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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Boron Stress Activates The General Amino Acid Control Mechanism And Inhibits Protein Synthesis, Irem Uluisik, Alaattin Kaya, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Huseyin C. Karakaya, Bradley A. Carlson, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Ahmet Koc Nov 2011

Boron Stress Activates The General Amino Acid Control Mechanism And Inhibits Protein Synthesis, Irem Uluisik, Alaattin Kaya, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Huseyin C. Karakaya, Bradley A. Carlson, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Ahmet Koc

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and it is beneficial for animals. However, at high concentrations boron is toxic to cells although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. Atr1 has recently been identified as a boron efflux pump whose expression is upregulated in response to boron treatment. Here, we found that the expression of ATR1 is associated with expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. These mechanisms are strictly controlled by the transcription factor Gcn4 in response to boron treatment. Further analyses have shown that boron impaired protein synthesis by promoting phosphorylation of eIF2α in a ...


Iron Insufficiency Compromises Motor Neurons And Their Mitochondrial Function In Irp2-Null Mice, Suh Young Jeong, Daniel R. Crooks, Hayden Wilson-Ollivierre, Manik C. Ghosh, Rachid Sougrat, Jaekwon Lee, Sharon Cooperman, James B. Mitchell, Carole Beaumont, Tracey A. Rouault Oct 2011

Iron Insufficiency Compromises Motor Neurons And Their Mitochondrial Function In Irp2-Null Mice, Suh Young Jeong, Daniel R. Crooks, Hayden Wilson-Ollivierre, Manik C. Ghosh, Rachid Sougrat, Jaekwon Lee, Sharon Cooperman, James B. Mitchell, Carole Beaumont, Tracey A. Rouault

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Genetic ablation of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2), which post-transcriptionally regulates iron metabolism genes, causes a gait disorder in mice that progresses to hind-limb paralysis. Here we have demonstrated that misregulation of iron metabolism from loss of Irp2 causes lower motor neuronal degeneration with significant spinal cord axonopathy. Mitochondria in the lumbar spinal cord showed significantly decreased Complex I and II activities, and abnormal morphology. Lower motor neurons appeared to be the most adversely affected neurons, and we show that functional iron starvation due to misregulation of iron import and storage proteins, including transferrin receptor 1 and ferritin, may ...


Reduced Utilization Of Selenium By Naked Mole Rats Due To A Specific Defect In Gpx1 Expression, Marina V. Kasaikina, Alexei V. Lobanov, Mikalai I. Malinouski, Byung Cheon Lee, Javier Seravalli, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Anton A. Turanov, Lydia Finney, Stefan Vogt, Thomas J. Park, Richard A. Miller, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Jan 2011

Reduced Utilization Of Selenium By Naked Mole Rats Due To A Specific Defect In Gpx1 Expression, Marina V. Kasaikina, Alexei V. Lobanov, Mikalai I. Malinouski, Byung Cheon Lee, Javier Seravalli, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Anton A. Turanov, Lydia Finney, Stefan Vogt, Thomas J. Park, Richard A. Miller, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase activities were similar in mice and MR. However, glutathione peroxidase activity was an order of magnitude lower inMRliver and kidney than ...


A 4-Selenocysteine, 2-Selenocysteine Insertion Sequence (Secis) Element Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase From Metridium Senile Reveals A Non-Catalytic Function Of Selenocysteines, Byung Cheon Lee, Alexey V. Lobanov, Stefano M. Marino, Alaattin Kaya, Javier Seravalli, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Jan 2011

A 4-Selenocysteine, 2-Selenocysteine Insertion Sequence (Secis) Element Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase From Metridium Senile Reveals A Non-Catalytic Function Of Selenocysteines, Byung Cheon Lee, Alexey V. Lobanov, Stefano M. Marino, Alaattin Kaya, Javier Seravalli, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Selenocysteine (Sec) residues occur in thiol oxidoreductase families, and functionally characterized selenoenzymes typically have a single Sec residue used directly for redox catalysis. However, how new Sec residues evolve and whether non-catalytic Sec residues exist in proteins is not known. Here, we computationally identified several genes with multiple Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) elements, one of which was a methionine-Rsulfoxide reductase (MsrB) homolog from Metridium senile that has four in-frame UGA codons and two nearly identical SECIS elements. One of the UGA codons corresponded to the conserved catalytic Sec or Cys in MsrBs, whereas the three other UGA codons evolved recently ...


Rpir Homologues May Link Staphylococcus Aureus Rnaiii Synthesis And Pentose Phosphate Pathway Regulation, Yefei Zhu, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Marat R. Sadykov, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Thanh T. Luong, Rosmarie Gaupp, Chia Y. Lee, Greg Somerville Jan 2011

Rpir Homologues May Link Staphylococcus Aureus Rnaiii Synthesis And Pentose Phosphate Pathway Regulation, Yefei Zhu, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Marat R. Sadykov, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Thanh T. Luong, Rosmarie Gaupp, Chia Y. Lee, Greg Somerville

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Staphylococcus aureus is a medically important pathogen that synthesizes a wide range of virulence determinants. The synthesis of many staphylococcal virulence determinants is regulated in part by stress-induced changes in the activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. One metabolic change associated with TCA cycle stress is an increased concentration of ribose, leading us to hypothesize that a pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)-responsive regulator mediates some of the TCA cycle-dependent regulatory effects. Using bioinformatics, we identified three potential ribose-responsive regulators that belong to the RpiR family of transcriptional regulators. To determine whether these RpiR homologues affect PPP activity and virulence ...


Enzymatic Defects Underlying Hereditary Glutamate Cysteine Ligase Deficiency Are Mitigated By Association Of The Catalytic And Regulatory Subunits, Melanie Neely Willis, Yilin Liu, Ekaterina I. Biterova, Melanie A. Simpson, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Joseph J. Barycki Jan 2011

Enzymatic Defects Underlying Hereditary Glutamate Cysteine Ligase Deficiency Are Mitigated By Association Of The Catalytic And Regulatory Subunits, Melanie Neely Willis, Yilin Liu, Ekaterina I. Biterova, Melanie A. Simpson, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Joseph J. Barycki

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive trait that compromises

production of glutathione, a critical redox buffer and enzymatic cofactor. Patients have markedly

reduced levels of erythrocyte glutathione, leading to hemolytic anemia and in some cases,

impaired neurological function. Human glutamate cysteine ligase is a heterodimer comprised of a

catalytic (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM), which catalyzes the initial rate limiting step

in glutathione production. Four clinical missense mutations have been identified within GCLC:

Arg127Cys, Pro158Leu, His370Leu, and Pro414Leu. Here, we have evaluated the impacts of

these mutations on enzymatic function in vivo and in vitro ...


Mne1 Is A Novel Component Of The Mitochondrial Splicing Apparatus Responsible For Processing Of A Cox1 Group I Intron In Yeast, Talina Watts, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Rachel Z. Wolf, Edward M. Turk, Georg Mohr, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2011

Mne1 Is A Novel Component Of The Mitochondrial Splicing Apparatus Responsible For Processing Of A Cox1 Group I Intron In Yeast, Talina Watts, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Rachel Z. Wolf, Edward M. Turk, Georg Mohr, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking Mne1 are deficient in

intron splicing in the gene encoding the Cox1 subunit of cytochrome

oxidase but contain wild-type levels of the bc1 complex.

Thus, Mne1 has no role in splicing of COB introns or expression

of the COB gene. Northern experiments suggest that splicing of

the COX1 aI5β intron is dependent on Mne1 in addition to the

previously known Mrs1, Mss116, Pet54, and Suv3 factors. Processing

of the aI5_ intron is similarly impaired in mne1∆ and

mrs1∆ cells and overexpression of Mrs1 partially restores the

respiratory function of mne1∆ cells. Mrs1 is known to ...


Escherichia Coli Thioredoxin-Like Protein Ybbn Contains An Atypical Tetratricopeptide Repeat Motif And Is A Negative Regulator Of Groel, Jiusheng Lin, Mark A. Wilson Jan 2011

Escherichia Coli Thioredoxin-Like Protein Ybbn Contains An Atypical Tetratricopeptide Repeat Motif And Is A Negative Regulator Of Groel, Jiusheng Lin, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Many proteins contain a thioredoxin (Trx)-like domain fused with one or more partner domains that diversify protein function by the modular construction of new molecules. The Escherichia coli protein YbbN is a Trx-like protein that contains a C-terminal domain with low homology to tetratricopeptide repeat motifs. YbbN has been proposed to act as a chaperone or co-chaperone that aids in heat stress response andDNAsynthesis. We report the crystal structure of YbbN, which is an elongated molecule with a mobile Trx domain and four atypical tetratricopeptide repeat motifs. The Trx domain lacks a canonical CXXC active site architecture and is ...


Defining A Relationship Between Dietary Fatty Acids And The Cytochrome P450 System In A Mouse Model Of Fatty Liver Disease, Monika Gonzalez, Whitney Sealls, Elliot D. Jesch, M. Julia Brosnan, Istvan Ladunga, Xinxin Ding, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso Jan 2011

Defining A Relationship Between Dietary Fatty Acids And The Cytochrome P450 System In A Mouse Model Of Fatty Liver Disease, Monika Gonzalez, Whitney Sealls, Elliot D. Jesch, M. Julia Brosnan, Istvan Ladunga, Xinxin Ding, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. Dirusso

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Liver-specific ablation of cytochrome P450 reductase in mice (LCN) results in hepatic steatosis that can progress to steatohepatitis characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. The specific cause of the fatty liver phenotype is poorly understood but is hypothesized to result from elevated expression of genes encoding fatty acid synthetic genes. Since expression of these genes is known to be suppressed by polyunsaturated fatty acids, we performed physiological and genomics studies to evaluate the effects of dietary linoleic and linolenic fatty acids (PUFA) or arachidonic and decosahexaenoic acids (HUFA) on the hepatic phenotypes of control and LCN mice by comparison with a ...


Functional Diversification Of Thylakoidal Processing Peptidases In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shih-Chi Hsu, Joshua K. Endow, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Rebecca Roston, Amy J. Baldwin, Kentaro Inoue Jan 2011

Functional Diversification Of Thylakoidal Processing Peptidases In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shih-Chi Hsu, Joshua K. Endow, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Rebecca Roston, Amy J. Baldwin, Kentaro Inoue

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Thylakoidal processing peptidase (TPP) is responsible for removing amino-terminal thylakoid-transfer signals from several proteins in the thylakoid lumen. Three TPP isoforms are encoded by the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies showed that one of them termed plastidic type I signal peptidase 1 (Plsp1) was necessary for processing three thylakoidal proteins and one protein in the chloroplast envelope in vivo. The lack of Plsp1 resulted in seedling lethality, apparently due to disruption of proper thylakoid development. The physiological roles of the other two TPP homologs remain unknown. Here we show that the three A. thaliana TPP isoforms evolved to ...


Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed To Different Cellular Compartments, Mikalai Malinouski, You Zhou, Vsevolod V. Belousov, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Jan 2011

Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed To Different Cellular Compartments, Mikalai Malinouski, You Zhou, Vsevolod V. Belousov, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Background: Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells.

Principal Findings: Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed ...


Targeted Deletion Of The Mouse Mitoferrin1 Gene: From Anemia To Protoporphyria, Marie-Berengere Troadec, David Warner, Jared Wallace, Kirk Thomas, Gerald J. Spangrude, John Phillips, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Barry H. Paw, Diane Mcvey Ward, Jerry Kaplan Jan 2011

Targeted Deletion Of The Mouse Mitoferrin1 Gene: From Anemia To Protoporphyria, Marie-Berengere Troadec, David Warner, Jared Wallace, Kirk Thomas, Gerald J. Spangrude, John Phillips, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Barry H. Paw, Diane Mcvey Ward, Jerry Kaplan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mitoferrin1 is 1 of 2 homologous mitochondrial iron transporters and is required for mitochondrial iron delivery in developing erythroid cells. We show that total deletion of Mfrn1 in embryos leads to embryonic lethality. Selective deletion of Mfrn1 in adult hematopoietic tissues leads to severe anemia because of a deficit in erythroblast formation. Deletion of Mfrn1 in hepatocytes has no phenotype or biochemical effect under normal conditions. In the presence of increased porphyrin synthesis, however, deletion of Mfrn1 in hepatocytes results in a decreased ability to convert protoporphyrin IX into heme, leading to protoporphyria, cholestasis, and bridging cirrhosis. Our results show ...


The Lyr Protein Mzm1 Functions In The Insertion Of The Rieske Fe/S Protein In Yeast Mitochondria, Aaron Atkinson, Pamela Smith, Jennifer L. Fox, Tie-Shong Cui, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Dennis R. Winge Jan 2011

The Lyr Protein Mzm1 Functions In The Insertion Of The Rieske Fe/S Protein In Yeast Mitochondria, Aaron Atkinson, Pamela Smith, Jennifer L. Fox, Tie-Shong Cui, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Dennis R. Winge

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The assembly of the cytochrome bc1 complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is shown to be conditionally dependent on a novel factor, Mzm1. Cells lacking Mzm1 exhibit a modest bc1 defect at 30°C, but the defect is exacerbated at elevated temperatures. Formation of bc1 is stalled in mzm1 Δ cells at a late assembly intermediate lacking the Rieske iron-sulfur protein Rip1. Rip1 levels are markedly attenuated in mzm1 Δ cells at elevated temperatures. Respiratory growth can be restored in the mutant cells by the overexpression of the Rip1 subunit. Elevated levels of Mzm1 enhance the stabilization of Rip1 ...


In Vivo Liver Endocytosis Followed By Purification Of Liver Cells By Liver Perfusion, Sandhya Gopalakrishnan, Edward N. Harris Jan 2011

In Vivo Liver Endocytosis Followed By Purification Of Liver Cells By Liver Perfusion, Sandhya Gopalakrishnan, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The liver is the metabolic center of the mammalian body and serves as a filter for the blood. The basic architecture of the liver is illustrated in figure 1 in which more than 85% of the liver mass is composed of hepatocytes and the remaining 15% of the cellular mass is composed of Kupffer cells (KCs), stellate cells (HSCs), and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). SECs form the blood vessel walls within the liver and contain specialized morphology called fenestrae within in the cytoplasm. Fenestration of the cytoplasm is the appearance of holes (˜100 μm) within the cells so that the ...