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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Diversity Of Plant Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases B And Evolution Of A Form Specific For Free Methionine Sulfoxide, Dung Tien Le, Lionel Tarrago, Yasuko Watanabe, Alaattin Kaya, Byung Cheon Lee, Uyen Tran, Rie Nishiyama, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Lam-Son Phan Tran Jun 2013

Diversity Of Plant Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases B And Evolution Of A Form Specific For Free Methionine Sulfoxide, Dung Tien Le, Lionel Tarrago, Yasuko Watanabe, Alaattin Kaya, Byung Cheon Lee, Uyen Tran, Rie Nishiyama, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Lam-Son Phan Tran

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Methionine can be reversibly oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetO) under physiological conditions. Organisms evolved two distinct methionine sulfoxide reductase families (MSRA & MSRB) to repair oxidized methionine residues. We found that 5 MSRB genes exist in the soybean genome, including GmMSRB1 and two segmentally duplicated gene pairs (GmMSRB2 and GmMSRB5, GmMSRB3 and GmMSRB4). GmMSRB2 and GmMSRB4 proteins showed MSRB activity toward protein-based MetO with either DTT or thioredoxin (TRX) as reductants, whereas GmMSRB1 was active only with DTT. GmMSRB2 had a typical MSRB mechanism with Cys121 and Cys 68 as catalytic and resolving residues, respectively. Surprisingly, this enzyme also possessed the ...


A Cell Simulator Platform: The Cell Collective, Tomáš Helikar, B. Kowal, J. A. Rogers May 2013

A Cell Simulator Platform: The Cell Collective, Tomáš Helikar, B. Kowal, J. A. Rogers

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Diseases are often a result of multiple malfunctions in complex, nonlinear biological/biochemical networks. As such, these processes are far more complicated to understand because they tend to give rise to functions that are emergent in nature, i.e., higher-level (mal)functions that are more than the sum of their parts. Systems biology provides a new approach to understanding biological systems and diseases from a holistic perspective.


A Comprehensive, Multi-Scale Dynamical Model Of Erbb Receptor Signal Transduction In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells, Tomáš Helikar, Naomi Kochi, Bryan Kowal, Manjari Dimri, Mayumi Naramura, Srikumar M. Raja, Vimla Band, Hamid Band, Jim A. Rogers Jan 2013

A Comprehensive, Multi-Scale Dynamical Model Of Erbb Receptor Signal Transduction In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells, Tomáš Helikar, Naomi Kochi, Bryan Kowal, Manjari Dimri, Mayumi Naramura, Srikumar M. Raja, Vimla Band, Hamid Band, Jim A. Rogers

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src and receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) have been established as collaborators in cellular signaling and their combined dysregulation plays key roles in human cancers, including breast cancer. In part due to the complexity of the biochemical network associated with the regulation of these proteins as well as their cellular functions, the role of Src in EGFR regulation remains unclear. Herein we present a new comprehensive, multi-scale dynamical model of ErbB receptor signal transduction in human mammary epithelial cells. This model, constructed manually from published biochemical literature, consists of 245 nodes representing ...


Functional Convergence Of Structurally Distinct Thioesterases From Cyanobacteria And Plants Involved In Phylloquinone Biosynthesis, Fabienne Furt, William J. Allen, Joshua R. Widhalm, Peter Madzelan, Robert C. Rizzo, Gilles J. Basset, Mark A. Wilson Jan 2013

Functional Convergence Of Structurally Distinct Thioesterases From Cyanobacteria And Plants Involved In Phylloquinone Biosynthesis, Fabienne Furt, William J. Allen, Joshua R. Widhalm, Peter Madzelan, Robert C. Rizzo, Gilles J. Basset, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The synthesis of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in photosynthetic organisms requires a thioesterase that hydrolyzes 1,4-dihydroxy- 2-naphthoyl-CoA (DHNA-CoA) to release 1,4- dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA). Cyanobacteria and plants contain distantly related hotdog-fold thioesterases that catalyze this reaction, although the structural basis of these convergent enzymatic activities is unknown. To investigate this, the crystal structures of hotdog-fold DHNA-CoA thioesterases from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis (Slr0204) and the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDHNAT1) were determined. These enzymes form distinct homotetramers and use different active sites to catalyze hydrolysis of DHNACoA, similar to the 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA (4-HBA-CoA) thioesterases from Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. Like the 4-HBA-CoA ...


Selenodb 2.0: Annotation Of Selenoprotein Genes In Animals And Their Genetic Diversity In Humans, Frederic Romagne, Didac Santesmasses, Louise White, Gaurab K. Sarangi, Marco Mariotti, Ron Hübler, Antje Weihmann, Genis Parra, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Roderic Guigo, Sergi Castellano Jan 2013

Selenodb 2.0: Annotation Of Selenoprotein Genes In Animals And Their Genetic Diversity In Humans, Frederic Romagne, Didac Santesmasses, Louise White, Gaurab K. Sarangi, Marco Mariotti, Ron Hübler, Antje Weihmann, Genis Parra, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Roderic Guigo, Sergi Castellano

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

SelenoDB (http://www.selenodb.org) aims to provide high-quality annotations of selenoprotein genes, proteins and SECIS elements. Selenoproteins are proteins that contain the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) and the first release of the database included annotations for eight species. Since the release of SelenoDB 1.0 many new animal genomes have been sequenced. The annotations of selenoproteins in new genomes usually contain many errors in major databases. For this reason, we have now fully annotated selenoprotein genes in 58 animal genomes. We provide manually curated annotations for human selenoproteins, whereas we use an automatic annotation pipeline to annotate selenoprotein genes ...


The Hyaluronan Receptor For Endocytosis (Hare) Activates Nf-Κb-Mediated Gene Expression In Response To 40–400-Kda, But Not Smaller Or Larger, Hyaluronans, Madhu S. Pandey, Bruce A. Baggenstoss, Jennifer Washburn, Edward N. Harris, Paul H. Weigel Jan 2013

The Hyaluronan Receptor For Endocytosis (Hare) Activates Nf-Κb-Mediated Gene Expression In Response To 40–400-Kda, But Not Smaller Or Larger, Hyaluronans, Madhu S. Pandey, Bruce A. Baggenstoss, Jennifer Washburn, Edward N. Harris, Paul H. Weigel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: HARE mediates systemic clearance of hyaluronan (HA), which turns over continuously in tissues.

Results: HARE uptake of 40–400-kDa, but not larger or smaller, HA stimulated NF-κB activation.

Conclusion: HA-HARE signal complexes activate NF-κB and gene transcription only with optimally sized HA.

Significance: HARE responsiveness to a narrow size range ofHAdegradation products may be a sensing system to detect tissue ECM stress.


Rapid Detection And Quantification Of Triacylglycerol By Hplc–Elsd In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii And Chlorella Strains, Naoko Kobayashi, Eric A. Noel, Austin Barnes, Julian Rosenberg, Concetta C. Dirusso, Paul N. Black, George A. Oyler Jan 2013

Rapid Detection And Quantification Of Triacylglycerol By Hplc–Elsd In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii And Chlorella Strains, Naoko Kobayashi, Eric A. Noel, Austin Barnes, Julian Rosenberg, Concetta C. Dirusso, Paul N. Black, George A. Oyler

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis and quantification are commonly performed by first obtaining a purified TAG fraction from a total neutral lipid extract using thinlayer chromatography (TLC), and then analyzing the fatty

acid composition of the purified TAG fraction by gas chromatography (GC). This process is time-consuming, labor

intensive and is not suitable for analysis of small sample sizes or large numbers. A rapid and efficient method for monitoring oil accumulation in algae using high performance liquid chromatography for separation of all lipid classes combined with detection by evaporative light scattering (HPLC–ELSD) was developed and compared to the conventional TLC/GC ...


Probing Arabidopsis Chloroplast Diacylglycerol Pools By Selectively Targeting Bacterial Diacylglycerol Kinase To Suborganellar Membranes, Bagyalakshmi Muthan, Rebecca Roston, John E. Froehlich, Christoph Benning Jan 2013

Probing Arabidopsis Chloroplast Diacylglycerol Pools By Selectively Targeting Bacterial Diacylglycerol Kinase To Suborganellar Membranes, Bagyalakshmi Muthan, Rebecca Roston, John E. Froehlich, Christoph Benning

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Diacylglycerol (DAG) is an intermediate in metabolism of both triacylglycerols and membrane lipids. Probing the steady-state pools of DAG and understanding how they contribute to the synthesis of different lipids is important when designing plants with altered lipid metabolism. However, traditional methods of assaying DAG pools are difficult, because its abundance is low and because fractionation of subcellular membranes affects DAG pools. To manipulate and probe DAG pools in an in vivo context, we generated multiple stable transgenic lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that target an Escherichia coli DAGkinase (DAGK) to each leaflet of each chloroplast envelope membrane. E ...


Reporters For The Analysis Of N-Glycosylation In Candida Albicans, Shahida Shahana, Hector M. Mora-Montes, Luis Castillo, Iryna Bohovych, Chirag C. Sheth, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown Jan 2013

Reporters For The Analysis Of N-Glycosylation In Candida Albicans, Shahida Shahana, Hector M. Mora-Montes, Luis Castillo, Iryna Bohovych, Chirag C. Sheth, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

A large proportion of Candida albicans cell surface proteins are decorated post-translationally by glycosylation. Indeed N-glycosylation is critical for cell wall biogenesis in this major fungal pathogen and for its interactions with host cells. A detailed understanding of N-glycosylation will yield deeper insights into host-pathogen interactions. However, the analysis of N-glycosylation is extremely challenging because of the complexity and heterogeneity of these structures. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce this complexity and facilitate the analysis of N-glycosylation, we have developed new synthetic C. albicans reporters that carry a single N-linked glycosylation site derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suc2. These glycosylation ...


Proline Mechanisms Of Stress Survival, Xinwen Liang, Lu Zhang, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Donald F. Becker Jan 2013

Proline Mechanisms Of Stress Survival, Xinwen Liang, Lu Zhang, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Significance: The imino acid proline is utilized by different organisms to offset cellular imbalances caused by environmental stress. The wide use in nature of proline as a stress adaptor molecule indicates that proline has a fundamental biological role in stress response. Understanding the mechanisms by which proline enhances abiotic/biotic stress response will facilitate agricultural crop research and improve human health. Recent Advances: It is now recognized that proline metabolism propels cellular signaling processes that promote cellular apoptosis or survival. Studies have shown that proline metabolism influences signaling pathways by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the mitochondria via ...


Microrna Function In Human Diseases, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mary Anne Smith, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ashley M. Mohr, Justin L. Mott Jan 2013

Microrna Function In Human Diseases, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Mary Anne Smith, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Ashley M. Mohr, Justin L. Mott

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

MicroRNAs are emerging as a hot topic in research, and rightfully so. They show great promise as targets of treatment and as markers for common human diseases, such as cancer and metabolic diseases. In this review, we address some of the basic questions regarding micro- RNA function in human disease and the clinical significance of microRNAs. Specifically, micro- RNAs in epigenetics, cancer, and metabolic diseases are discussed, with examples taken from cholangiocarcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.


Sbml Qualitative Models: A Model Representation Format And Infrastructure To Foster Interactions Between Qualitative Modelling Formalisms And Tools, Claudine Chaouiya, Duncan Bérenguier, Sarah M. Keating, Aurélien Naldi, Martijn P. Van Iersel, Nicolas Rodriguez, Andreas Dräger, Finja Büchel, Thomas Cokelaer, Bryan Kowal, Benjamin Wicks, Emanuel Gonçalves, Julien Dorier, Michel Page, Pedro T. Monteiro, Axel Von Kamp, Ioannis Xenarios, Hidde De Jong, Michael Hucka, Steffen Klamt, Denis Thieffry, Nicolas Le Novère, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Tomáš Helikar Jan 2013

Sbml Qualitative Models: A Model Representation Format And Infrastructure To Foster Interactions Between Qualitative Modelling Formalisms And Tools, Claudine Chaouiya, Duncan Bérenguier, Sarah M. Keating, Aurélien Naldi, Martijn P. Van Iersel, Nicolas Rodriguez, Andreas Dräger, Finja Büchel, Thomas Cokelaer, Bryan Kowal, Benjamin Wicks, Emanuel Gonçalves, Julien Dorier, Michel Page, Pedro T. Monteiro, Axel Von Kamp, Ioannis Xenarios, Hidde De Jong, Michael Hucka, Steffen Klamt, Denis Thieffry, Nicolas Le Novère, Julio Saez-Rodriguez, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Qualitative frameworks, especially those based on the logical discrete formalism, are increasingly used to model regulatory and signalling networks. A major advantage of these frameworks is that they do not require precise quantitative data, and that they are well-suited for studies of large networks. While numerous groups have developed specific computational tools that provide original methods to analyse qualitative models, a standard format to exchange qualitative models has been missing.

Results: We present the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Qualitative Models Package (“qual”), an extension of the SBML Level 3 standard designed for computer representation of qualitative models of ...