site, Harkewal Singh, Benjamin W. Arentson, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Mar 2014

Structures Of The Puta Peripheral Membrane Flavoenzyme Reveal A Dynamic Substrate-Channeling Tunnel And The Quinone-Binding Site, Harkewal Singh, Benjamin W. Arentson, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline utilization A (PutA) proteins are bifunctional peripheral membrane flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of L-proline to L-glutamate by the sequential activities of proline dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase domains. Located at the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, PutAs play a major role in energy metabolism by coupling the oxidation of proline imported from the environment to the reduction of membrane-associated quinones. Here, we report seven crystal structures of the 1,004- residue PutA from Geobacter sulfurreducens, along with determination of the protein oligomeric state by small-angle X-ray scattering and kinetic characterization of substrate channeling and quinone reduction. The structures reveal ...


Genome-Wide Rnai Ionomics Screen Reveals New Genes And Regulation Of Human Trace Element Metabolism, Mikalai I. Malinouski, Nesrin M. Hasan, Yan Zhang, Javier Seravalli, Jie Lin, Andrei Avanesov, Svetlana Lutsenko, Vadim N. Gladyshev Feb 2014

Genome-Wide Rnai Ionomics Screen Reveals New Genes And Regulation Of Human Trace Element Metabolism, Mikalai I. Malinouski, Nesrin M. Hasan, Yan Zhang, Javier Seravalli, Jie Lin, Andrei Avanesov, Svetlana Lutsenko, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Trace elements are essential for human metabolism and dysregulation of their homoeostasis is associated with numerous disorders. Here we characterize mechanisms that regulate trace elements in human cells by designing and performing a genome-wide high-throughput siRNA/ionomics screen, and examining top hits in cellular and biochemical assays. The screen reveals high stability of the ionomes, especially the zinc ionome, and yields known regulators and novel candidates. We further uncover fundamental differences in the regulation of different trace elements. Specifically, selenium levels are controlled through the selenocysteine machinery and expression of abundant selenoproteins; copper balance is affected by lipid metabolism and ...


Plant Acyl-Coa:Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferases (Lpcats) Have Different Specificities In Their Forward And Reverse Reactions, Ida Lager, Jenny Lindberg Yilmaz, Xue-Rong Zhou, Katarzyna Jasieniecka, Michael Kazachkov, Peng Wang, Jitao Zou, Randall Weselake, Mark A. Smith, Shen Bayon, John M. Dyer, Jay Shockey, Ernst Heinz, Allan Green, Antoni Banas, Sten Stymne Jan 2014

Plant Acyl-Coa:Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferases (Lpcats) Have Different Specificities In Their Forward And Reverse Reactions, Ida Lager, Jenny Lindberg Yilmaz, Xue-Rong Zhou, Katarzyna Jasieniecka, Michael Kazachkov, Peng Wang, Jitao Zou, Randall Weselake, Mark A. Smith, Shen Bayon, John M. Dyer, Jay Shockey, Ernst Heinz, Allan Green, Antoni Banas, Sten Stymne

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) enzymes have central roles in acyl editing of phosphatidylcholine.

Results: Plant LPCATs were expressed in yeast and biochemically characterized.

Conclusion: LPCATs can edit acyl composition of phosphatidylcholine through their combined forward and reverse reactions.

Significance: Plant LPCATs play a role in editing both sn-positions of PC and remove ricinoleic acid with high selectivity from this lipid.


Protein/Protein Interactions In The Mammalian Heme Degradation Pathway Heme Oxygenase-2, Cytochrome P450 Reductase, And Biliverdin Reductase, Andrea L. M. Spencer, Ireena Bagai, Donald F. Becker, Erik R. P. Zuiderweg, Stephen W. Ragsdale Jan 2014

Protein/Protein Interactions In The Mammalian Heme Degradation Pathway Heme Oxygenase-2, Cytochrome P450 Reductase, And Biliverdin Reductase, Andrea L. M. Spencer, Ireena Bagai, Donald F. Becker, Erik R. P. Zuiderweg, Stephen W. Ragsdale

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Heme oxygenase, cytochrome P450 reductase, and biliverdin reductase are the key enzymes in heme degradation.

Results: Specific electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions form the binding interface between heme oxygenase and cytochrome P450 reductase. Conclusion: Heme oxygenase binds cytochrome P450 reductase dynamically and biliverdin reductase very weakly.

Significance: Characterizing interactions among proteins involved in heme degradation are crucial to understanding heme homeostasis.


Hepatoprotective Role Of Sestrin2 Against Chronic Er Stress, Hwan-Woo Park, Haeli Park, Seung-Hyun Ro, Insook Jang, Ian A. Semple, David N. Kim, Myungjin Kim, Myeongjin Nam, Deqiang Zhang, Lei Yin, Jun Hee Lee Jan 2014

Hepatoprotective Role Of Sestrin2 Against Chronic Er Stress, Hwan-Woo Park, Haeli Park, Seung-Hyun Ro, Insook Jang, Ian A. Semple, David N. Kim, Myungjin Kim, Myeongjin Nam, Deqiang Zhang, Lei Yin, Jun Hee Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Upon prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cells attenuate protein translation to prevent accumulation of unfolded proteins. Here we show that Sestrin2 is critical for this process. Sestrin2 expression is induced by an ER stress-activated transcription factor CCAATenhancer- binding protein beta (c/EBPβ). Once induced, Sestrin2 halts protein synthesis by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As Sestrin2-deficient cells continue to translate a large amount of proteins during ER stress, they are highly susceptible to ER stress-associated cell death. Accordingly, dietary or genetically induced obesity, which does not lead to any pathological indication other than simple fat accumulation in ...


Overexpression Of Patatin-Related Phospholipase Aiiiβ Altered The Content And Composition Of Sphingolipids In Arabidopsis, Maoyin Li, Jonathan E. Markham, Xuemin Wang Jan 2014

Overexpression Of Patatin-Related Phospholipase Aiiiβ Altered The Content And Composition Of Sphingolipids In Arabidopsis, Maoyin Li, Jonathan E. Markham, Xuemin Wang

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

In plants, fatty acids are primarily synthesized in plastids and then transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for synthesis of most of the complex membrane lipids, including glycerolipids and sphingolipids. The first step of sphingolipid synthesis, which uses a fatty acid and a serine as substrates, is critical for sphingolipid homeostasis; its disruption leads to an altered plant growth. Phospholipase As have been implicated in the trafficking of fatty acids from plastids to the ER. Previously, we found that overexpression of a patatin-related phospholipase, pPLAIIIβ, resulted in a smaller plant size and altered anisotropic cell expansion. Here, we determined the ...


Pharmacokinetic And Biodistribution Assessment Of A Near Infrared-Labeled Psma-Specific Small Molecule In Tumor-Bearing Mice, Joy L. Kovar, Lael L. Cheung, Melanie A. Simpson, D. Michael Olive Jan 2014

Pharmacokinetic And Biodistribution Assessment Of A Near Infrared-Labeled Psma-Specific Small Molecule In Tumor-Bearing Mice, Joy L. Kovar, Lael L. Cheung, Melanie A. Simpson, D. Michael Olive

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Prostate cancer is themost frequently diagnosed cancer in men and often requires surgery. Use of near infrared (NIR) technologies to perform image-guided surgery may improve accurate delineation of tumor margins. To facilitate preclinical testing of such outcomes, here we developed and characterized a PSMA-targeted small molecule, YC-27. IRDye 800CW was conjugated to YC-27 or an anti-PSMA antibody used for reference. Human 22Rv1, PC3M-LN4, and/or LNCaP prostate tumor cells were exposed to the labeled compounds. In vivo targeting and clearance properties were determined in tumor-bearing mice. Organs and tumors were excised and imaged to assess probe localization. YC-27 exhibited a ...


Pharmacological Correction Of Obesity-Induced Autophagy Arrest Using Calcium Channel Blockers, Hwan-Woo Park, Haeli Park, Ian A. Semple, Insook Jang, Seung-Hyun Ro, Myungjin Kim, Victor A. Cazares, Edward L. Stuenkel, Jung-Jae Kim, Jeong Sig Kim, Jun Hee Lee Jan 2014

Pharmacological Correction Of Obesity-Induced Autophagy Arrest Using Calcium Channel Blockers, Hwan-Woo Park, Haeli Park, Ian A. Semple, Insook Jang, Seung-Hyun Ro, Myungjin Kim, Victor A. Cazares, Edward L. Stuenkel, Jung-Jae Kim, Jeong Sig Kim, Jun Hee Lee

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Autophagy deregulation during obesity contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders. However, without understanding the molecular mechanism of obesity interference in autophagy, development of therapeutic strategies for correcting such defects in obese individuals is challenging. Here we show that a chronic increase of the cytosolic calcium concentration in hepatocytes during obesity and lipotoxicity attenuates autophagic flux by preventing the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. As a pharmacological approach to restore cytosolic calcium homeostasis in vivo, we administered the clinically approved calcium channel blocker verapamil to obese mice. Such treatment successfully increases autophagosome–lysosome fusion in liver, preventing accumulation of ...


Oxidative Stress, Redox Signaling, And Autophagy: Cell Death Versus Survival, Juliana Navarro-Yepes, Michaela Burns, Anandhan Annadurai, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Luz Maria Del Razo, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Rodrigo Franco Jan 2014

Oxidative Stress, Redox Signaling, And Autophagy: Cell Death Versus Survival, Juliana Navarro-Yepes, Michaela Burns, Anandhan Annadurai, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Luz Maria Del Razo, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Rodrigo Franco

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Significance: The molecular machinery regulating autophagy has started becoming elucidated, and a number of studies have undertaken the task to determine the role of autophagy in cell fate determination within the context of human disease progression. Oxidative stress and redox signaling are also largely involved in the etiology of human diseases, where both survival and cell death signaling cascades have been reported to be modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recent Advances: To date, there is a good understanding of the signaling events regulating autophagy, as well as the signaling processes by which alterations in ...


Stress-Triggered Activation Of The Metalloprotease Oma1 Involves Its C-Terminal Region And Is Important For Mitochondrial Stress Protection In Yeast, Iryna Bohovych, Garrett Donaldson, Sara Christianson, Nataliya Zahayko, Oleh Khalimonchuk Jan 2014

Stress-Triggered Activation Of The Metalloprotease Oma1 Involves Its C-Terminal Region And Is Important For Mitochondrial Stress Protection In Yeast, Iryna Bohovych, Garrett Donaldson, Sara Christianson, Nataliya Zahayko, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Oma1 is a conserved membrane-bound protease that forms a high molecular mass complex.

Results: Oma1 activity is induced by stress stimuli and required for survival. The activation is linked to changes in Oma1 oligomer stability and involves its C-terminal region.

Conclusion: Oma1 function is activated by mitochondrial stress and is important for stress tolerance.

Significance: Novel insights into Oma1 function and a potential stress activation mechanism are provided.


Evidence For Hysteretic Substrate Channeling In The Proline Dehydrogenaseand ∆1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase Coupled Reaction Of Proline Utilizationa(Puta), Michael A Moxley, Nikhilesh Sanyal, Navasona Krishnan, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker Jan 2014

Evidence For Hysteretic Substrate Channeling In The Proline Dehydrogenaseand ∆1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase Coupled Reaction Of Proline Utilizationa(Puta), Michael A Moxley, Nikhilesh Sanyal, Navasona Krishnan, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: PutA from Escherichia coli is a bifunctional enzyme and transcriptional repressor in proline catabolism.

Results: Steady-state and transient kinetic data revealed a mechanism in which the two enzymatic reactions are coupled by an activation step.

Conclusion: Substrate channeling in PutA exhibits hysteretic behavior.

Significance: This is the first kinetic model of bi-enzyme activity in PutA and reveals a novel mechanism of channeling activation.


Preliminary Joint X-Ray And Neutron Protein Crystallographic Studies Of Ecdhfr Complexed With Folate And Nadp+, Qun Wan, Audrey Y. Kovalevsky, Mark A. Wilson, Brad C. Bennett, Paul Langan, Chris Dealwis Jan 2014

Preliminary Joint X-Ray And Neutron Protein Crystallographic Studies Of Ecdhfr Complexed With Folate And Nadp+, Qun Wan, Audrey Y. Kovalevsky, Mark A. Wilson, Brad C. Bennett, Paul Langan, Chris Dealwis

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

A crystal of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) complexed with folate and NADP+ of 4 x 1.3 x 0.7 mm (3.6 mm3) in size was obtained by sequential application of microseeding and macroseeding. A neutron diffraction data set was collected to 2.0 A resolution using the IMAGINE diffractometer at the High Flux Isotope Reactor within Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A 1.6 A resolution X-ray data set was also collected from a smaller crystal at room temperature. The neutron and X-ray data were used together for joint refinement of the ecDHFR–folate–NADP+ ternary-complex structure ...


Comparative Analyses Of Three Chlorella Species In Response To Light And Sugar Reveal Distinctive Lipid Accumulation Patterns In The Microalga C. Sorokiniana, Julian N. Rosenberg, Naoko Kobayashi, Austin Barnes, Eric A. Noel, Michael J. Betenbaugh, George A. Oyler Jan 2014

Comparative Analyses Of Three Chlorella Species In Response To Light And Sugar Reveal Distinctive Lipid Accumulation Patterns In The Microalga C. Sorokiniana, Julian N. Rosenberg, Naoko Kobayashi, Austin Barnes, Eric A. Noel, Michael J. Betenbaugh, George A. Oyler

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

While photosynthetic microalgae, such as Chlorella, serve as feedstocks for nutritional oils and biofuels, heterotrophic cultivation can augment growth rates, support high cell densities, and increase triacylglycerol (TAG) lipid content. However, these species differ significantly in their photoautotrophic and heterotrophic characteristics. In this study, the phylogeny of thirty Chlorella strains was determined in order to inform bioprospecting efforts and detailed physiological assessment of three species. The growth kinetics and lipid biochemistry of C. protothecoides UTEX 411, C. vulgaris UTEX 265, and C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 were quantified during photoautotrophy in Bold’s basal medium (BBM) and heterotrophy in BBM supplemented ...


Emerging Roles For Hyaluronidase In Cancer Metastasis And Therapy, Caitlin O. Mcatee, Joseph J. Barycki, Melanie A. Simpson Jan 2014

Emerging Roles For Hyaluronidase In Cancer Metastasis And Therapy, Caitlin O. Mcatee, Joseph J. Barycki, Melanie A. Simpson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Hyaluronidases are a family of five human enzymes that have been differentially implicated in the progression of many solid tumor types, both clinically and in functional studies. Advances in the past five years have clarified many apparent contradictions, (1) by demonstrating that specific hyaluronidases have alternative substrates to hyaluronan (HA) or do not exhibit any enzymatic activity, (2) that high molecular weight HA polymers elicit signaling effects that are opposite those of the hyaluronidase-digested HA oligomers, and (3) that it is actually the combined overexpression of HA synthesizing enzymes with hyaluronidases that confers tumorigenic potential. This review examines the literature ...


Arabidopsis Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis Is Negatively Regulated By The Dewax Gene Encoding An Ap2/Erf-Type Transcription Factor, Young Sam Go, Hyojin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Mi Chung Suh Jan 2014

Arabidopsis Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis Is Negatively Regulated By The Dewax Gene Encoding An Ap2/Erf-Type Transcription Factor, Young Sam Go, Hyojin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Mi Chung Suh

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The aerial parts of plants are protected from desiccation and other stress by surface cuticular waxes. The total cuticular wax loads and the expression of wax biosynthetic genes are significantly downregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana under dark conditions. We isolated Decrease Wax Biosynthesis (DEWAX), which encodes an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor that is preferentially expressed in the epidermis and induced by darkness. Disruption of DEWAX leads to an increase in total leaf and stem wax loads, and the excess wax phenotype of dewax was restored to wild type levels in complementation lines. Moreover, overexpression of DEWAX resulted in a reduction in ...


Homogeneous Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins With Reversible Anticoagulant Activity, Yongmei Xu, Chao Cai, Kasemsiri Chandarajoti, Po-Hung Hsieh, Lingyun Li, Truong Q. Pham, Erica M. Sparkenbaugh, Juzheng Sheng, Nigel S. Key, Rafal Pawlinski, Edward N. Harris, Robert J. Linhardt, Jian Liu Jan 2014

Homogeneous Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins With Reversible Anticoagulant Activity, Yongmei Xu, Chao Cai, Kasemsiri Chandarajoti, Po-Hung Hsieh, Lingyun Li, Truong Q. Pham, Erica M. Sparkenbaugh, Juzheng Sheng, Nigel S. Key, Rafal Pawlinski, Edward N. Harris, Robert J. Linhardt, Jian Liu

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are carbohydrate-based anticoagulants clinically used to treat thrombotic disorders, but impurities, structural heterogeneity or functional irreversibility can limit treatment options. We report a series of synthetic LMWHs prepared by cost-effective chemoenzymatic methods. The high activity of one defined synthetic LMWH against human factor Xa (FXa) was reversible in vitro and in vivo using protamine, demonstrating that synthetically accessible constructs can have a critical role in the next generation of LMWHs.


Kinetic And Structural Characterization Of Tunnel-Perturbing Mutants In Bradyrhizobium Japonicum Proline Utilization A, Benjamin W. Arentson, Min Luo, Travis A. Pemberton, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker Jan 2014

Kinetic And Structural Characterization Of Tunnel-Perturbing Mutants In Bradyrhizobium Japonicum Proline Utilization A, Benjamin W. Arentson, Min Luo, Travis A. Pemberton, John J. Tanner, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline utilization A from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) is a bifunctional flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate using fused proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains. Recent crystal structures and kinetic data suggest an intramolecular channel connects the two active sites, promoting substrate channeling of the intermediate Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate/glutamate-γ-semialdehyde (P5C/GSA). In this work, the structure of the channel was explored by inserting large side chain residues at four positions along the channel in BjPutA. Kinetic analysis of the different mutants revealed replacement of D779 with Tyr (D779Y) or Trp (D779W) significantly decreased ...


Arabidopsis Accelerated Cell Death 11, Acd11, Is A Ceramide-1-Phosphate Transfer Protein And Intermediary Regulator Of Phytoceramide Levels, Dhirendra K. Simanshu, Xiuhong Zhai, David Munch, Daniel Hofius, Jonathan E. Markham, Jacek Bielawski, Alicja Bielawska, Lucy Malinina, Julian G. Molotkovsky, John W. Mundy, Dinshaw J. Patel, Rhoderick E. Brown Jan 2014

Arabidopsis Accelerated Cell Death 11, Acd11, Is A Ceramide-1-Phosphate Transfer Protein And Intermediary Regulator Of Phytoceramide Levels, Dhirendra K. Simanshu, Xiuhong Zhai, David Munch, Daniel Hofius, Jonathan E. Markham, Jacek Bielawski, Alicja Bielawska, Lucy Malinina, Julian G. Molotkovsky, John W. Mundy, Dinshaw J. Patel, Rhoderick E. Brown

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The accelerated cell death 11 (acd11) mutant of Arabidopsis provides a genetic model for studying immune response activation and localized cellular suicide that halt pathogen spread during infection in plants. Here, we elucidate ACD11 structure and function and show that acd11 disruption dramatically alters the in vivo balance of sphingolipid mediators that regulate eukaryotic-programmed cell death. In acd11 mutants, normally low ceramide-1- phosphate (C1P) levels become elevated, but the relatively abundant cell death inducer phytoceramide rises acutely. ACD11 exhibits selective intermembrane transfer of C1P and phyto-C1P. Crystal structures establish C1P binding via a surface-localized, phosphate headgroup recognition center connected to ...


Emerging Regulatory Paradigms In Glutathione Metabolism, Yilin Liu, Annastasia S. Hyde, Melanie A. Simpson, Joseph J. Barycki Jan 2014

Emerging Regulatory Paradigms In Glutathione Metabolism, Yilin Liu, Annastasia S. Hyde, Melanie A. Simpson, Joseph J. Barycki

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

One of the hallmarks of cancer is the ability to generate and withstand unusual levels of oxidative stress. In part, this property of tumor cells is conferred by elevation of the cellular redox buffer glutathione. Though enzymes of the glutathione synthesis and salvage pathways have been characterized for several decades, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of their independent and coordinate regulatory mechanisms. Recent studies have further revealed that overall central metabolic pathways are frequently altered in various tumor types, resulting in significant increases in biosynthetic capacity, and feeding into glutathione synthesis. In this review, we will discuss the enzymes ...


Mechanisms Underlying The Exquisite Sensitivity Of Candida Albicans To Combinatorial Cationic And Oxidative Stress That Enhances The Potent Fungicidal Activity Of Phagocytes, Despoina Kaloriti, Mette Jacobsen, Zhikang Yin, Miranda Patterson, Anna Tillmann, Deborah A. Smith, Emily Cook, Tao You, Melissa J. Grimm, Iryna Bohovych, Celso Grebogi, Brahm H. Segal, Neil A.R. Gow, Ken Haynes, Janet Quinn, Alistair J.P. Brown Jan 2014

Mechanisms Underlying The Exquisite Sensitivity Of Candida Albicans To Combinatorial Cationic And Oxidative Stress That Enhances The Potent Fungicidal Activity Of Phagocytes, Despoina Kaloriti, Mette Jacobsen, Zhikang Yin, Miranda Patterson, Anna Tillmann, Deborah A. Smith, Emily Cook, Tao You, Melissa J. Grimm, Iryna Bohovych, Celso Grebogi, Brahm H. Segal, Neil A.R. Gow, Ken Haynes, Janet Quinn, Alistair J.P. Brown

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Immune cells exploit reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cationic fluxes to kill microbial pathogens, such as the fungus

Candida albicans. Yet, C. albicans is resistant to these stresses in vitro. Therefore, what accounts for the potent antifungal activity

of neutrophils? We show that simultaneous exposure to oxidative and cationic stresses is much more potent than the individual

stresses themselves and that this combinatorial stress kills C. albicans synergistically in vitro.We also show that the high

fungicidal activity of human neutrophils is dependent on the combinatorial effects of the oxidative burst and cationic fluxes, as

their pharmacological attenuation with apocynin ...


New Clox Systems For Rapid And Efficient Gene Disruption In Candida Albicans, Shahida Shahana, Delma S. Childers, Elizabeth R. Ballou, Iryna Bohovych, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown Jan 2014

New Clox Systems For Rapid And Efficient Gene Disruption In Candida Albicans, Shahida Shahana, Delma S. Childers, Elizabeth R. Ballou, Iryna Bohovych, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Precise genome modification is essential for the molecular dissection of Candida albicans, and is yielding invaluable information about the roles of specific gene functions in this major fungal pathogen of humans. C. albicans is naturally diploid, unable to undergo meiosis, and utilizes a non-canonical genetic code. Hence, specialized tools have had to be developed for gene disruption in C. albicans that permit the deletion of both target alleles, and in some cases, the recycling of the Candida-specific selectable markers. Previously, we developed a tool based on the Cre recombinase, which recycles markers in C. albicans with 90–100% efficiency via ...


Book Review Of Dane Kennedy, The Last Blank Spaces: Exploring Africa And Australia, Adrian S. Wisnicki Jan 2014

Book Review Of Dane Kennedy, The Last Blank Spaces: Exploring Africa And Australia, Adrian S. Wisnicki

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mid-nineteenth-century British exploration, particularly the stories of the “heroic” individuals who carried out this exploration, remains a topic of worldwide interest, as most recently evidenced by the many events in Britain and Africa celebrating the 2013 bicentenary of David Livingstone’s birth. Dane Kennedy’s intriguing study takes issue with such readings of the historical record by foregrounding an epistemological tension that lies at the heart of nineteenthcentury British exploration discourse and practice. The book examines the collision—as it played out in the exploration of African and Australia—between metropolitan scientific protocols and non-Western quotidian realities. Nineteenth-century explorers, argues ...


Stress Adaptation In A Pathogenic Fungus, Alistair J. P. Brown, Susan Budge, Despoina Kaloriti, Anna Tillmann, Mette D. Jacobsen, Zhikang Yin, Iuliana V. Ene, Iryna Bohovych, Doblin Sandai, Stavroula Kastora, Joanna Potrykus, Elizabeth R. Ballou, Delma S. Childers, Shahida Shahana, Michelle D. Leach Jan 2014

Stress Adaptation In A Pathogenic Fungus, Alistair J. P. Brown, Susan Budge, Despoina Kaloriti, Anna Tillmann, Mette D. Jacobsen, Zhikang Yin, Iuliana V. Ene, Iryna Bohovych, Doblin Sandai, Stavroula Kastora, Joanna Potrykus, Elizabeth R. Ballou, Delma S. Childers, Shahida Shahana, Michelle D. Leach

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. This yeast is carried by many individuals as a harmless commensal, but when immune defences are perturbed it causes mucosal infections (thrush). Additionally, when the immune system becomes severely compromised, C. albicans often causes life-threatening systemic infections. A battery of virulence factors and fitness attributes promote the pathogenicity of C. albicans. Fitness attributes include robust responses to local environmental stresses, the inactivation of which attenuates virulence. Stress signalling pathways in C. albicans include evolutionarily conserved modules. However, there has been rewiring of some stress regulatory circuitry such that the roles of ...


Proline Biosynthesis Is Required For Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Tolerance In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Xinwen Liang, M. B. Dickman, Donald F. Becker Jan 2014

Proline Biosynthesis Is Required For Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Tolerance In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Xinwen Liang, M. B. Dickman, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Proline is an important amino acid for stress resistance in different organisms.

Results: Depletion of proline biosynthesis disrupts redox homeostasis and increases sensitivity to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in yeast.

Conclusion: Proline biosynthesis is critical for maintaining the intracellular redox environment and the UPR during ER stress.

Significance: Proline metabolism is shown to have an important role in ER stress tolerance that was previously unknown.


Saturated Free Fatty Acids Induce Cholangiocyte Lipoapoptosis, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Sally A. Ingham, Ashley M. Mohr, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Anuttoma Ray, Sohini Roy, Sophie C. Cazanave, Mary Anne Phillippi, Justin L. Mott Jan 2014

Saturated Free Fatty Acids Induce Cholangiocyte Lipoapoptosis, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Sally A. Ingham, Ashley M. Mohr, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Anuttoma Ray, Sohini Roy, Sophie C. Cazanave, Mary Anne Phillippi, Justin L. Mott

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Recent studies have identified a cholestatic variant of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with portal inflammation and ductular reaction. Based on reports of biliary damage, as well as increased circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) in NAFLD, we hypothesized the involvement of cholangiocyte lipoapoptosis as a mechanism of cellular injury. Here, we demonstrate that the saturated FFAs palmitate and stearate induced robust and rapid cell death in cholangiocytes. Palmitate and stearate induced cholangiocyte lipoapoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in multiple cholangiocyte-derived cell lines. The mechanism of lipoapoptosis relied on the activation of caspase 3/7 activity. There was also a significant ...