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Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Crystal Structures And Kinetics Of Monofunctional Proline Dehydrogenase Provide Insight Into Substrate Recognition And Conformational Changes Associated With Flavin Reduction And Product Release, Min Luo, Benjamin W. Arentson, Dhiraj Srivastava, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Dec 2012

Crystal Structures And Kinetics Of Monofunctional Proline Dehydrogenase Provide Insight Into Substrate Recognition And Conformational Changes Associated With Flavin Reduction And Product Release, Min Luo, Benjamin W. Arentson, Dhiraj Srivastava, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline dehydrogenase catalyzes the FAD-dependent oxidation of proline to Δ1- pyrroline-5- carboxylate, which is the first step of proline catabolism. Here, we report the structures of proline dehydrogenase from Deinococcus radiodurans in the oxidized state complexed with the proline analog L-tetrahydrofuroic acid and in the reduced state with the proline site vacant. The analog binds against the si face of the FAD isoalloxazine and is protected from bulk solvent by the α8 helix and the β1-α1 loop. The FAD ribityl chain adopts two conformations in the E-S complex, which is unprecedented for flavoenzymes. One of the conformations is novel for ...


Knockout Of The 15 Kda Selenoprotein Protects Against Chemically-Induced Aberrant Crypt Formation In Mice, Petra A. Tsuji, Bradley A. Carlson, Salvador Naranjo-Suarez, Min-Hyuk Yoo, Xue-Ming Xu, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Vadim Gladyshev, Dolph L. Hatfield, Cindy D. Davis Dec 2012

Knockout Of The 15 Kda Selenoprotein Protects Against Chemically-Induced Aberrant Crypt Formation In Mice, Petra A. Tsuji, Bradley A. Carlson, Salvador Naranjo-Suarez, Min-Hyuk Yoo, Xue-Ming Xu, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Vadim Gladyshev, Dolph L. Hatfield, Cindy D. Davis

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Evidence suggests that selenium has cancer preventive properties that are largely mediated through selenoproteins. Our previous observations demonstrated that targeted down-regulation of the 15 kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) in murine colon cancer cells resulted in the reversal of the cancer phenotype. The present study investigated the effect of Sep15 knockout in mice using a chemically-induced colon cancer model. Homozygous Sep15 knockout mice, and wild type littermate controls were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (10 mg/kg). Sep15 knockout mice developed significantly (pGBP-1 in humans has been associated with a highly significant, increased five-year survival rate in colorectal cancer patients ...


Cross Regulation Of Sirtuin 1, Ampk, And Ppary In Conjugated Linoleic Acid Treated Adipocytes, Shan Jiang, Wei Wang, Jess Miner, Michael E. Fromm Nov 2012

Cross Regulation Of Sirtuin 1, Ampk, And Ppary In Conjugated Linoleic Acid Treated Adipocytes, Shan Jiang, Wei Wang, Jess Miner, Michael E. Fromm

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in adipocytes through multiple pathways, with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) generally facilitating, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) generally opposing these reductions. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone/protein deacetylase that affects energy homeostasis, often functions coordinately with AMPK, and is capable of binding to PPARγ, thereby inhibiting its activity. This study investigated the role of SIRT1 in the response of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to t10c12 CLA by testing the following hypotheses: 1) SIRT1 is functionally required for robust TG reduction; and 2) SIRT1 ...


Urinary Copper Elevation In A Mouse Model Of Wilson’S Disease Is A Regulated Process To Specifically Decrease The Hepatic Copper Load, Lawrence W. Gray, Fangyu Peng, Shannon A. Molloy, Venkata S. Pendyala, Abigael Muchenditsi, Otto Muzik, Jaekwon Lee, Jack H. Kaplan, Svetlana Lutsenko Jun 2012

Urinary Copper Elevation In A Mouse Model Of Wilson’S Disease Is A Regulated Process To Specifically Decrease The Hepatic Copper Load, Lawrence W. Gray, Fangyu Peng, Shannon A. Molloy, Venkata S. Pendyala, Abigael Muchenditsi, Otto Muzik, Jaekwon Lee, Jack H. Kaplan, Svetlana Lutsenko

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Body copper homeostasis is regulated by the liver, which removes excess copper via bile. In Wilson’s disease (WD), this function is disrupted due to inactivation of the copper transporter ATP7B resulting in hepatic copper overload. High urinary copper is a diagnostic feature of WD linked to liver malfunction; the mechanism behind urinary copper elevation is not fully understood. Using Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) imaging of live Atp7b/ mice at different stages of disease, a longitudinal metal analysis, and characterization of copper-binding molecules, we show that urinary copper elevation is a specific regulatory process mediated by distinct ...


Conservation Of Oxidative Protein Stabilization In An Insect Homologue Of The Parkinsonism-Associated Protein Dj-1, Jiusheng Lin, Janani Prahlad, Mark A. Wilson May 2012

Conservation Of Oxidative Protein Stabilization In An Insect Homologue Of The Parkinsonism-Associated Protein Dj-1, Jiusheng Lin, Janani Prahlad, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

DJ-1 is a conserved, disease-associated protein that protects against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in multiple organisms. Human DJ-1 contains a functionally essential cysteine residue (Cys106) whose oxidation is important for regulating protein function by an unknown mechanism. This residue is well conserved in other DJ-1 homologues, including two (DJ-1α and DJ-1β) in Drosophila melanogaster. Because D. melanogaster is a powerful model system for studying DJ-1 function, we have determined the crystal structure and impact of cysteine oxidation on Drosophila DJ-1β. The structure of D. melanogaster DJ-1β is similar to that of human DJ-1, although two important residues in the ...


Composition And Evolution Of The Vertebrate And Mammalian Selenoproteomes, Marco Mariotti, Perry G. Ridge, Yan Zhang, Alexei V. Lobanov, Thomas H. Pringle, Roderic Guigo, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Mar 2012

Composition And Evolution Of The Vertebrate And Mammalian Selenoproteomes, Marco Mariotti, Perry G. Ridge, Yan Zhang, Alexei V. Lobanov, Thomas H. Pringle, Roderic Guigo, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Selenium is an essential trace element in mammals due to its presence in proteins in the form of selenocysteine (Sec). Human genome codes for 25 Sec-containing protein genes, and mouse and rat genomes for 24.

Methodology/Principal Findings: We characterized the selenoproteomes of 44 sequenced vertebrates by applying gene prediction and phylogenetic reconstruction methods, supplemented with the analyses of gene structures, alternative splicing isoforms, untranslated regions, SECIS elements, and pseudogenes. In total, we detected 45 selenoprotein subfamilies. 28 of them were found in mammals, and 41 in bony fishes. We define the ancestral vertebrate (28 proteins) and mammalian (25 ...


Connections Between Sphingosine Kinase And Phospholipase D In The Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway In Arabidopsis, Liang Guo, Girish Mishra, Jonathan E. Markham, Maoyin Li, Amanda Tawfall, Ruth Welti, Xuemin Wang Jan 2012

Connections Between Sphingosine Kinase And Phospholipase D In The Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway In Arabidopsis, Liang Guo, Girish Mishra, Jonathan E. Markham, Maoyin Li, Amanda Tawfall, Ruth Welti, Xuemin Wang

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and phospholipaseD(PLD) produce different lipid mediators involved in abscisic acid (ABA) response.

Results: Ablation of SPHKs and PLDα1 attenuates ABA-induced production of LCBPs and PA. Phyto-S1P closes stomata in sphk1, sphk2, but not in pldα1, whereas PA closes stomata in all mutants.

Conclusion: SPHK acts upstream of PLDα1, whereas PLDα1 promotes SPHK.

Significance: The roles of lipid messengers in the ABA signaling pathway are clarified.


The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown Jan 2012

The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Microbes must assimilate carbon to grow and colonize their niches. Transcript profiling has suggested that Candida albicans, a major pathogen of humans, regulates its carbon assimilation in an analogous fashion to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, repressing metabolic pathways required for the use of alterative nonpreferred carbon sources when sugars are available. However, we show that there is significant dislocation between the proteome and transcriptome in C. albicans. Glucose triggers the degradation of the ICL1 and PCK1 transcripts in C. albicans, yet isocitrate lyase (Icl1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) are stable and are retained. Indeed, numerous enzymes required for the ...


Cellular Responses Of Candida Albicans To Phagocytosis And The Extracellular Activities Of Neutrophils Are Critical To Counteract Carbohydrate Starvation, Oxidative And Nitrosative Stress, Pedro Miramón, Christine Dunker, Hanna Windecker, Iryna Bohovych, Alistair J.P. Brown, Oliver Kurzai, Bernhard Hube Jan 2012

Cellular Responses Of Candida Albicans To Phagocytosis And The Extracellular Activities Of Neutrophils Are Critical To Counteract Carbohydrate Starvation, Oxidative And Nitrosative Stress, Pedro Miramón, Christine Dunker, Hanna Windecker, Iryna Bohovych, Alistair J.P. Brown, Oliver Kurzai, Bernhard Hube

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Neutrophils are key players during Candida albicans infection. However, the relative contributions of neutrophil activities to fungal clearance and the relative importance of the fungal responses that counteract these activities remain unclear. We studied the contributions of the intra- and extracellular antifungal activities of human neutrophils using diagnostic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-marked C. albicans strains. We found that a carbohydrate starvation response, as indicated by upregulation of glyoxylate cycle genes, was only induced upon phagocytosis of the fungus. Similarly, the nitrosative stress response was only observed in internalised fungal cells. In contrast, the response to oxidative stress was observed ...


Small But Crucial: The Novel Small Heat Shock Protein Hsp21 Mediates Stress Adaptation And Virulence In Candida Albicans, Francois L. Mayer, Duncan Wilson, Ilse D. Jacobsen, Pedro Miramón, Silvia Slesiona, Iryna Bohovych, Alistair J.P. Brown, Bernhard Hube Jan 2012

Small But Crucial: The Novel Small Heat Shock Protein Hsp21 Mediates Stress Adaptation And Virulence In Candida Albicans, Francois L. Mayer, Duncan Wilson, Ilse D. Jacobsen, Pedro Miramón, Silvia Slesiona, Iryna Bohovych, Alistair J.P. Brown, Bernhard Hube

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) have multiple cellular functions. However, the biological function of sHsps in pathogenic microorganisms is largely unknown. In the present study we identified and characterized the novel sHsp Hsp21 of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Using a reverse genetics approach we demonstrate the importance of Hsp21 for resistance of C. albicans to specific stresses, including thermal and oxidative stress. Furthermore, a hsp21∆/∆ mutant was defective in invasive growth and formed significantly shorter filaments compared to the wild type under various filamentinducing conditions. Although adhesion to and invasion into human-derived endothelial and oral epithelial cells was ...


Oligomerization Of Heme O Synthase In Cytochrome Oxidase Biogenesis Is Mediated By Cytochrome Oxidase Assembly Factor Coa2, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Hyung Kim, Talina Watts, Xochitl Perez-Martinez, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2012

Oligomerization Of Heme O Synthase In Cytochrome Oxidase Biogenesis Is Mediated By Cytochrome Oxidase Assembly Factor Coa2, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Hyung Kim, Talina Watts, Xochitl Perez-Martinez, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The synthesis of the heme a cofactor used in cytochrome c

oxidase (CcO) is dependent on the sequential action of heme o

synthase (Cox10) and heme a synthase (Cox15). The active state of

Cox10 appears to be a homo-oligomeric complex,andformation of

this complex is dependent on the newly synthesized CcO subunit

Cox1 and the presence of an early Cox1 assembly intermediate.

Cox10 multimerization is triggered by progression of Cox1 from

the early assembly intermediate todownstreamintermediates.The

CcOassembly factor Coa2 appears important in coupling the presence

of newly synthesized Cox1 to Cox10 oligomerization. Cells

lacking Coa2 are impaired in Cox10 ...


Selective Oma1 Protease-Mediated Proteolysis Of Cox1 Subunit Of Cytochrome Oxidase In Assembly Mutants, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Mi-Young Jeong, Talina Watts, Elliott Ferris, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2012

Selective Oma1 Protease-Mediated Proteolysis Of Cox1 Subunit Of Cytochrome Oxidase In Assembly Mutants, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Mi-Young Jeong, Talina Watts, Elliott Ferris, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Yeast lacking Coa2 are deficient in cytochrome c oxidase due to Cox1 degradation.

Results: Oma1 mediates Cox1 degradation in coa2∆ cells but not other mutants stalled in oxidase biogenesis.

Conclusion: Impaired hemylation of Cox1 in coa2∆ cells leads to misfolding and facile degradation by Oma1.

Significance: Oma1 functions in quality control of cytochrome oxidase assembly.


Tgd1, -2, And -3 Proteins Involved In Lipid Trafficking Form Atp-Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter With Multiple Substrate-Binding Proteins, Rebecca Roston, Jinpeng Gao, Monika W. Murcha, James Whelan, Christoph Benning Jan 2012

Tgd1, -2, And -3 Proteins Involved In Lipid Trafficking Form Atp-Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter With Multiple Substrate-Binding Proteins, Rebecca Roston, Jinpeng Gao, Monika W. Murcha, James Whelan, Christoph Benning

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: ATP-binding cassette transporters exist in all life forms and usually require only one substrate-binding domain.

Results: The TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL (TGD) complex contains 8–12 substrate-binding proteins.

Conclusion: Multiple substrate-binding proteins may be needed by the TGD complex to enhance its putative lipid transport activity.

Significance: Knowing the subunit stoichiometry of the TGD complex furthers understanding of lipid transfer between chloroplast membranes.


Genome, Functional Gene Annotation, And Nuclear Transformation Of The Heterokont Oleaginous Alga Nannochloropsis Oceanica Ccmp1779, Astrid Vieler, Guangxi Wu, Chia-Hong Tsai, Blair Bullard, Adam J. Cornish, Christopher Harvey, Ida-Barbara Reca, Chelsea Thornburg, Rujira Achawanantakun, Christopher J. Buehl, Michael S. Campbell, David Cavalier, Kevin L. Childs, Teresa J. Clark, Rahul Deshpande, Erika Erickson, Ann Armenia Ferguson, Witawas Handee, Que Kong, Xiaobo Li, Bensheng Liu, Steven Lundback, Cheng Peng, Rebecca Roston, Michigan State University, Jeffrey P. Simpson, Allan Terbush, Jaruswan Warakanont, Simone Zäuner, Eva M. Farre, Eric L. Hegg, Ning Jiang, Min-Hao Kuo, Yan Lu, Krishna K. Niyogi, John Ohlrogge, Katherine W. Osteryoung, Yair Shachar-Hill, Barbara B. Sears, Yanni Sun, Hideki Takahashi, Mark Yandell, Shin-Han Shiu, Christoph Benning Jan 2012

Genome, Functional Gene Annotation, And Nuclear Transformation Of The Heterokont Oleaginous Alga Nannochloropsis Oceanica Ccmp1779, Astrid Vieler, Guangxi Wu, Chia-Hong Tsai, Blair Bullard, Adam J. Cornish, Christopher Harvey, Ida-Barbara Reca, Chelsea Thornburg, Rujira Achawanantakun, Christopher J. Buehl, Michael S. Campbell, David Cavalier, Kevin L. Childs, Teresa J. Clark, Rahul Deshpande, Erika Erickson, Ann Armenia Ferguson, Witawas Handee, Que Kong, Xiaobo Li, Bensheng Liu, Steven Lundback, Cheng Peng, Rebecca Roston, Michigan State University, Jeffrey P. Simpson, Allan Terbush, Jaruswan Warakanont, Simone Zäuner, Eva M. Farre, Eric L. Hegg, Ning Jiang, Min-Hao Kuo, Yan Lu, Krishna K. Niyogi, John Ohlrogge, Katherine W. Osteryoung, Yair Shachar-Hill, Barbara B. Sears, Yanni Sun, Hideki Takahashi, Mark Yandell, Shin-Han Shiu, Christoph Benning

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Unicellular marine algae have promise for providing sustainable and scalable biofuel feedstocks, although no single species has emerged as a preferred organism. Moreover, adequate molecular and genetic resources prerequisite for the rational engineering of marine algal feedstocks are lacking for most candidate species. Heterokonts of the genus Nannochloropsis naturally have high cellular oil content and are already in use for industrial production of high-value lipid products. First success in applying reverse genetics by targeted gene replacement makes Nannochloropsis oceanica an attractive model to investigate the cell and molecular biology and biochemistry of this fascinating organism group. Here we present the ...


Role Of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Proline Dehydrogenase, And Nadph Oxidase In Apoptosis And Oxidative Stress, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Donald F. Becker Jan 2012

Role Of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Proline Dehydrogenase, And Nadph Oxidase In Apoptosis And Oxidative Stress, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Flavoproteins catalyze a variety of reactions utilizing flavin mononucleotide or flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactors. The oxidoreductase properties of flavoenzymes implicate them in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress, and various cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Here we explore three critical flavoproteins involved in apoptosis and redox signaling, ie, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), proline dehydrogenase, and NADPH oxidase. These proteins have diverse biochemical functions and influence apoptotic signaling by unique mechanisms. The role of AIF in apoptotic signaling is two-fold, with AIF changing intracellular location from the inner mitochondrial membrane space to the nucleus upon exposure of cells to apoptotic stimuli. In ...


Proline Dehydrogenase Is Essential For Proline Protection Against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Weidong Zhu, Xinwen Liang, Lu Zhang, Andrew Demers, Matthew C. Zimmerman, Melanie A. Simpson, Donald F. Becker Jan 2012

Proline Dehydrogenase Is Essential For Proline Protection Against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Weidong Zhu, Xinwen Liang, Lu Zhang, Andrew Demers, Matthew C. Zimmerman, Melanie A. Simpson, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline metabolism has an underlying role in apoptotic signaling that impacts tumorigenesis. Proline is oxidized to glutamate in the mitochondria with the rate limiting step catalyzed by proline dehydrogenase (PRODH). PRODH expression is inducible by p53 leading to increased proline oxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and induction of apoptosis. Paradoxical to its role in apoptosis, proline also protects cells against oxidative stress. Here we explore the mechanism of proline protection against hydrogen peroxide stress in melanoma WM35 cells. Treatment of WM35 cells with proline significantly increased cell viability, diminished oxidative damage of cellular lipids and proteins, and retained ATP ...


Structure, Function, And Assembly Of Heme Centers In Mitochondrial Respiratory Complexes, Hyung J. Kim, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Pamela M. Smith, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2012

Structure, Function, And Assembly Of Heme Centers In Mitochondrial Respiratory Complexes, Hyung J. Kim, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Pamela M. Smith, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The sequential flow of electrons in the respiratory chain, from a low reduction potential substrate to O2, is mediated by protein-bound redox cofactors. In mitochondria, hemes—together with flavin, iron–sulfur, and copper cofactors—mediate this multi-electron transfer. Hemes, in three different forms, are used as a protein-bound prosthetic group in succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), in bc1 complex (complex III) and in cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV). The exact function of heme b in complex II is still unclear, and lags behind in operational detail that is available for the hemes of complex III and IV. The two ...


Late-Stage Maturation Of The Rieske Fe/S Protein: Mzm1 Stabilizes Rip1 But Does Not Facilitate Its Translocation By The Aaa Atpase Bcs1, Tie-Zhong Cui, Pamela M. Smith, Jennifer L. Fox, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2012

Late-Stage Maturation Of The Rieske Fe/S Protein: Mzm1 Stabilizes Rip1 But Does Not Facilitate Its Translocation By The Aaa Atpase Bcs1, Tie-Zhong Cui, Pamela M. Smith, Jennifer L. Fox, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The final step in the assembly of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase or bc1 complex involves the insertion of the Rieske Fe/S cluster protein, Rip1. Maturation of Rip1 occurs within the mitochondrial matrix prior to its translocation across the inner membrane (IM) in a process mediated by the Bcs1 ATPase and subsequent insertion into the bc1 complex. Here we show that the matrix protein Mzm1 functions as a Rip1 chaperone, stabilizing Rip1 prior to the translocation step. In the absence of Mzm1, Rip1 is prone to either proteolytic degradation or temperature-induced aggregation. A series of Rip1 truncations were ...


Substrate Channeling In Proline Metabolism, Benjamin W. Arentson, Nikhilesh Sanyal, Donald F. Becker Jan 2012

Substrate Channeling In Proline Metabolism, Benjamin W. Arentson, Nikhilesh Sanyal, Donald F. Becker

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline metabolism is an important pathway that has relevance in several cellular functions such as redox balance, apoptosis, and cell survival. Results from different groups have indicated that substrate channeling of proline metabolic intermediates may be a critical mechanism. One intermediate is pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), which upon hydrolysis opens to glutamic semialdehyde (GSA). Recent structural and kinetic evidence indicate substrate channeling of P5C/ GSA occurs in the proline catabolic pathway between the proline dehydrogenase and P5C dehydrogenase active sites of bifunctional proline utilization A (PutA). Substrate channeling in PutA is proposed to facilitate the hydrolysis of P5C to GSA which is ...


Glutaredoxin 1 Protects Dopaminergic Cells By Increased Protein Glutathionylation In Experimental Parkinson's Disease, Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha, Aracely Garcia Garcia, Laura Zavala-Flores, Sumin Li, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Rodrigo Franco Jan 2012

Glutaredoxin 1 Protects Dopaminergic Cells By Increased Protein Glutathionylation In Experimental Parkinson's Disease, Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha, Aracely Garcia Garcia, Laura Zavala-Flores, Sumin Li, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Rodrigo Franco

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Aims: Chronic exposure to environmental toxicants, such as paraquat, has been suggested as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Although dopaminergic cell death in PD is associated with oxidative damage, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Glutaredoxins (GRXs) utilize the reducing power of glutathione to modulate redox-dependent signaling pathways by protein glutathionylation. We aimed to determine the role of GRX1 and protein glutathionylation in dopaminergic cell death. Results: In dopaminergic cells, toxicity induced by paraquat or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was inhibited by GRX1 overexpression, while its knock-down sensitized cells to paraquat-induced cell death. Dopaminergic cell death was paralleled by ...


Influence Of Peptide Dipoles And Hydrogen Bonds On Reactive Cysteine PkA Values In Fission Yeast Dj-1, Peter Madzelan, Tetyana Labunksa, Mark A. Wilson Jan 2012

Influence Of Peptide Dipoles And Hydrogen Bonds On Reactive Cysteine PkA Values In Fission Yeast Dj-1, Peter Madzelan, Tetyana Labunksa, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Cysteine residues with depressed pKa values are critical for the functions of many proteins. Several types of interactions can stabilize cysteine thiolate anions, including hydrogen bonds between thiol(ate)s and nearby residues as well as electrostatic interactions involving charged residues or dipoles. Dipolar stabilization of thiolates by peptide groups has been suggested to play a particularly important role near the N-termini of α-helices. Using a combination of X-ray crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis, and spectroscopic methods, we show that the reactive cysteine residue (Cys111) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe DJ-1 experiences a 0.6 unit depression of its thiol pKa as ...


Udp-Glucose Dehydrogenase Polymorphisms From Patients With Congenital Heart Valve Defects Disrupt Enzyme Stability And Quaternary Assembly, Annastasia S. Hyde, Erin L. Farmer, Katherine E. Easley, Kristy Van Lammeren, Vincent M. Christoffels, Joseph J. Barycki, Jeroen Bakkers, Melanie A. Simpson Jan 2012

Udp-Glucose Dehydrogenase Polymorphisms From Patients With Congenital Heart Valve Defects Disrupt Enzyme Stability And Quaternary Assembly, Annastasia S. Hyde, Erin L. Farmer, Katherine E. Easley, Kristy Van Lammeren, Vincent M. Christoffels, Joseph J. Barycki, Jeroen Bakkers, Melanie A. Simpson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) polymorphisms were identified in a screen of candidate genes for heart valve defects.

Results: Two individual mutants fail to rescue cardiac valve defects in UGDH-deleted zebrafish and have reduced stability in vitro.

Conclusion: UGDH loss of function mutations result in a subset of human congenital cardiac valve defects caused by reduced enzyme activity during morphogenesis.

Significance: Screening these alleles could predict valve defects.


Ergodic Sets As Cell Phenotype Of Budding Yeast Cell Cycle, Robert G. Todd, Tomáš Helikar Jan 2012

Ergodic Sets As Cell Phenotype Of Budding Yeast Cell Cycle, Robert G. Todd, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

It has been suggested that irreducible sets of states in Probabilistic Boolean Networks correspond to cellular phenotype. In this study, we identify such sets of states for each phase of the budding yeast cell cycle. We find that these ‘‘ergodic sets’’ underly the cyclin activity levels during each phase of the cell cycle. Our results compare to the observations made in several laboratory experiments as well as the results of differential equation models. Dynamical studies of this model: (i) indicate that under stochastic external signals the continuous oscillating waves of cyclin activity and the opposing waves of CKIs emerge from ...


Bio-Logic Builder: A Non-Technical Tool For Building Dynamical, Qualitative Models, Tomáš Helikar, Bryan Kowal, Alex Madrahimov, Manish Shrestha, Jay Pedersen, Kahani Limbu, Ishwor Thapa, Thaine Rowley, Rahul Satalkar, Naomi Kochi, John Konvalina, Jim A. Rogers Jan 2012

Bio-Logic Builder: A Non-Technical Tool For Building Dynamical, Qualitative Models, Tomáš Helikar, Bryan Kowal, Alex Madrahimov, Manish Shrestha, Jay Pedersen, Kahani Limbu, Ishwor Thapa, Thaine Rowley, Rahul Satalkar, Naomi Kochi, John Konvalina, Jim A. Rogers

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Computational modeling of biological processes is a promising tool in biomedical research. While a large part of its potential lies in the ability to integrate it with laboratory research, modeling currently generally requires a high degree of training in mathematics and/or computer science. To help address this issue, we have developed a web-based tool, Bio- Logic Builder, that enables laboratory scientists to define mathematical representations (based on a discrete formalism) of biological regulatory mechanisms in a modular and non-technical fashion. As part of the user interface, generalized ‘‘biologic’’ modules have been defined to provide users with the building blocks ...


The Cell Collective: Toward An Open And Collaborative Approach To Systems Biology, Tomáš Helikar, Bryan Kowal, Sean Mcclenathan, Mitchell Bruckner, Thaine Rowley, Alex Madrahimov, Ben Wicks, Manish Shrestha, Kahani Limbu, Jim A. Rogers Jan 2012

The Cell Collective: Toward An Open And Collaborative Approach To Systems Biology, Tomáš Helikar, Bryan Kowal, Sean Mcclenathan, Mitchell Bruckner, Thaine Rowley, Alex Madrahimov, Ben Wicks, Manish Shrestha, Kahani Limbu, Jim A. Rogers

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Despite decades of new discoveries in biomedical research, the overwhelming complexity of cells has been a significant barrier to a fundamental understanding of how cells work as a whole. As such, the holistic study of biochemical pathways requires computer modeling. Due to the complexity of cells, it is not feasible for one person or group to model the cell in its entirety.

Results: The Cell Collective is a platform that allows the world-wide scientific community to create these models collectively. Its interface enables users to build and use models without specifying any mathematical equations or computer code - addressing one ...


A Framework Genetic Map For Miscanthus Sinensis From Rnaseq-Based Markers Shows Recent Tetraploidy, Kankshita Swaminathan, Won Byoung Chae, Therese Mitros, Kranthi Varala, Liang Xie, Adam Barling, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Stanislaw Jezowski, Ray Ming, Matthew Hudson, John A. Juvik, Daniel S. Rokhsar, Stephen P. Moose Jan 2012

A Framework Genetic Map For Miscanthus Sinensis From Rnaseq-Based Markers Shows Recent Tetraploidy, Kankshita Swaminathan, Won Byoung Chae, Therese Mitros, Kranthi Varala, Liang Xie, Adam Barling, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Stanislaw Jezowski, Ray Ming, Matthew Hudson, John A. Juvik, Daniel S. Rokhsar, Stephen P. Moose

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Miscanthus (subtribe Saccharinae, tribe Andropogoneae, family Poaceae) is a genus of temperate perennial C4 grasses whose high biomass production makes it, along with its close relatives sugarcane and sorghum, attractive as a biofuel feedstock. The base chromosome number of Miscanthus (x = 19) is different from that of other Saccharinae and approximately twice that of the related Sorghum bicolor (x = 10), suggesting largescale duplications may have occurred in recent ancestors of Miscanthus. Owing to the complexity of the Miscanthus genome and the complications of self-incompatibility, a complete genetic map with a high density of markers has not yet been developed ...