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Biochemistry

2017

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Articles 1 - 30 of 592

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Structural Evidence Of A Major Conformational Change Triggered By Substrate Binding In Dape Enzymes: Impact On The Catalytic Mechanism, Boguslaw Nocek, Cory Reid, Anna Starus, Tahirah Heath, David Bienvenues, Jerzy Osipiuk, Robert Jedrzeczak, Andrzej Joachimiak, Daniel P. Becker Ph.D., Richard C. Holz Dec 2017

Structural Evidence Of A Major Conformational Change Triggered By Substrate Binding In Dape Enzymes: Impact On The Catalytic Mechanism, Boguslaw Nocek, Cory Reid, Anna Starus, Tahirah Heath, David Bienvenues, Jerzy Osipiuk, Robert Jedrzeczak, Andrzej Joachimiak, Daniel P. Becker Ph.D., Richard C. Holz

Chemistry: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The X-ray crystal structure of the dapE-encoded N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase from Haemophilus influenzae (HiDapE) bound by the products of hydrolysis, succinic acid and l,l-DAP, was determined at 1.95 Å. Surprisingly, the structure bound to the products revealed that HiDapE undergoes a significant conformational change in which the catalytic domain rotates ∼50° and shifts ∼10.1 Å (as measured at the position of the Zn atoms) relative to the dimerization domain. This heretofore unobserved closed conformation revealed significant movements within the catalytic domain compared to that of wild-type HiDapE, which results in effectively closing ...


Reconciling Contradictory Findings: Glucose Transporter 1 (Glut1) Functions As An Oligomer Of Allosteric, Alternating Access Transporters, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers Dec 2017

Reconciling Contradictory Findings: Glucose Transporter 1 (Glut1) Functions As An Oligomer Of Allosteric, Alternating Access Transporters, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Recent structural studies suggest that glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)-mediated sugar transport is mediated by an alternating access transporter that successively presents exofacial (e2) and endofacial (e1) substrate-binding sites. Transport studies, however, indicate multiple, interacting (allosteric), and co-existent, exo- and endofacial GLUT1 ligand-binding sites. The present study asks whether these contradictory conclusions result from systematic analytical error or reveal a more fundamental relationship between transporter structure and function. Here, homology modeling supported the alternating access transporter model for sugar transport by confirming at least four GLUT1 conformations, the so-called outward, outward-occluded, inward-occluded, and inward GLUT1 conformations. Results from docking analysis ...


Identification Of Factors Involved In 18s Nonfunctional Ribosomal Rna Decay And A Method For Detecting 8-Oxoguanosine By Rna-Seq, Kelly A. Limoncelli Dec 2017

Identification Of Factors Involved In 18s Nonfunctional Ribosomal Rna Decay And A Method For Detecting 8-Oxoguanosine By Rna-Seq, Kelly A. Limoncelli

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The translation of mRNA into functional proteins is essential for all life. In eukaryotes, aberrant RNAs containing sequence features that stall or severely slow down ribosomes are subject to translation-dependent quality control. Targets include mRNAs encoding a strong secondary structure (No-Go Decay; NGD) or stretches of positively-charged amino acids (Peptide-dependent Translation Arrest/Ribosome Quality Control; PDTA/RQC), mRNAs lacking an in-frame stop codon (Non-Stop Decay; NSD), or defective 18S rRNAs (18S Nonfunctional rRNA Decay; 18S NRD). Previous work from our lab showed that the S. cerevisiae NGD factors DOM34 and HBS1, and PDTA/RQC factor ASC1, all participate in the ...


Adapting The Empiric Approach To Investigate Evolutionary Constraints In Influenza A Virus Surface Proteins, Aneth S. Canale Dec 2017

Adapting The Empiric Approach To Investigate Evolutionary Constraints In Influenza A Virus Surface Proteins, Aneth S. Canale

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Controlling influenza A virus (IAV) infections remains a challenge largely due to the high replication and mutation rates of the virus. IAV is a negative-sense RNA virus with two main surface proteins — hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). HA recognizes and binds sialic acid on host cell receptors to initiate virus entry. NA also recognizes sialic acid on host cell receptors but functions by cleaving sialic acid interactions to release progeny virus. Because both HA and NA interact with sialic acid on the host cell surface with opposing effects, their balance is essential for optimal viral infectivity. However, the evolutionary constraints ...


Computer Simulations Exploring Conformational Preferences Of Short Peptides And Developing A Bacterial Chromosome Model, Shuxiang Li Dec 2017

Computer Simulations Exploring Conformational Preferences Of Short Peptides And Developing A Bacterial Chromosome Model, Shuxiang Li

Theses and Dissertations

Computer simulations provide a potentially powerful complement to conventional experimental techniques in elucidating the structures, dynamics and interactions of macromolecules. In this thesis, I present three applications of computer simulations to investigate important biomolecules with sizes ranging from two-residue peptides, to proteins, and to whole chromosome structures.

First, I describe the results of 441 independent explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of all possible two-residue peptides that contain the 20 standard amino acids with neutral and protonated histidine. 3JHNHα coupling constants and δHα chemical shifts calculated from the MD simulations correlated quite well with recently published experimental measurements for a corresponding ...


Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego Dec 2017

Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal of all cancers with a 5-year survival rate of only 8.2%. This is because PDAC is diagnosed in its advanced stages and is characterized by radio and chemotherapy resistance. Aggressiveness of PDAC tumors is attributed to its high metabolic phenotype, which is characterized by increased glycolysis rate and lactate secretion, while oxidative metabolism is reduced. These metabolic features are required to fulfill the biosynthetic demands of proliferating PDAC cells. However, this increase in metabolic activity results in acidification of the extracellular space because the dense fibrotic stroma of PDAC tumors ...


Regulation Of Gene Expression By Rna Binding Proteins And Micrornas, Kyle Cottrell Dec 2017

Regulation Of Gene Expression By Rna Binding Proteins And Micrornas, Kyle Cottrell

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Regulation of gene expression is essential to life. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is a complex process with many inputs that lead to changes in localization, translation and stability of mRNAs. The translation and stability of many mRNAs is regulated by cis-elements, such as mRNA-structure or codon optimality; and by trans-acting factors such as RBPs and miRNAs. Here I report on the complex interactions between RBPs, miRNAs and characteristics of their target mRNAs in respect to effects on translation and RNA stability.

Using a reporter based approach we studied modulation of microRNA-mediated repression by various mRNA characteristics. We observed the ...


Binding Affinity And Specificity Of Sh2 Domain Interactions In Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Networks, Tom Ronan Dec 2017

Binding Affinity And Specificity Of Sh2 Domain Interactions In Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Networks, Tom Ronan

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling mechanisms play a central role in intracellular signaling and control development of multicellular organisms, cell growth, cell migration, and programmed cell death. Dysregulation of these signaling mechanisms results in defects of development and diseases such as cancer. Control of this network relies on the specificity and selectivity of Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain interactions with phosphorylated target peptides. In this work, we review and identify the limitations of current quantitative understanding of SH2 domain interactions, and identify severe limitations in accuracy and availability of SH2 domain interaction data. We propose a framework to address some ...


Attaching-And-Effacing Pathogens Exploit Junction Regulatory Activities Of N-Wasp And Snx9 To Disrupt The Intestinal Barrier, John J. Garber, Emily M. Mallick, Karen M. Scanlon, Jerrold R. Turner, Michael S. Donnenberg, John M. Leong, Scott B. Snapper Dec 2017

Attaching-And-Effacing Pathogens Exploit Junction Regulatory Activities Of N-Wasp And Snx9 To Disrupt The Intestinal Barrier, John J. Garber, Emily M. Mallick, Karen M. Scanlon, Jerrold R. Turner, Michael S. Donnenberg, John M. Leong, Scott B. Snapper

Open Access Articles

Background and Aims: Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton in epithelial tissues and is poised to mediate cytoskeletal-dependent aspects of apical junction complex (AJC) homeostasis. Attaching-and-effacing (AE) pathogens disrupt this homeostasis through translocation of the effector molecule early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESX)-1 secretion-associated protein F (EspF). Although the mechanisms underlying AJC disruption by EspF are unknown, EspF contains putative binding sites for N-WASP and the endocytic regulator sorting nexin 9 (SNX9). We hypothesized that N-WASP regulates AJC integrity and AE pathogens use EspF to induce junction disassembly through an N-WASP- and SNX9-dependent ...


Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers Dec 2017

Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hibernation, characterized by a seasonal reduction in metabolism and body temperature, allows animals to conserve energy when environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food availability) are unfavourable. During hibernation, small mammals such as the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) cycle between two distinct metabolic states: torpor, where metabolic rate is suppressed by >95% and body temperature falls to ~5 °C, and interbout euthermia (IBE), where metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly increase and are maintained at euthermic levels several hours. Suppression of metabolism during entrance into torpor is paralleled by rapid suppression of liver mitochondrial metabolism. In my thesis, I aimed ...


Role Of Asparagine As A Nitrogen Signal And Characterization Of A Nitrogen Responsive Glutamine Amidotransferase, Gat1_2.1 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shrikaar Kambhampati Dec 2017

Role Of Asparagine As A Nitrogen Signal And Characterization Of A Nitrogen Responsive Glutamine Amidotransferase, Gat1_2.1 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Shrikaar Kambhampati

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maintaining the proper balance between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism is critical to the sustained growth of organisms. In plant leaves, this balance is achieved by photoperiod dependent cross-talk between the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and amino acid metabolism. A crucial mechanism in maintaining C/N balance is the GS/GOGAT cycle, which is well known to serve as a cross-road between C and N metabolism. Importantly, non-photosynthetic tissues (e.g. roots, germinating seeds) lack a sufficient supply of carbon skeletons under high N conditions and hence may resort to other mechanisms, along with the GS/GOGAT cycle, to ...


Structural Determination Of The Broadly Reactive Anti-Ighv1-69 Anti-Idiotypic Antibody G6 And Its Idiotope, Yuval Avnir, Kristina L. Prachanronarong, Shurong Hou, Brendan J. Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A. Marasco Dec 2017

Structural Determination Of The Broadly Reactive Anti-Ighv1-69 Anti-Idiotypic Antibody G6 And Its Idiotope, Yuval Avnir, Kristina L. Prachanronarong, Shurong Hou, Brendan J. Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A. Marasco

Schiffer Lab Publications

The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab) responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3) in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80. The core of the hG6.3 idiotope is a continuous string of CDR-H2 ...


Prep-Hplc Method Development To Isolate Potentially-Carcinogenic, Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines, Victoria S. Kim Dec 2017

Prep-Hplc Method Development To Isolate Potentially-Carcinogenic, Arginine-Based Heterocyclic Amines, Victoria S. Kim

Honors Theses

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are carcinogenic molecules generated from the reaction of creatin(in)e and amino acids at high cooking temperatures in meat. Previous research has shown that replacing creatine with arginine leads to new, uncharacterized HCA molecules. This research entails implementing and optimizing the preparative HPLC analysis of extracts from multiple burnings of arginine with phenylalanine. Isolated fractions from the prep-HPLC analysis were further analyzed using the Ames test to identify mutagenic compounds. Prep-HPLC provides quality control to the burning process along with isolation of larger quantities of materials for further characterization and molecular structure identification.


The Alpha6beta4 Integrin Promotes Resistance To Ferroptosis, Caitlin W. Brown, John J. Amante, Hira Lal Goel, Arthur M. Mercurio Dec 2017

The Alpha6beta4 Integrin Promotes Resistance To Ferroptosis, Caitlin W. Brown, John J. Amante, Hira Lal Goel, Arthur M. Mercurio

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Increases in lipid peroxidation can cause ferroptosis, a form of cell death triggered by inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), which catalyzes the reduction of lipid peroxides and is a target of ferroptosis inducers, such as erastin. The alpha6beta4 integrin protects adherent epithelial and carcinoma cells from ferroptosis induced by erastin. In addition, extracellular matrix (ECM) detachment is a physiologic trigger of ferroptosis, which is evaded by alpha6beta4. The mechanism that enables alpha6beta4 to evade ferroptosis involves its ability to protect changes in membrane lipids that are proferroptotic. Specifically, alpha6beta4-mediated activation of Src and STAT3 suppresses expression of ACSL4, an ...


Structure-Function Relationships In Bacterial Regulatory Proteins And An Enzyme Involved In Antibiotic Biosynthesis, Lanlan Han Dec 2017

Structure-Function Relationships In Bacterial Regulatory Proteins And An Enzyme Involved In Antibiotic Biosynthesis, Lanlan Han

Theses and Dissertations

The first part of my thesis is focused on a new family of two-component response regulator proteins: Aspartate-Less Regulators (ALR). They lack the catalytic aspartate residue required for the phosphorylation mechanism of typical two component response regulators. We are using biophysical tools to characterize two proteins with redox-sensitive ALR domains: repressor of iron transport regulator (RitR) from Streptococcus pneumonia R6 and diguanylate cyclase Q15Z91 from Pseudoalteromonas atalantica. The structure of inactive RitRC128S monomer showed that the ALR domain and the DNA-binding domain are linked by an α-helix that runs the length of the entire protein, with C128 near the C-terminal ...


Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon Dec 2017

Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Salt inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) has been considered a stress-inducible kinase since it was first cloned in 1999. Continued efforts since this time have been dedicated to characterizing the structure and function of SIK1. Such research has laid the ground work for our understanding of SIK1 action and regulation in tissue and stimuli dependent manners. The fundamental findings of this dissertation continue in this tradition and include investigations of SIK1 regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells, the cellular and physiological effects of SIK1 loss of function in vitro and in vivo, and intracellular metabolic and mitochondrial regulation by this kinase ...


Role Of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 (Cb2) In Late Stage Atherosclerosis, Makenzie Fulmer Dec 2017

Role Of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 (Cb2) In Late Stage Atherosclerosis, Makenzie Fulmer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of medium and large vessels. Immune signaling and dyslipidemia are two of several processes which influence lesion development in atherosclerosis. Cannabinoids, such as those found in marijuana, exert their effects through two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Recent studies using CB2 knockout mice and CB2-selective ligands have shed light on a protective role of CB2 in early stages of atherosclerosis. However, the role of CB2 in advanced stages of atherosclerosis remains unclear. To determine if CB2 plays a role in advanced atherosclerotic lesion composition and progression, we investigated the effects of systemic CB2 gene ...


Defining The Dna Binding Energetics Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor, Liyang Zhang Dec 2017

Defining The Dna Binding Energetics Of The Glucocorticoid Receptor, Liyang Zhang

Theses and Dissertations

DNA-binding proteins bind to specific sequences to direct their activity to defined loci in the genome. Regulation of gene expression, for example, is dependent on the recognition of specific DNA sequences by transcription factors (TFs). These TFs receive input from cellular signals to control panels of genes to meet the needs of the cells. Critical to this function is the recognition and binding of TFs to the correct DNA sequence. The main focus of this thesis is to quantitatively determine how proteins, including TFs, distinguish DNA sequences, and to understand how DNA sequence affect their function. Primarily using the Glucocorticoid ...


A Potential Solution To A Poopy Problem: Bile Salt Analogs As Prophylactics Against Clostridium Difficile Infection, Jacqueline Renee Phan Dec 2017

A Potential Solution To A Poopy Problem: Bile Salt Analogs As Prophylactics Against Clostridium Difficile Infection, Jacqueline Renee Phan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In 2011, over 500,000 patients were diagnosed with CDI in the United States and over 29,000 people died of CDI-related complications. With an average of $35,000 to treat a single case of inpatient CDI, cost burden to the healthcare system can reach up to $3.2 billion annually. As both hospital- and community-acquired CDI incidences rise due to the emergence of hypervirulent strains and CDI reoccurrences of up to 25%, standard treatments are rendered less effective and new methods of prevention are critical.

CDI is caused ...


Molecular Geometries And Other Properties Of H2o⋯Agi And H3n⋯Agi As Characterised By Rotational Spectroscopy And Ab Initio Calculations, Chris Medcraft, Eva Gougoula, Dror M. Bittner, John C. Mullaney, Susana Blanco, David P. Tew, Nicholas R. Walker, Anthony C. Legon Dec 2017

Molecular Geometries And Other Properties Of H2o⋯Agi And H3n⋯Agi As Characterised By Rotational Spectroscopy And Ab Initio Calculations, Chris Medcraft, Eva Gougoula, Dror M. Bittner, John C. Mullaney, Susana Blanco, David P. Tew, Nicholas R. Walker, Anthony C. Legon

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The rotational spectra of H3N⋯AgI and H2O⋯AgI have been recorded between 6.5 and 18.5 GHz by chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The complexes were generated through laser vaporisation of a solid target of silver or silver iodide in the presence of an argon gas pulse containing a low concentration of the Lewis base. The gaseous sample subsequently undergoes supersonic expansion which results in cooling of rotational and vibrational motions such that weakly bound complexes can form within the expanding gas jet. Spectroscopic parameters have been determined for eight isotopologues of H3N ...


An Analysis Of Oxidative Damage To Lactate Dehydrogenase In Context Of Neurodegeneration And Catechol-Based Phenolic Antioxidant Chemistry, Lydia Boike Dec 2017

An Analysis Of Oxidative Damage To Lactate Dehydrogenase In Context Of Neurodegeneration And Catechol-Based Phenolic Antioxidant Chemistry, Lydia Boike

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lactate dehydrogenase, a redox-active enzyme with five reactive cysteine residues, reversibly converts pyruvate to lactate during anaerobic glycolysis. In the case of certain disease states, when oxygen levels are low or increased oxidative stress damages mitochondrial respiration, cells must rely heavily on anaerobic glycolysis for ATP production. This is true of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, and many cancers. Diseased cells upregulate anaerobic glycolytic enzymes - particularly LDH – to produce enough energy to survive. Upregulated LDH plays a key role because as it produces lactate, it also replenishes NAD+, allowing for high levels of glycolysis to continue uninterrupted. Despite ...


Water Chemistry Dynamics In Four Vernal Pools In Maine, Usa, Lydia H. Kifner Dec 2017

Water Chemistry Dynamics In Four Vernal Pools In Maine, Usa, Lydia H. Kifner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Vernal pools are small seasonal wetlands that are a common landscape feature that contribute to biodiversity in northeastern North American forests. However, even basic information about their biogeochemical functions, such as carbon cycling, is limited. Dissolved gas concentrations (CH4, CO2) and other water chemistry parameters were monitored weekly at the bottom and surface of four vernal pools in central and eastern Maine, USA, from April to August 2016. The vernal pools were supersaturated with respect to CH4 and CO2 at all sampling dates and locations. Concentrations of dissolved CH4 and CO2 ranged from 0 ...


Harmonizing Lipidomics: Nist Interlaboratory Comparison Exercise For Lipidomics Using Srm 1950-Metabolites In Frozen Human Plasma, J Bowden, C Ulmer, C Jones, J Koelmel, L Abdullah, Houli Jiang, Michal Schwartzman, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Antonio Checa, Michelle Cinel, Romain Colas, Serge Cremers, Edward Dennis, James Evans, Alexander Fauland, Jun Han, Houli Jiang, Michal Schwartzman Dec 2017

Harmonizing Lipidomics: Nist Interlaboratory Comparison Exercise For Lipidomics Using Srm 1950-Metabolites In Frozen Human Plasma, J Bowden, C Ulmer, C Jones, J Koelmel, L Abdullah, Houli Jiang, Michal Schwartzman, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Antonio Checa, Michelle Cinel, Romain Colas, Serge Cremers, Edward Dennis, James Evans, Alexander Fauland, Jun Han, Houli Jiang, Michal Schwartzman

NYMC Faculty Publications

As the lipidomics field continues to advance, self-evaluation within the community is critical. Here, we performed an interlaboratory comparison exercise for lipidomics using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1950-Metabolites in Frozen Human Plasma, a commercially available reference material. The interlaboratory study comprised 31 diverse laboratories, with each laboratory using a different lipidomics workflow. A total of 1,527 unique lipids were measured across all laboratories and consensus location estimates and associated uncertainties were determined for 339 of these lipids measured at the sum composition level by five or more participating laboratories. These evaluated lipids detected in SRM 1950 serve as community-wide ...


Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru Dec 2017

Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are two of the primary pathogens that are associated in the etiology and progression of chronic periodontitis. In T. forsythia, KLIKK proteases are the recently identified group of proteolytic enzymes that are secreted through Type IX secretion system (T9SS). Among, these KLIKK proteases a synergistic relationship was observed between karilysin and mirolysin in invading the host complement system for the survival of the bacteria. Since, karilysin has been already characterized, in this study we propose to study about mirolysin through structural, biochemical and biological characterization. The obtained results from the experiments has shown the propensity ...


Determination Of The Effects Of Different Maillard Reaction Products On The Taxonomic Composition Of The Gut Microbiota, Nesreen Hamdan Aljahdali Dec 2017

Determination Of The Effects Of Different Maillard Reaction Products On The Taxonomic Composition Of The Gut Microbiota, Nesreen Hamdan Aljahdali

Theses and Dissertations

The Maillard Reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction which results in linkage between the amino group of amino acids and the carbonyl group of reduced sugars. This reaction generates Maillard reaction products (MRPs) which are not present naturally in foods, and are responsible for a range of colors, odors, flavors, and other sensory properties. Conflicting reports of MRPs impacts on human health are probably due to the fact that bioconversion of these digestible molecules by the gut microbiota has been marginally taken into account. This study aimed to determine the effects of different MRPs on rodent’s gut microbiota ...


Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks Dec 2017

Design And Synthesis Of Analogs Of Myo-Inositol, Serine, And Cysteine To Enable Chemical Biology Studies, Tanei J. Ricks

Doctoral Dissertations

Phosphorylated myo-inositol compounds including inositol phosphates (InsPs) as well as the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate lipids (PIPns) are critical biomolecules that regulate many of the most important biological processes and pathways. They are aberrant in many disease states due to their regulatory function. The same is true of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) which can serve as a marker to begin apoptosis. However, the full scope of activities of these structures is not clear, particularly since techniques that enable global detection and analysis of the production of these compounds spatially and temporally are lacking. With all of these obstacles in ...


Temporal Regulation Of Chromatin During Myoblast Differentiation, Akihito Harada, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Anthony N. Imbalzano Dec 2017

Temporal Regulation Of Chromatin During Myoblast Differentiation, Akihito Harada, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Anthony N. Imbalzano

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The commitment to and execution of differentiation programmes involves a significant change in gene expression in the precursor cell to facilitate development of the mature cell type. In addition to being regulated by lineage-determining and auxiliary transcription factors that drive these changes, the structural status of the chromatin has a considerable impact on the transcriptional competence of differentiation-specific genes, which is clearly demonstrated by the large number of cofactors and the extraordinary complex mechanisms by which these genes become activated. The terminal differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes and mature skeletal muscle is an excellent system to illustrate these points. The ...


Development Of Chimeric Cas9 Nucleases For Accurate And Flexible Genome Editing, Mehmet F. Bolukbasi Nov 2017

Development Of Chimeric Cas9 Nucleases For Accurate And Flexible Genome Editing, Mehmet F. Bolukbasi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

There has been tremendous amount of effort focused on the development and improvement of genome editing applications over the decades. Particularly, the development of programmable nucleases has revolutionized genome editing with regards to their improvements in mutagenesis efficacy and targeting feasibility. Programmable nucleases are competent for a variety of genome editing applications. There is growing interest in employing the programmable nucleases in therapeutic genome editing applications, such as correcting mutations in genetic disorders.

Type II CRISPR-Cas9 bacterial adaptive immunity systems have recently been engineered as RNA-guided programmable nucleases. Native CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases have two stages of sequence-specific target DNA recognition prior ...


Nbpmf: Novel Network-Based Inference Methods For Peptide Mass Fingerprinting, Zhewei Liang Nov 2017

Nbpmf: Novel Network-Based Inference Methods For Peptide Mass Fingerprinting, Zhewei Liang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Proteins are large, complex molecules that perform a vast array of functions in every living cell. A proteome is a set of proteins produced in an organism, and proteomics is the large-scale study of proteomes. Several high-throughput technologies have been developed in proteomics, where the most commonly applied are mass spectrometry (MS) based approaches. MS is an analytical technique for determining the composition of a sample. Recently it has become a primary tool for protein identification, quantification, and post translational modification (PTM) characterization in proteomics research. There are usually two different ways to identify proteins: top-down and bottom-up. Top-down approaches ...


Investigations Into The Non-Mevalonate Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Pathway's First Two Enzymes Utilizing Hybrid Qm/Mm Techniques, Justin K. White Nov 2017

Investigations Into The Non-Mevalonate Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Pathway's First Two Enzymes Utilizing Hybrid Qm/Mm Techniques, Justin K. White

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Molecular drug design begins with the identication of a problem to solve. This work identies the growing resistance among human pathogens to current treatments. Once the problem is identied and understood, solutions must be proposed. This one is straight forward, we need new antimicrobial drugs. More specically, we need to identify novel targets to inhibit. A large portion of antibiotics focus on disruption of macromolecular production while only a few target metabolic systems. Finally, you need to propose solutions based on the information gathered. In order to avoid existing resistance, it is important to avoid the macromolecular route and focus ...