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Articles 1 - 30 of 85

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Trophic Upgrading And Mobilization Of Wax Esters In Microzooplankton, Keyana Roohani, Brad A. Haubrich, Kai-Lou Yue, Nigel D'Souza, Amanda Mantalbano, Tatiana Rynearson, Susanne Menden-Deuer, Christopher Reid Aug 2019

Trophic Upgrading And Mobilization Of Wax Esters In Microzooplankton, Keyana Roohani, Brad A. Haubrich, Kai-Lou Yue, Nigel D'Souza, Amanda Mantalbano, Tatiana Rynearson, Susanne Menden-Deuer, Christopher Reid

Science and Technology Faculty Journal Articles

Heterotrophic protists play pivotal roles in aquatic ecosystems by transferring matter and energy, including lipids, from primary producers to higher trophic predators. Using Oxyrrhis marina as a model organism, changes to the non-saponifiable protist lipids were investigated under satiation and starvation conditions. During active feeding on the alga Cryptomonas sp., the O. marina hexane soluble non-saponifiable fraction lipid profile reflected its food source with the observed presence of long chain mono-unsaturated fatty alcohols up to C25:1. Evidence of trophic upgrading in O. marina was observed with long chain mono-unsaturated fatty alcohol accumulation of up to C35:1. To the ...


Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill Jul 2019

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


Molecular Fossils From Phytoplankton Reveal Secular Pco2 Trend Over The Phanerozoic, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Johan W. H. Weijers, Brian S. Blais, Stefan Schouten, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté Nov 2018

Molecular Fossils From Phytoplankton Reveal Secular Pco2 Trend Over The Phanerozoic, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Johan W. H. Weijers, Brian S. Blais, Stefan Schouten, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

Science and Technology Faculty Journal Articles

Past changes in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (PCO2) have had a major impact on earth system dynamics; yet, reconstructing secular trends of past PCO2 remains a prevalent challenge in paleoclimate studies. The current long-term PCO2reconstructions rely largely on the compilation of many different proxies, often with discrepancies among proxies, particularly for periods older than 100 million years (Ma). Here, we reconstructed Phanerozoic PCO2 from a single proxy: the stable carbon isotopic fractionation associated with photosynthesis (Ɛp) that increases as PCO2 increases. This concept has been widely applied to alkenones, but here, we expand ...


Glucosamine From Hydrolysis Of 3d Printing Chitosan For Osteoarthritis Treatment, Ruj Dansriboon, Laphon Premcharoen Jun 2018

Glucosamine From Hydrolysis Of 3d Printing Chitosan For Osteoarthritis Treatment, Ruj Dansriboon, Laphon Premcharoen

The International Student Science Fair 2018

This project aims to introduce a new way for osteoarthritis treatment which is expected to increase in the future. Glucosamine is the main subject for a treatment, which can be derived by hydrolyzing chitosan. This project also includes extraction of chitosan from shrimp waste to make a worthy use of food waste from industry. In this project, 3D printer is applied to print chitosan gel since 3D printing is adjustable to form various shapes of the gel.

The research process begins with the extraction of chitosan from shrimp shells. For the next step, the percent of deacetylation of chitosan was ...


Utilization Of Papaya’S Sap (Carica Papaya L.) And Water Lettuce (Pistia Stratiotes) To Reduce Protein Amount On Liquid Tofu Waste, Muhammad Dzulfikar Farkhan, Naila Aliyahandra Anzani, Nabila Fikria Santoso Jun 2018

Utilization Of Papaya’S Sap (Carica Papaya L.) And Water Lettuce (Pistia Stratiotes) To Reduce Protein Amount On Liquid Tofu Waste, Muhammad Dzulfikar Farkhan, Naila Aliyahandra Anzani, Nabila Fikria Santoso

The International Student Science Fair 2018

ABSTRACT

Liquid waste from tofu production is one of the causes of environmental pollution. This condition happens because liquid tofu waste contain protein. Protein is metabolized by bacteria formed ammonia which emits foul odor. On this research, the protein amount in liquid tofu waste is reduced by the application of papaya’s sap and water lettuce. This research is divided into several steps. First, collecting the liquid tofu waste. second, tapping the papaya’s sap. Third, poured the papaya’s sap into the tofu waste. the next step is keep the mixture between tofu waste and papaya’s sap rest ...


Audiobook Of A World From Dust, Ben Mcfarland Jan 2018

Audiobook Of A World From Dust, Ben Mcfarland

Faculty Open Access Books

A World From Dust is a popular science book about the chemical sequence behind the evolution of creation.

It’s about how geology, biology, and chemistry worked together over billions of years, providing a hidden order under the random flow of genes and lava and water.

It’s about the chemical job that each element takes up in life, and how that job is predictable from its place on the periodic table.

It can be told as the story of many elements: how iron and sulfur gave a spark of life; how manganese was a key for oxygen; and how ...


Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin Jan 2018

Il-17 Drives Copper Uptake And Activation Of Growth Pathways In Colorectal Cancer Cells In A Steap4-Dependent Manner, Evan Martin

ETD Archive

Colorectal cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal, invasive cell growth beginning in the colon or rectum. The third most common type of cancer worldwide, approximately one million new cases of the disease are diagnosed across the globe annually, resulting in an estimated 700,000+ deaths. One major risk factor associated with development of colorectal cancer is the presence of chronic inflammation in the large intestine, also known as colitis. Inflammation is a complex immune response against harmful stimuli, characterized by symptoms including heat, redness, swelling and pain. One important molecular mediator of this process is interleukin 17 (IL-17), a ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aromatic-Proton Mediated Hydrogen Bonds, Mona S. Alshamrani Jan 2018

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aromatic-Proton Mediated Hydrogen Bonds, Mona S. Alshamrani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogen bonds play critical role in folding, structure and recognition of biological macromolecules (e.g., proteins, RNA, DNA). In addition to classical hydrogen bonds (e.g., ─OH---O=, ─OH---O─, ─NH---O─ etc.), structural analysis of protein and nucleic acids, almost a decade ago, showed that hydrogen bonds (e.g., CH---O) with hydrogen atoms on aliphatic carbon atoms (hereafter, aliphatic-protons) also play very important role in the structure and function of biomolecules. Even though, protons of aromatic ring systems (hereafter, aromatic-protons) are more polar than the aliphatic-protons, systematic analysis of hydrogen bonds of aromatic-protons have not been carried out. Therefore, I carried out ...


The Function Of Renalase, Brett Allen Beaupre Aug 2016

The Function Of Renalase, Brett Allen Beaupre

Theses and Dissertations

Renalase was originally reported to be an enzyme secreted into the blood by the kidney to lower blood pressure and slow heart rate. Despite multiple reports claiming to confirm this activity in vivo there has been considerable discord in regards to the reaction catalyzed by renalase. The structural topology of renalase resembles that of known flavoprotein oxidases, monooxygenases and demethylases, but the conserved active site residues are unique to renalase. It has been reported that the catalytic function of renalase is to oxidize circulating catecholamines, however in vitro studies have failed to demonstrate a catalytic activity in the presence of ...


Development Of A [2]-Catenane Synthetic Method And A Student Beliefs Survey For A Hybrid Organometallics Course, Jourdan E. Lakes May 2016

Development Of A [2]-Catenane Synthetic Method And A Student Beliefs Survey For A Hybrid Organometallics Course, Jourdan E. Lakes

Honors Theses

In this study, the value-added of a new upper-level chemistry course, CHEM 372-Organometallics, was defined using a Student Beliefs Survey that was answered by students in CHEM 372 and by faculty who teach upper-level chemistry courses at Coastal Carolina University. The laboratory portion of CHEM 372 focused on the synthesis of a [2]-catenane, which is a molecularly interlocked molecule (MIM). The intention was to give the CHEM 372 students a goal to work toward over the course of the semester instead of different, unrelated, experiments each week. Using this style of lab teaching, the students were introduced to graduate ...


Substrate Specificity Of The Lipn Hydrolase From Mycobacterium Ulcerans, Stephanie Raynor Jan 2016

Substrate Specificity Of The Lipn Hydrolase From Mycobacterium Ulcerans, Stephanie Raynor

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, a tropical skin disease that affects thousands of individuals annually. Recent studies have revealed that lipolytic enzymes are involved in the pathogenicity processes of mycobacterium and could be potential targets for novel antibiotics. LipN is one proposed serine hydrolase in Mycobacterium ulcerans that contains the conserved α/β hydrolase protein fold and utilizes the conserved catalytic traid of serine, histidine, and aspartate/glutamate. The physiological substrate and biological role of LipN from M. ulcerans have not yet been determined. In this study, LipN was cloned into a pET28a plasmid and overexpressed ...


Redox-Dependent Stability, Protonation, And Reactivity Of Cysteine-Bound Heme Proteins, Fangfang Zhong, George P. Lisi, Daniel P. Collins, John H. Dawson, Ekaterina V. Pletneva Jan 2014

Redox-Dependent Stability, Protonation, And Reactivity Of Cysteine-Bound Heme Proteins, Fangfang Zhong, George P. Lisi, Daniel P. Collins, John H. Dawson, Ekaterina V. Pletneva

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cysteine-bound hemes are key components of many enzymes and biological sensors. Protonation (deprotonation) of the Cys ligand often accompanies redox transformations of these centers. To characterize these phenomena, we have engineered a series of Thr78Cys/Lys79Gly/Met80X mutants of yeast cytochrome c (cyt c) in which Cys78 becomes one of the axial ligands to the heme. At neutral pH, the protonation state of the coordinated Cys differs for the ferric and ferrous heme species, with Cys binding as a thiolate and a thiol, respectively. Analysis of redox-dependent stability and alkaline transitions of these model proteins, as well as comparisons to ...


A Loose Domain Swapping Organization Confers A Remarkable Stability To The Dimeric Structure Of The Arginine Binding Protein From Thermotoga Maritima, Alessia Ruggiero, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Maria Staiano, Rita Berisio, Sabato D'Auria, Luigi Vitagliano Jan 2014

A Loose Domain Swapping Organization Confers A Remarkable Stability To The Dimeric Structure Of The Arginine Binding Protein From Thermotoga Maritima, Alessia Ruggiero, Jonathan D. Dattelbaum, Maria Staiano, Rita Berisio, Sabato D'Auria, Luigi Vitagliano

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP), a substrate binding protein (SBP) involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate ...


Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari Oct 2013

Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

One of the objectives in the development of effective cancer therapy is induction of tumor-selective cell death. Toward this end, we have identified a small peptide that, when introduced into cells via a TAT cell-delivery system, shows a remarkably potent cytoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, whereas sparing normal cells and tissues. This fusion peptide was named killer FLIP as its sequence was derived from the C-terminal domain of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Using structure activity analysis, we determined the minimal bioactive core of killerFLIP, namely killerFLIP-E. Structural analysis of cells using ...


Detection Of Boronic Acids Through Excited-State Intramolecular Proton-Transfer Fluorescence, Matthew R. Aronoff, Brett Vanveller, Ronald T. Raines Oct 2013

Detection Of Boronic Acids Through Excited-State Intramolecular Proton-Transfer Fluorescence, Matthew R. Aronoff, Brett Vanveller, Ronald T. Raines

Brett VanVeller

Boronic acids are versatile reagents for the chemical synthesis of organic molecules. They and other boron-containing compounds can be detected readily by the interruption of the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolone. This method is highly sensitive and selective, and useful for monitoring synthetic reactions and detecting boron-containing compounds on a solid support.


Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair Aug 2013

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is a growing global concern and has prompted an effort to explore potential adjuvant and alternative therapies derived from nature's repertoire of bactericidal proteins and peptides. In humans, the airway surface liquid layer is a rich source of antibiotics, and lysozyme represents one of the most abundant and effective antimicrobial components of airway secretions. Human lysozyme is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ac


Synthesis And Immunological Evaluation Of Type I, Type Ii, And Gamma Delta Nkt Cell Antigens, Brian L. Anderson May 2013

Synthesis And Immunological Evaluation Of Type I, Type Ii, And Gamma Delta Nkt Cell Antigens, Brian L. Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the immune system is to protect our bodies from infection. One way it accomplishes this task is through the presentation of foreign pathogens to NKT cells. After an antigen is presented to the T cell receptor, activated NKT cells quickly release soluble chemical signals, termed chemokines and cytokines, that modulate the response of the immune system. Due to the immunological relevance of NKT cell activation, we developed and synthesised non-natural analogs of immunostimulatory type I, II, and gamma delta NKT cell antigens. The immunological evaluations of these analogs resulted in identification of sulfatide as a gamma delta ...


Integrating Art And Science In Undergraduate Education, Daniel Gurnon Feb 2013

Integrating Art And Science In Undergraduate Education, Daniel Gurnon

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty publications

The prevailing vision for undergraduate science education includes increased collaboration among teachers of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) and an overhaul of introductory courses [1][4]. But by staying within the borders of STEM, are we overlooking connections between the arts and innovative science? Likewise, are we missing an important opportunity to inspire and inform nonscientists? Here we explore how weaving the visual arts into a science curriculum can both help develop scientific imagination and engage nonscientists. As an example, we describe a recent collaboration between artists and scientists to create a series of science-inspired sculptures.


N-Terminal Domain Of Vacuolar Snare Vam7p Promotes Trans-Snare Complex Assembly, Hao Xu, William T. Wickner Sep 2012

N-Terminal Domain Of Vacuolar Snare Vam7p Promotes Trans-Snare Complex Assembly, Hao Xu, William T. Wickner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

SNARE-dependent membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells requires that the heptad-repeat SNARE domains from R- and Q-SNAREs, anchored to apposed membranes, assemble into four-helix coiled-coil bundles. In addition to their SNARE and transmembrane domains, most SNAREs have N-terminal domains (N-domains), although their functions are unclear. The N-domain of the yeast vacuolar Qc-SNARE Vam7p is a binding partner for the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex (a master regulator of vacuole fusion) and has Phox homology, providing a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)-specific membrane anchor. We now report that this Vam7p N-domain has yet another role, one that does not depend on ...


Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg Nov 2011

Planning Combinatorial Disulfide Cross-Links For Protein Fold Determination, Fei Xiong, Alan M Friedman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Fold recognition techniques take advantage of the limited number of overall structural organizations, and have become increasingly effective at identifying the fold of a given target sequence. However, in the absence of sufficient sequence identity, it remains difficult for fold recognition methods to always select the correct model. While a native-like model is often among a pool of highly ranked models, it is not necessarily the highest-ranked one, and the model rankings depend sensitively on the scoring function used. Structure elucidation methods can then be employed to decide among the models based on relatively rapid biochemical/biophysical experiments.


A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun Oct 2011

A Lipid-Anchored Snare Supports Membrane Fusion, Hao Xu, Michael Zick, William T. Wickner, Youngsoo Jun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Intracellular membrane fusion requires R-SNAREs and Q-SNAREs to assemble into a four-helical parallel coiled-coil, with their hydrophobic anchors spanning the two apposed membranes. Based on the fusion properties of chemically defined SNARE- proteoliposomes, it has been proposed that the assembly of this helical bundle transduces force through the entire bilayer via the transmembrane SNARE anchor domains to drive fusion. However, an R-SNARE, Nyv1p, with a genetically engineered lipid anchor that spans half of the bilayer suffices for the fusion of isolated vacuoles, although this organelle has other R-SNAREs. To demonstrate unequivocally the fusion activity of lipid-anchored Nyv1p, we reconstituted proteoliposomes ...


Characterization Of Esterase Activity From The Bacteria, Francisella Tularensis, The Causative Agent Of Tularemia, Leigh Anna Weston May 2011

Characterization Of Esterase Activity From The Bacteria, Francisella Tularensis, The Causative Agent Of Tularemia, Leigh Anna Weston

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Francisella tularensis is the bacteria responsible for causing the disease tularemia and is listed as one of the top three-biowarfare agents. Among the proteins essential to the virulence and infectivity of F.tularensis are multiple esterases, which are enzymes that break down various ester, thioester, and amide bonds. In this project, the catalytic activity, substrate speci fi city, and structure of a putative esterase from F.tularensis was studied. Latent fluorophores based on the molecule, fluorescein, were unmasked by the enzymatic activity of the esterase and the increase in fluorescence was measured over time to determine how well the e ...


An Assessment Of Stable Hydrogen-Isotope Analysis Methods To Assign Geographic Origin To Migratory Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Carla Marie Ahlschwede May 2011

An Assessment Of Stable Hydrogen-Isotope Analysis Methods To Assign Geographic Origin To Migratory Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Carla Marie Ahlschwede

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

Stable-hydrogen isotopes are becoming an increasingly popular method of studying migratory birds, though sample preparation methods may affect results. In this study I examined feathers from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) to determine the relationship between measure of δD due to inter-feather variation or drying methods, assessed the accuracy of results by using two birds of known-origin and estimated possible natal origins of migratory red-tailed hawks. Two feathers per individual were taken from 81 wild hawks caught at Hitchcock Nature Center near Crescent IA and from 2 rescued red-tailed hawks, Raptor Recovery Nebraska near Eagle, NE. 119 of the collected feathers ...


Her2 Targeted Molecular Mr Imaging Using A De Novo Designed Protein Contrast Agent, Jingjuan Qiao, Shunyi Li, Lixia Wei, Jie Jiang, Robert Long, Hui Mao, Ling Wei, Liya Wang, Hua Yang, Hans E. Grossniklaus, Zhi-Ren Liu, Jenny J. Yang Mar 2011

Her2 Targeted Molecular Mr Imaging Using A De Novo Designed Protein Contrast Agent, Jingjuan Qiao, Shunyi Li, Lixia Wei, Jie Jiang, Robert Long, Hui Mao, Ling Wei, Liya Wang, Hua Yang, Hans E. Grossniklaus, Zhi-Ren Liu, Jenny J. Yang

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to non-invasively assess disease biomarkers has been hampered by the lack of desired contrast agents with high relaxivity, targeting capability, and optimized pharmacokinetics. We have developed a novel MR imaging probe targeting to HER2, a biomarker for various cancer types and a drug target for anti-cancer therapies. This multimodal HER20targeted MR imaging probe integrates a de novo designed protein contrast agent with a high affinity HER2 affibody and a near IR fluorescent dye. Our probe can differentially monitor tumors with different expression levels of HER2 in both human cell lines and xenograft mice ...


Conformation And Ion Transport Of Neuronal Uncoupling Proteins: Ucp2, Ucp4, And Ucp5, Tuan Hoang Jan 2011

Conformation And Ion Transport Of Neuronal Uncoupling Proteins: Ucp2, Ucp4, And Ucp5, Tuan Hoang

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of brown adipose tissue, uncoupling protein -1 (UCP1) dissipates the proton electrochemical gradient, causing reduction in the rate of ATP synthesis, and generates heat by non-shivering thermogenesis. Three other UCP homologs (UCP2, UCP4 and UCP5), expressed in neurons, are suggested to have potential roles in the function and protection of the central nervous system (CNS). Up to date, structural information for UCPs still remains limited. Extensive biochemical studies on UCP2 have provided adequate evidence for its participation in proton and anion transport. So far, no functional studies in proteoliposome systems have been performed on ...


Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros Sep 2010

Physical Interaction Between Vivid And White Collar Complex Regulates Photoadaptation In Neurospora, Chen-Hui H. Chen, Bradley S. Demay, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Photoadaptation, the ability to attenuate a light response on prolonged light exposure while remaining sensitive to escalating changes in light intensity, is essential for organisms to decipher time information appropriately, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In Neurospora crassa, VIVID (VVD), a small LOV domain containing blue-light photoreceptor protein, affects photoadaptation for most if not all light-responsive genes. We report that there is a physical interaction between VVD and the white collar complex (WCC), the primary blue-light photoreceptor and the transcription factor complex that initiates light-regulated transcriptional responses in Neurospora. Using two previously characterized VVD mutants, we show ...


Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of A Cryptochrome From The Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Allan C. Froehlich, Chen-Hui Chen, William J. Belden, Cornelia Madeti Mar 2010

Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of A Cryptochrome From The Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Crassa, Allan C. Froehlich, Chen-Hui Chen, William J. Belden, Cornelia Madeti

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In plants and animals, cryptochromes function as either photoreceptors or circadian clock components. We have examined the cryptochrome from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and demonstrate that Neurospora cry encodes a DASH-type cryptochrome that appears capable of binding flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF). The cry transcript and CRY protein levels are strongly induced by blue light in a wc-1-dependent manner, and cry transcript is circadianly regulated, with a peak abundance opposite in phase to frq. Neither deletion nor overexpression of cry appears to perturb the free-running circadian clock. However, cry disruption knockout mutants show a small phase delay ...


Metabolic Profiling Of Echinacea Genotypes And A Test Of Alternative Taxonomic Treatments, Lankun Wu, Philip M. Dixon, Basil J. Nikolau, George A. Kraus, Mark P. Widrlechner, Eve S. Wurtele Jan 2009

Metabolic Profiling Of Echinacea Genotypes And A Test Of Alternative Taxonomic Treatments, Lankun Wu, Philip M. Dixon, Basil J. Nikolau, George A. Kraus, Mark P. Widrlechner, Eve S. Wurtele

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

The genus Echinacea is used as an herbal medicine to treat a variety of ailments. To better understand its potential chemical variation, 40 Echinacea accessions encompassing broad geographical and morphological diversity were evaluated under controlled conditions. Metabolites of roots from these accessions were analyzed by HPLC-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA), GC-MS, and multivariate statistical methods. In total, 43 lipophilic metabolites, including 24 unknown compounds, were detected. Weighted principal component analysis (WPCA) and clustering analysis of the levels of these metabolites across Echinacea accessions, based on Canberra distances, allowed us to test two alternative taxonomic treatments of the genus, with the further ...


Photocycloaddition Of Allenes, Crystal Ward Nov 2008

Photocycloaddition Of Allenes, Crystal Ward

Theses and Dissertations

For the past ten years the Fleming research group has been involved in the research of allene compounds. We have explored the synthesis of allenes as well as several reactions involving allenes, such as oxidation and nitrene addition. Recently, we have explored the synthesis and photochemistry of allenic alcohols tethered to silicon. There are literature examples using allenes in synthesis, but very few examples exist using allenes in photochemical cycloaddition reactions. We have found that a diisopropylallenyloxy(cinnamyloxy)silane derivative undergoes [2+2] photochemical cycloaddition to produce a cyclobutylsilane product when irradiated for 60-75 minutes.


A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith Nov 2007

A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

For virtually all cilia and eukaryotic flagella, the second messengers calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate are implicated in modulating dynein- driven microtubule sliding to regulate beating. Calmodulin (CaM) localizes to the axoneme and is a key calcium sensor involved in regulating motility. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify members of a CaM-containing complex that are involved in regulating dynein activity. This complex includes flagellar-associated protein 91 (FAP91), which shares considerable sequence similarity to AAT-1, a protein originally identified in testis as an A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP)- binding protein. FAP91 directly interacts with radial spoke protein 3 (an AKAP), which ...