Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry

2016

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 589

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Phosphorylation Of The Mdm2 Oncoprotein By The C-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Regulates P53 Tumor Suppression And The Radiosensitivity Of Mice, Michael I. Carr, Justine E. Roderick, Hong Zhang, Bruce A. Woda, Michelle A. Kelliher, Stephen N. Jones Dec 2016

Phosphorylation Of The Mdm2 Oncoprotein By The C-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Regulates P53 Tumor Suppression And The Radiosensitivity Of Mice, Michael I. Carr, Justine E. Roderick, Hong Zhang, Bruce A. Woda, Michelle A. Kelliher, Stephen N. Jones

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The p53 tumor suppressor acts as a guardian of the genome by preventing the propagation of DNA damage-induced breaks and mutations to subsequent generations of cells. We have previously shown that phosphorylation of the Mdm2 oncoprotein at Ser394 by the ATM kinase is required for robust p53 stabilization and activation in cells treated with ionizing radiation, and that loss of Mdm2 Ser394 phosphorylation leads to spontaneous tumorigenesis and radioresistance in Mdm2S394A mice. Previous in vitro data indicate that the c-Abl kinase phosphorylates Mdm2 at the neighboring residue (Tyr393) in response to DNA damage to regulate p53-dependent apoptosis. In this present ...


Wzb117 (2-Fluoro-6-(M-Hydroxybenzoyloxy) Phenyl M-Hydroxybenzoate) Inhibits Glut1-Mediated Sugar Transport By Binding Reversibly At The Exofacial Sugar Binding Site, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Andrew Simon, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers Dec 2016

Wzb117 (2-Fluoro-6-(M-Hydroxybenzoyloxy) Phenyl M-Hydroxybenzoate) Inhibits Glut1-Mediated Sugar Transport By Binding Reversibly At The Exofacial Sugar Binding Site, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Andrew Simon, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

WZB117 (2-fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) phenyl m-hydroxybenzoate) inhibits passive sugar transport in human erythrocytes and cancer cell lines and, by limiting glycolysis, inhibits tumor growth in mice. This study explores how WZB117 inhibits the erythrocyte sugar transporter glucose transport protein 1 (GLUT1) and examines the transporter isoform specificity of inhibition. WZB117 reversibly and competitively inhibits erythrocyte 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) uptake with Ki(app) = 6 mum but is a noncompetitive inhibitor of sugar exit. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a reversible, noncompetitive inhibitor of 3MG uptake with Ki(app) = 0.3 mum but is a competitive inhibitor of sugar exit indicating that WZB117 and CB ...


New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian Fp Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang Dec 2016

New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian Fp Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

SMYD3 plays a key role in cancer cell viability, adhesion, migration and invasion. SMYD3 promotes formation of inducible regulatory T cells and is involved in reducing autoimmunity. However, the nearly “closed” substrate-binding site and poor in vitro H3K4 methyltransferase activity have obscured further understanding of this oncogenically related protein. Here we reveal that SMYD3 can adopt an “open” conformation using molecular dynamics simulation and small-angle X-ray scattering. This ligand-binding-capable open state is related to the crystal structure-like closed state by a striking clamshell-like inter-lobe dynamics. The two states are characterized by many distinct structural and dynamical differences and the conformational ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Dec 2016

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Dec 2016

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Hepatocellular Death Pathways Mediate Liver Injury And Fibrosis Via Stimulator Of Interferon Genes., Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Jan Petrasek, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Charles D. Calenda, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Kate A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Fibrosis, driven by inflammation, marks the transition from benign to progressive stages of chronic liver diseases. Although inflammation promotes fibrogenesis, it is not known whether other events, such as hepatocyte death, are required for the development of fibrosis. Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) regulates hepatocyte apoptosis and production of Type-I interferons (IFNs). In the liver, IRF3 is activated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling or the ER adapter, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We hypothesized that IRF3-mediated hepatocyte death is an independent determinant of chemically-induced liver fibrogenesis. To test this, we performed acute or chronic carbontetrachloride (CCl4) administration to WT ...


Regulation Of Alteration/Deficiency In Activation 3 (Ada3) By Acetylation And Its Role In Cell Cycle Regulation And Oncogenesis, Shashank Srivastava Dec 2016

Regulation Of Alteration/Deficiency In Activation 3 (Ada3) By Acetylation And Its Role In Cell Cycle Regulation And Oncogenesis, Shashank Srivastava

Theses & Dissertations

The ADA3 (Alteration/Deficiency in Activation 3) protein is a transcriptional adaptor protein that was initially discovered as a component of several HAT (Histone Acetyltransferase) complexes, the enzyme complex responsible for histone acetylation, which is a prerequisite for transcription. Earlier the studies from Dr. Band’s laboratory and that of others’ have deciphered a crucial role of ADA3 in cell cycle regulation (both through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions) and in maintaining the genomic stability.

While our laboratory investigated the mechanism behind the role of ADA3 in G1/S transition, the same remained unknown for ...


Defining The Role Of Phosphorylation And Dephosphorylation In The Regulation Of Gap Junction Proteins, Hanjun Li Dec 2016

Defining The Role Of Phosphorylation And Dephosphorylation In The Regulation Of Gap Junction Proteins, Hanjun Li

Theses & Dissertations

Gap junctions are intercellular channels that permit the free passage of ions, small metabolites, and signaling molecules between neighboring cells. In the diseased human heart, altered ventricular gap junction organization and connexin expression (i.e., remodeling) are key contributors to rhythm disturbances and contractile dysfunction. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the dominant gap junction protein isoform in the ventricle which is under tight regulation by serine/tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulate many aspects of Cx43 function including trafficking, assembly and disassembly, electrical and metabolic coupling at the plaque, as well as to modulate the interaction with other proteins.

Serine phosphorylation has ...


Dna Polymerase Zeta-Dependent Mutagenesis: Molecular Specificity, Extent Of Error-Prone Synthesis, And The Role Of Dntp Pools, Olga V. Kochenova Dec 2016

Dna Polymerase Zeta-Dependent Mutagenesis: Molecular Specificity, Extent Of Error-Prone Synthesis, And The Role Of Dntp Pools, Olga V. Kochenova

Theses & Dissertations

Despite multiple DNA repair pathways, DNA lesions can escape repair and compromise normal chromosomal replication, leading to genome instability. Cells utilize specialized low-fidelity Translesion Synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases to bypass lesions and rescue arrested replication forks. TLS is a highly conserved two-step process that involves insertion of a nucleotide opposite a lesion and extension of the resulting aberrant primer terminus. The first step can be performed by both replicative and TLS DNA polymerases and, because of non-instructive DNA lesions, often results in a nucleotide misincorporation. The second step is almost exclusively catalyzed by DNA polymerase ζ ...


Mitogen And Morphogen Signaling Dysregulation: Pathophysiological Influence In Pancreatic Cancer And Alzheimer’S Disease, Eric Cruz Dec 2016

Mitogen And Morphogen Signaling Dysregulation: Pathophysiological Influence In Pancreatic Cancer And Alzheimer’S Disease, Eric Cruz

Theses & Dissertations

Although the etiology of a particular disease will vary, there are genetic and epigenetic bottlenecks that frequently converge resulting in dysregulation of mitogenic and morphogenetic signaling. This propensity is acutely experienced in malignancy and neurodegenerative disease.

Here, we have first investigated the role of dysregulated signaling in the context of pancreatic cancer (PC). Morphogenetic signaling has been regarded as a pleiotropic pathway with the potential to promote and inhibit metastatic features. Our investigation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), an archetypical member of the BMP superfamily, has revealed the presence of extracellular, intracellular, and long non-coding RNA products. Our findings ...


Ctcf-Mediated Topological Boundaries During Development Foster Appropriate Gene Regulation, Varun Narendra, Milica Bulajic, Job Dekker, Esteban O. Mazzoni, Danny Reinberg Dec 2016

Ctcf-Mediated Topological Boundaries During Development Foster Appropriate Gene Regulation, Varun Narendra, Milica Bulajic, Job Dekker, Esteban O. Mazzoni, Danny Reinberg

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

The genome is organized into repeating topologically associated domains (TADs), each of which is spatially isolated from its neighbor by poorly understood boundary elements thought to be conserved across cell types. Here, we show that deletion of CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor)-binding sites at TAD and sub-TAD topological boundaries that form within the HoxA and HoxC clusters during differentiation not only disturbs local chromatin domain organization and regulatory interactions but also results in homeotic transformations typical of Hox gene misregulation. Moreover, our data suggest that CTCF-dependent boundary function can be modulated by competing forces, such as the self-assembly of polycomb domains ...


Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi Dec 2016

Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi

Jennifer Hayashi

Mycobacterium is a diverse genus of actinobacteria that includes the causative agents of human tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacteria are protected by their unique, multilaminar cell envelope, which grants them intrinsic resistance to environmental challenges such as antibiotics. This essential cellular structure is elongated at the polar ends of cells, but the regulation of cytosolic precursor synthesis and localized envelope synthesis remains unclear. Here, we present the PMf (plasma membrane free of cell wall components), a membrane domain distinct from the bulk plasma membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Proteomic and lipidomic characterization demonstrate that the PMf contains lipidic substrates ...


Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. Mcfarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson Dec 2016

Stability Of Peatland Carbon To Rising Temperatures, R. M. Wilson, A. M. Hopple, M. M. Tfaily, S. D. Sebestyen, C. W. Schadt, L. Pfeifer-Meister, Cassandra Medvedeff, K. J. Mcfarlane, J. E. Kostka, M. Kolton, R. K. Kolka, L. A. Kluber, Jason K. Keller, T. P. Guilderson, N. A. Griffiths, J. P. Chanton, S. D. Brigham, P. J. Hanson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Peatlands contain one-third of soil carbon (C), mostly buried in deep, saturated anoxic zones (catotelm). The response of catotelm C to climate forcing is uncertain, because prior experiments have focused on surface warming. We show that deep peat heating of a 2 m-thick peat column results in an exponential increase in CH4 emissions. However, this response is due solely to surface processes and not degradation of catotelm peat. Incubations show that only the top 20–30 cm of peat from experimental plots have higher CH4 production rates at elevated temperatures. Radiocarbon analyses demonstrate that CH4 and CO2 are produced primarily ...


The Structural Basis For The Interdependence Of Drug Resistance In The Hiv-1 Protease, Debra A. Ragland Dec 2016

The Structural Basis For The Interdependence Of Drug Resistance In The Hiv-1 Protease, Debra A. Ragland

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) is a critical drug target as it is responsible for virion maturation. Mutations within the active site (1°) of the PR directly interfere with inhibitor binding while mutations distal to the active site (2°) to restore enzymatic fitness. Increasing mutation number is not directly proportional to the severity of resistance, suggesting that resistance is not simply additive but that it is interdependent. The interdependency of both primary and secondary mutations to drive protease inhibitor (PI) resistance is grossly understudied.

To structurally and dynamically characterize the direct role of secondary mutations in ...


Phthalate Plasticizers Covalently Linked To Pvc Via Copper-Free Or Copper Catalyzed Axide-Alkyne Cycloadditions, Aruna Earla, Li Longbo, Philip Costanzo, Rebecca Braslau Dec 2016

Phthalate Plasticizers Covalently Linked To Pvc Via Copper-Free Or Copper Catalyzed Axide-Alkyne Cycloadditions, Aruna Earla, Li Longbo, Philip Costanzo, Rebecca Braslau

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Plasticization of PVC was carried out by covalently linking phthalate derivatives via copper-free (thermal) or copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate derivatives (DEHP-ether and DEHP-ester) were synthesized and appended to PVC at two different densities. The glass transition temperatures of the modified PVC decreased with increasing content of plasticizer. PVC-DEHP-ether gave lower glass transition temperatures than PVC-DEHP-ester, reflecting the enhanced flexibility of the ether versus ester linker.


Manual And Automated Solid Phase Synthesis Of Peptides For Breast Cancer Cell Targeting, Savannah Carlson Dec 2016

Manual And Automated Solid Phase Synthesis Of Peptides For Breast Cancer Cell Targeting, Savannah Carlson

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Four peptides were synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis. The two target peptides synthesized were based off peptide 18-4 and its negative analog. Each were synthesized once manually, and once using an automatic peptide synthesizer. Peptide 18-4 has a high affinity for breast cancer cells, allowing it to be used to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood (Kaur et. al, 2015). Manual solid phase peptide synthesis is performed by anchoring the first amino acid to Wang resin and coupling each Fmoc protected amino acid individually until the target sequence is achieved. To synthesize the peptides automatically, the automated Tribute ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminase 1-Catalyzed Histone Citrullination Is Essential For Early Embryo Development, Xiaoqian Zhang, Xiaoqiu Liu, Mei Zhang, Tingting Li, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod, Xuesen Zhang Dec 2016

Peptidylarginine Deiminase 1-Catalyzed Histone Citrullination Is Essential For Early Embryo Development, Xiaoqian Zhang, Xiaoqiu Liu, Mei Zhang, Tingting Li, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Scott A. Coonrod, Xuesen Zhang

Thompson Lab Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PADI) enzymes are increasingly being associated with the regulation of chromatin structure and gene activity via histone citrullination. As one of the PADI family members, PADI1 has been mainly reported to be expressed in the epidermis and uterus, where the protein in keratinocytes is thought to promote differentiation by citrullinating filament proteins. However, the roles of PADI1 in preimplantation development have not been addressed. Using a PADI1-specific inhibitor and Padi1-morpholino knockdown, we found that citrullination of histone tails at H4R3 and H3R2/8/17 were markedly reduced in the 2- and 4-cell embryos. Consistent with this observation, early ...


Design And Synthesis Of Novel Azasteroids And Pseudoazulenyl Nitrones, Nagaraju Birudukota Dec 2016

Design And Synthesis Of Novel Azasteroids And Pseudoazulenyl Nitrones, Nagaraju Birudukota

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Steroids are one of the essential classes of bioactive compounds and are involved in many biological functions which include their role as signaling compounds, the alteration of membrane fluidity and the regulation of a variety of metabolic processes. In order to identify novel compounds with beneficial pharmacological action, the synthesis of modified steroids is gaining much attention in recent years. Among those analogs, azasteroids are one of the most important classes which display a variety of biological activities, often free from undesirable side effects. The challenges in the synthesis of steroids, particularly azasteroids, and the potential of azasteroids as novel ...


An Examination Of Student Outcomes In Studio Chemistry, Alan L. Kiste, Gregory E. Scott, Jesse Paul Bukenberger, Miles Markmann, Jennifer Moore Dec 2016

An Examination Of Student Outcomes In Studio Chemistry, Alan L. Kiste, Gregory E. Scott, Jesse Paul Bukenberger, Miles Markmann, Jennifer Moore

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Twenty years ago, a major curriculum revision at a large, comprehensive university in the Western United States led to the implementation of an integrated lecture/laboratory (studio) experience for our engineering students taking general chemistry. Based on these twenty years of experience, construction of four purpose-built studio classrooms to house the majority of the remaining general chemistry courses was completed in 2013. A detailed study of the effects of the entire ecology of the studio experience on student success was initiated at that time. Data from content knowledge pre- and post-tests, learning attitudes surveys, and student course evaluations show positive ...


Pgc-1alpha Dictates Endothelial Function Through Regulation Of Enos Expression, Siobhan M. Craige, Swenja Kroller-Schon, Chunying Li, Shashi Kant, Shenghe Cai, Kai Chen, Mayur M. Contractor, Yongmei Pei, Eberhard Schulz, John F. Keaney Jr. Dec 2016

Pgc-1alpha Dictates Endothelial Function Through Regulation Of Enos Expression, Siobhan M. Craige, Swenja Kroller-Schon, Chunying Li, Shashi Kant, Shenghe Cai, Kai Chen, Mayur M. Contractor, Yongmei Pei, Eberhard Schulz, John F. Keaney Jr.

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Endothelial dysfunction is a characteristic of many vascular related diseases such as hypertension. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a unique stress sensor that largely acts to promote adaptive responses. Therefore, we sought to define the role of endothelial PGC-1alpha in vascular function using mice with endothelial specific loss of function (PGC-1alpha EC KO) and endothelial specific gain of function (PGC-1alpha EC TG). Here we report that endothelial PGC-1alpha is suppressed in angiotensin-II (ATII)-induced hypertension. Deletion of endothelial PGC-1alpha sensitized mice to endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in response to ATII, whereas PGC-1alpha EC TG mice were ...


Functional And Structural Characterization Of The Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase And The Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase From Enterococcus Faecalis, Chun-Liang Chen Dec 2016

Functional And Structural Characterization Of The Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase And The Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase From Enterococcus Faecalis, Chun-Liang Chen

Open Access Dissertations

Enterococcus faecalis causes a diverse range of nosocomial infections (in wounds, the gastrointestinal tract, the blood stream and the endocardium), and multidrug-resistant strains have become a serious issue across countries. Vancomycin, a FDA-approved drug for the disruption of the bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, has been utilized to treat infectious diseases caused by Enterococci; however, the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) threatens communities all over the world. We aim at developing novel therapeutic strategies to control bacterial growth of Enterococci, and we focus on targeting two essential enzymes involved in poly-isoprenoid biosynthesis in Enterococcus faecalis; one is the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase ...


Utilization Of Ferrioxamine Microarrays For The Rapid Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria, Nigam Bir Arora Dec 2016

Utilization Of Ferrioxamine Microarrays For The Rapid Detection Of Pathogenic Bacteria, Nigam Bir Arora

Open Access Dissertations

Siderophores are low-molecular weight species utilized by bacteria for the sequestration of iron, an essential nutrient. Siderophores and their cognate receptors are considered to be virulence factors, due to their prominent role in pathogenicity. The work presented here focuses on ferrioxamine (FOx) as an “immutable” ligand for pathogen detection. A number of bacterial strains expressing high-affinity FOx receptors were identified by a proteomic BLAST search, and screened against microarrays patterned with FOx conjugates for detection using label-free optical imaging. Aspects such as inkjet printing and surface chemistry, iron-limiting conditions and bacterial selection protocols, and linker conjugate design were addressed and ...


Tetrameric Photosystem I: From Initial Discovery And Characterization In Chroococcidiopsis Sp. Ts-821 To Exploration Of Its Distribution And Understanding Of Its Significance In Cyanobacteria, Meng Li Dec 2016

Tetrameric Photosystem I: From Initial Discovery And Characterization In Chroococcidiopsis Sp. Ts-821 To Exploration Of Its Distribution And Understanding Of Its Significance In Cyanobacteria, Meng Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Photosystem I (PSI) forms trimeric complexes in most characterized cyanobacteria. We had reported the tetrameric form of PSI in the unicellular cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. TS-821 (TS-821). Using Cryo-EM, a 3D model of the PSI tetramer structure at 11.5 [Angstrom] resolution was obtained and a 2D map within the membrane plane of at 6.1 [Angstrom]. In contrast to the three-fold symmetry in trimeric PSI crystal structure from T. elongatus, two different inter-monomer interactions involving PsaLs are found in the PSI tetramer. Phylogenetic analysis based on PsaL protein sequences shows that TS-821 is closely related to heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. Additionally, this ...


A Novel Role Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In Suppressing Ca2+ Overload-Induced Parp1-Mediated Necrosis, Hui Wang-Heaton Dec 2016

A Novel Role Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In Suppressing Ca2+ Overload-Induced Parp1-Mediated Necrosis, Hui Wang-Heaton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) is well known for its regulatory role in DNA damage responses (DDR) as a checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates hundreds of protein substrates. However, its role in cellular non-DNA damage stress responses (NDDR) is unknown. Necrosis is one form of cell death and traditionally has been regarded as a passive and uncontrolled cell death. Recently, evidence has emerged to support the concept that necrosis also may occur in a programmed manner and that PARP1 can be a mediator. Active poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) hydrolyzes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to produce poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers on ...


The Role Of Hif1alpha And Hif2alpha In Muscle Development And Satellite Cell Function, Shiqi Yang Dec 2016

The Role Of Hif1alpha And Hif2alpha In Muscle Development And Satellite Cell Function, Shiqi Yang

Open Access Theses

Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are central mediators of cellular responses to fluctuations of oxygen, an environmental regulator of stem cell activity. Muscle satellite cells are myogenic stem cells whose quiescence, activation, self-renewal and differentiation are influenced by microenvironment oxygen levels. However, the in vivo roles of HIFs in quiescent satellite cells and activated satellite cells (myoblasts) are poorly understood. Expression analyses indicate that HIF1α and HIF2α are preferentially expressed in pre- and post-differentiation myoblasts, respectively. Interestingly, double knockout of HIF1α and HIF2α (HIF1α/2α dKO) in embryonic myoblasts results in apparently normal muscle development and growth. However, HIF1α/2α dKO ...


Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysis Enhancement Using Bsa, Antonio Carlos Freitas Dos Santos Dec 2016

Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysis Enhancement Using Bsa, Antonio Carlos Freitas Dos Santos

Open Access Theses

Lignocellulose is composed of polysaccharides linked to lignin and other aromatic compounds, making the sugars not readily available to fermentation. This entails that biomass must go through the unit operations of pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis. Pretreatment opens the structure to allow the enzymes to act on and hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose to glucose and/or xylose which in turn are fermented to ethanol. Concomitantly, the enzymes interact with soluble phenols and insoluble solids derived from lignin that inhibit hydrolysis. This leads to high enzyme loadings and higher production costs. Soluble phenols can be eliminated through washing. Insoluble lignin, however, demands ...


Antibacterial Activity Of Essential Oil Encapsulated Sodium Iota-Carrageenan Fibers, Carlos D. Carter Dec 2016

Antibacterial Activity Of Essential Oil Encapsulated Sodium Iota-Carrageenan Fibers, Carlos D. Carter

Open Access Theses

Spoilage microorganisms cause food waste and loss of quality. While the foodborne pathogen outbreaks lead to thousands of hospitalizations and deaths. Essential oils (EOs), plant extracts, possess the required antimicrobial activities and thus their usage stands out as a feasible approach for controlling the undesirable bacterial growth in food systems. However, EOs are highly volatile and lose their activity upon exposure to environmental conditions. In this regard, their encapsulation in Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) matrices such as food grade polysaccharides especially iota-carrageenan could be one of the viable alternatives. Iota-carrageenan, sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae, is being used in ...


Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman Dec 2016

Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman

Masters Theses

The objective is to determine the effect of reducing nitrogen input through feeding low rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on milk production, nitrogen efficiency and metabolism in heat-stressed cows. Forty-eight mid-lactating, Holstein cows were assigned to treatments using a randomized block design in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments (n = 12/treatment). Treatments included two levels of RDP (10 and 8%) and two levels of RUP (8 and 6%). From d 1 to 21, a common diet (10% RDP-8% RUP) was fed to cows followed with their respective treatment diets fed from d 22 to ...


The Role Of Phosphorylation In Pam2 Motif-Containing Proteins Mediated Messenger Rna Deadenylation, Kai-Lieh Huang Dec 2016

The Role Of Phosphorylation In Pam2 Motif-Containing Proteins Mediated Messenger Rna Deadenylation, Kai-Lieh Huang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Phosphorylation regulates many cellular processes. However, its role in mRNA deadenylation, a process to remove poly adenosines from the mature mRNA 3’ end tail, is unclear. The length of poly(A) tail determines mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), which binds to newly synthesized poly(A) tails homogeneously and is known as a scaffold protein for PAM2 motif-containing proteins, plays a pivotal role in the shortening of poly (A) tails. This study is to examine the role of phosphorylation of PAM2 motif–containing proteins in regulating their interactions with PABP and mRNA deadenylation function.

The PAM2 ...


Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Study Of Semiconductor Nanoparticles Towards Sensitive Detection Of Biomolecules, Yiliyasi Wusimanjiang Dec 2016

Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Study Of Semiconductor Nanoparticles Towards Sensitive Detection Of Biomolecules, Yiliyasi Wusimanjiang

Dissertations

The main focus of this dissertation is to unfold the fundamental aspects of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) generation from semiconductor nanoparticles (also known as quantum dots or QDs) within different ECL systems. The ECL and photo-physical interactions between the CdTe QDs (λemission= ~760 nm) and the CdSe QDs (λemission= ~550 nm), as well as the effects of carbon nanotubes on ECL of QDs were separately investigated. Optimum experimental conditions for peptide bond formation on an electrode surface through EDC (1-ethyl-3-(-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride)/NHS (N-Hydroxysulfosuccinimide) coupling were also revealed using cyclic voltammetry technique. Based on the information obtained ...


Bioorthogonal Reactions: Synthesis And Evaluation Of Different Ligands In Copper Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition (Cuaac), Zainab Abdullah Almansaf Dec 2016

Bioorthogonal Reactions: Synthesis And Evaluation Of Different Ligands In Copper Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition (Cuaac), Zainab Abdullah Almansaf

Theses and Dissertations

The Copper CatalyzedAzide-Alkyne1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has unique features that qualify it to be one of the best click reactions. Its applications have been shown in different aspects and for multiple purposes. The oxidative degradation of biological systems (labile proteins and live cells) is, however, generally recognized as the major problem when using this reaction in living systems. Reactive oxidation species can be easily produced in the presence of copper(II), ascorbate and air, and this is the main cause of toxicity. However, the uses of ligands have shown a major impact on reducing copper toxicity, protecting Cu(I ...