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Biochemistry

2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 473

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Partitioning The Fitness Components Of Rna Populations Evolving In Vitro, Carolina Diaz Arenas, Niles Lehman Dec 2013

Partitioning The Fitness Components Of Rna Populations Evolving In Vitro, Carolina Diaz Arenas, Niles Lehman

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

All individuals in an evolving population compete for resources, and their performance is measured by a fitness metric. The performance of the individuals is relative to their abilities and to the biotic surroundings – the conditions under which they are competing – and involves many components. Molecules evolving in a test tube can also face complex environments and dynamics, and their fitnessmeasurements should reflect the complexity of various contributing factors as well. Here, the fitnesses of a set of ligase ribozymes evolved by the continuous in vitroevolution system were measured. During these evolution cycles there are three different catalytic steps, ligation ...


Novel And Predominant Pathogen Responsible For The Enterovirus-Associated Encephalitis In Eastern China, Lei Zhang, Jie Yan, David M. Ojcius, Huakun Lv, Ziping Miao, Yin Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Jvying Yan Dec 2013

Novel And Predominant Pathogen Responsible For The Enterovirus-Associated Encephalitis In Eastern China, Lei Zhang, Jie Yan, David M. Ojcius, Huakun Lv, Ziping Miao, Yin Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Jvying Yan

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Enteroviruses (EV) have been increasingly identified as the causative agent for unknown etiological encephalitis in many parts of the world, but the long period surveillance for enterovirus-associated encephalitis (EAE) was not reported in China. From 2002-2012 in Zhejiang, Coxsackieviruses A9, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5; and echoviruses 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, 25, 30 were detected from the unknown etiological encephalitis cases, with coxsackievirus B4 been identified here for the first time. From 2002-2004 and 2010-2012, echovirus 30 was found to be the periodically predominant serotype for in the EAE. The molecular typing results showed that all the EV isolates ...


Using Expression Profiling To Understand The Effects Of Chronic Cadmium Exposure On Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Zelmina Lubovac-Pilav, Daniel M. Borras, Esmeralda Ponce, Maggie Louie Dec 2013

Using Expression Profiling To Understand The Effects Of Chronic Cadmium Exposure On Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Zelmina Lubovac-Pilav, Daniel M. Borras, Esmeralda Ponce, Maggie Louie

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Cadmium is a metalloestrogen known to activate the estrogen receptor and promote breast cancer cell growth. Previous studies have implicated cadmium in the development of more malignant tumors; however the molecular mechanisms behind this cadmium-induced malignancy remain elusive. Using clonal cell lines derived from exposing breast cancer cells to cadmium for over 6 months (MCF-7-Cd4, -Cd6, -Cd7, -Cd8 and -Cd12), this study aims to identify gene expression signatures associated with chronic cadmium exposure. Our results demonstrate that prolonged cadmium exposure does not merely result in the deregulation of genes but actually leads to a distinctive expression profile. The genes deregulated ...


The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh Dec 2013

The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a heritable, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances. An unstable CAG expansion within the gene normally encoding for the Huntingtin protein is responsible. The expanded mutant form of Huntingtin and the putative protein co-factor Rhes interact and cause cell death within the striatum. We hypothesized chronic treatment with simvastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, would disrupt the biosynthetical pathway which gives both Rhes and its target cells binding sites and render Rhes inactive. Healthy and HD mice were treated with simvastatin or a vehicle. Animals’ motor behavior was assessed with three separate tests ...


The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson Dec 2013

The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Bacteriophages are used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria in drinking, and wastewaters. They also show potential in limiting aquatic bacterial populations through their lytic properties. The effect of different water characteristics (salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) on the sensitivity of the PCR identification of virus particles were analyzed to determine at what levels bacteriophage can be detected in environmental samples. Results from this preliminary study indicate that a PCR bacteriophage detection technique has potential as a relatively efficient and economical indicator of coliform contamination in multiple aquatic environments. While further evaluation is needed, the protocol appears to function in ...


Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang Dec 2013

Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang

Master's Theses

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of coordination of bacterial gene expression in response to cell population. System two QS is regulated by the small signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and is implicated in the infectious behaviors of various bacterial species. AI-2 is biosynthesized from S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) by the enzyme LuxS and induces interspecies cell-to-cell communication. Inhibition of LuxS would therefore inhibit interspecies QS. Herein, a search for novel molecular species that will competitively bind with SRH in the LuxS binding site is performed in silico. Computational screening results are then validated in vitro using an optimized LuxS inhibition assay.


Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen Dec 2013

Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen

Theses and Dissertations

Nanomaterials have attracted substantial attention in the area of catalysis due to the unique properties they exhibit such as high surface areas, intricate pore networks and unique morphologies. TiO2 has attracted attention as a catalyst since the discovery of its high photocatalytic activity by Fuishima and Honda in 1972. Given its high thermal stability, low cost, low environmental impact, and versatility, TiO2 is a widely used commercial catalyst and catalyst support. TiO2 is used in many applications such as photocatalysis is also an excellent support material for noble metals in a number of oxidative synthesis and pollution-control reactions. Though TiO2 ...


Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson Dec 2013

Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is a commonly used separation technique in chemistry. Nevertheless, the mechanistic interactions at the molecular level among the eluent, analyte, and the stationary phase are not fully understood. Because of this limited understanding, optimization of the separation must be done experimentally. Learning more about molecular interactions should aid in improving separations. We are currently using second-harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy to investigate how analytes adsorb to the surface. SHG is a spectroscopic technique that produces signal only at places of non-isotropic symmetry; this typically occurs at surfaces. SHG can be used to produce surface isotherms of test ...


Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes Dec 2013

Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not active in AD brain, and a recent proteomic screen of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) brain samples revealed that Pin1 is oxidized in the brains of these pre-AD patients. This suggests that this oxidation may be the cause of the loss of the neuroprotective Pin1 function in AD. The Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pKa, making it highly susceptible to oxidation. We hypothesize that Pin1 ...


Regulation Of Eukaryotic Mcm2-7 Activity, Lance F. Dasilva Dec 2013

Regulation Of Eukaryotic Mcm2-7 Activity, Lance F. Dasilva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The transfer of genetic material from one cell generation to the next requires precise genome duplication. Aberrant DNA replication can lead to genomic instability and contribute to diseases arising from an unregulated cell cycle, such as cancer. Replicative DNA polymerases require a single-stranded (ssDNA) template from which to produce newly synthesized DNA. In eukaryotes, ssDNA is generated by the heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance 2 through 7 (Mcm2-7) replicative helicase that unwinds duplex DNA. Strict temporal separation of helicase loading and activation at multiple replication origins ensures once per cell cycle replication. The processes involved in activating Mcm2-7 to unwind DNA during ...


Making Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii A Better Model Organism: Tackling The Inefficiency Of Nuclear Transgene Expression And Improving Methods For The Generation And Characterization Of Insertional Mutant Libraries, Thomas M. Plucinak Dec 2013

Making Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii A Better Model Organism: Tackling The Inefficiency Of Nuclear Transgene Expression And Improving Methods For The Generation And Characterization Of Insertional Mutant Libraries, Thomas M. Plucinak

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

The green algal species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses many beneficial features that have made it a useful model organism for many decades. Many types of experimentation however are difficult to conduct with this organism due to the relative under-development of genetic tools available for use. Tasks such as transgene expression, overexpression of proteins of interest (POIs) or site specific genomic modification that are routine in other more facile microbial model organisms such as Escherichia coli and yeast are difficult to accomplish in C. reinhardtii. The second chapter of this thesis describes the development of a novel nuclear transgene expression system that ...


Functional Analysis Of The Acetic Acid Resistance (Aar) Gene Cluster In Acetobacter Aceti Strain 1023, Elwood Mullins, T Joseph Kappock Dec 2013

Functional Analysis Of The Acetic Acid Resistance (Aar) Gene Cluster In Acetobacter Aceti Strain 1023, Elwood Mullins, T Joseph Kappock

Department of Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Vinegar production requires acetic acid bacteria that produce, tolerate, and conserve high levels of acetic acid. When ethanol is depleted, aerobic acetate overoxidation to carbon dioxide ensues. The resulting diauxic growth pattern has two logarithmic growth phases, the first associated with ethanol oxidation and the second associated with acetate overoxidation. The vinegar factory isolate Acetobacter aceti strain 1023 has a long intermediate stationary phase that persists at elevated acetic acid levels. Strain 1023 conserves acetic acid despite possessing a complete set of citric acid cycle (CAC) enzymes, including succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (SCACT), the product of the acetic acid resistance (aar ...


Hdac6 Regulates Tip60-P400 Function In Stem Cells, Poshen B. Chen, Jui-Hung Hung, Taylor L. Hickman, Andrew H. Coles, James F. Carey, Zhiping Weng, Feixia Chu, Thomas G. Fazzio Dec 2013

Hdac6 Regulates Tip60-P400 Function In Stem Cells, Poshen B. Chen, Jui-Hung Hung, Taylor L. Hickman, Andrew H. Coles, James F. Carey, Zhiping Weng, Feixia Chu, Thomas G. Fazzio

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase activates genes required for proliferation and silences genes that promote differentiation. Here we show that the class II histone deacetylase Hdac6 co-purifies with Tip60-p400 complex from ESCs. Hdac6 is necessary for regulation of most Tip60-p400 target genes, particularly those repressed by the complex. Unlike differentiated cells, where Hdac6 is mainly cytoplasmic, Hdac6 is largely nuclear in ESCs, neural stem cells (NSCs), and some cancer cell lines, and interacts with Tip60-p400 in each. Hdac6 localizes to promoters bound by Tip60-p400 in ESCs, binding downstream of transcription start sites. Surprisingly, Hdac6 does not ...


Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock Dec 2013

Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, methods to synthesize ZnO are reported. First, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized with small amounts of transition metal ions to create materials called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). We employed a low temperature sol-gel method that produces ZnO nanoparticles of reproducible size and incorporates cobalt, nickel, and manganese ions into the nanoparticles. Conditions were controlled such that a range of amounts of Co, Ni, and Mn were incorporated. The incorporation was tracked by color changes in the white ZnO powder to blue for Co, green for Ni and yellow for Mn. XRD measurements showed the nanoparticles were on ...


Effects Of Water Availability And Pest Pressures On Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Growth And Functional Quality, Selena Ahmed, Colin M. Orians, Timothy S. Griffin, Sarabeth Buckley, Uchenna Unachukwu, Anne Elise Stratton, John Richard Stepp, Albert Robbat Jr, Sean Cash, Edward J. Kennelly Dec 2013

Effects Of Water Availability And Pest Pressures On Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Growth And Functional Quality, Selena Ahmed, Colin M. Orians, Timothy S. Griffin, Sarabeth Buckley, Uchenna Unachukwu, Anne Elise Stratton, John Richard Stepp, Albert Robbat Jr, Sean Cash, Edward J. Kennelly

Publications and Research

Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Water treatments were simulated to replicate ideal tea growing conditions and extreme precipitation events in tropical southwestern China, a major centre of tea production. Results show that higher water availability ...


Evaluation Of Vdr-Coactivator Inhibitors Using Biochemical And Cell-Based Assays, Athena Marie Baranowski Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Vdr-Coactivator Inhibitors Using Biochemical And Cell-Based Assays, Athena Marie Baranowski

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF VDR–COACTIVATOR INHIBITORS USING BIOCHEMICAL AND CELL–BASED ASSAYS

by

Athena Baranowski

The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, 2013

Under the Supervision of Dr. Alexander Arnold

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a ligand–dependent transcription factor, which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. VDR–mediated gene regulation is governed by coregulators (coactivators and corepressors). VDR coregulator binding inhibitors (CBIs), which were discovered using high throughput screening (HTS), were evaluated using cell–based assays and biochemical assays to determine their ability to inhibit the interaction between VDR and steroid receptor coactivator–2 (SRC–2). Determining their ability to ...


Transcriptomic Analyses Of The Co2-Concentrating Mechanisms And Development Of Molecular Tools For Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Andrew J. Brueggeman Dec 2013

Transcriptomic Analyses Of The Co2-Concentrating Mechanisms And Development Of Molecular Tools For Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Andrew J. Brueggeman

Theses and Dissertations in Biochemistry

Microalgae, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, account for a large percentage of photosynthesis that occurs on the planet. Many algae possess a Carbon-Concentrating Mechanism, or CCM, that actively transports inorganic carbon (Ci) into the cell to create artificially high internal levels of CO2, enhancing their rate of carbon fixation. The production of biofuels from algal sources can serve as both a renewable and carbon-neutral energy source. This thesis details research in Chlamydomonas, in the effort to both better understand the CCM in algae and improve laboratory and industrial manipulations with algae.

In the first chapter of this thesis, changes ...


Mechanisms For Regulation Of Plant Kinesins, Anindya Ganguly, Ram Dixit Dec 2013

Mechanisms For Regulation Of Plant Kinesins, Anindya Ganguly, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Throughout the eukaryotic world, kinesins serve as molecular motors for the directional transport of cellular cargo along microtubule tracks. Plants contain a large number of kinesins that have conserved as well as specialized functions. These functions depend on mechanisms that regulate when, where and what kinesins transport. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have revealed conserved modes of regulation between plant kinesins and their non-photosynthetic counterparts. These findings lay the groundwork for understanding how plant kinesins are differentially engaged in various cellular processes that underlie plant growth and development.


Peregrination Of The Selectivity Filter Delineates The Pore Of The Human Voltage-Gated Proton Channel Hhv1, Deri Morgan, Boris Musset, Kethika Kulleperuma, Susan M. E. Smith, Sindhu Rajan, Vladimir V. Cherny, Régis Pomès, Thomas E. Decoursey Dec 2013

Peregrination Of The Selectivity Filter Delineates The Pore Of The Human Voltage-Gated Proton Channel Hhv1, Deri Morgan, Boris Musset, Kethika Kulleperuma, Susan M. E. Smith, Sindhu Rajan, Vladimir V. Cherny, Régis Pomès, Thomas E. Decoursey

Faculty Publications

Extraordinary selectivity is crucial to all proton-conducting molecules, including the human voltage-gated proton channel (hHv1), because the proton concentration is >106 times lower than that of other cations. Here we use "selectivity filter scanning" to elucidate the molecular requirements for proton-specific conduction in hHv1. Asp112, in the middle of the S1 transmembrane helix, is an essential part of the selectivity filter in wild-type (WT) channels. After neutralizing Asp112 by mutating it to Ala (D112A), we introduced Asp at each position along S1 from 108 to 118, searching for "second site suppressor" activity. Surprisingly ...


A Synthetic Biology Approach To Engineering New Anticancer Agents, Shane Robert Wesener Dec 2013

A Synthetic Biology Approach To Engineering New Anticancer Agents, Shane Robert Wesener

Theses and Dissertations

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are becoming increasingly valuable therapeutic agents in treatment of several types of malignancies. FK228 is a depsipeptde anticancer compound produced by Chromobacterium violaceum no. 968 through a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-polyketide synthase (PKS) hybrid assembly line. In the present study, reconstitution of the biosynthetic pathway responsible for the production of FK228 revealed cross-talk between modular PKS and fatty acid synthase. This pathway contains two PKS modules on the DepBC enzymes that lack a functional acyltransferase (AT) domain, and no apparent AT-encoding gene exists within the gene cluster or its vicinity. We reported through heterologous expression ...


An Examination Of The Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Combinations On Ribosome Biosynthesis In Staphylococcus Aureus, Justin Beach Dec 2013

An Examination Of The Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Combinations On Ribosome Biosynthesis In Staphylococcus Aureus, Justin Beach

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacteremia initiated by Staphylococcus aureus infections can be a serious medical problem. Although a number of different antibiotics are used to combat staphylococcal infections, resistance has continued to develop. Combination therapy for certain infections has been used to reduce the emergence of resistance when a single agent has become ineffective. We hypothesize that the use of rifampicin and ciprofloxacin in combination with azithromycin, known for its inhibitory effects on the bacterial ribosome, can create potential synergistic effects resulting from indirect effects on ribosomal subunit synthesis.

To determine this we measured the effects of single and multiple antibiotics on cell growth ...


Mechanisms Of The Anti-Pneumococcal Function Of C-Reactive Protein, Toh B. Gang Dec 2013

Mechanisms Of The Anti-Pneumococcal Function Of C-Reactive Protein, Toh B. Gang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human C-reactive protein (CRP) increases survival of and decreases bacteremia in mice infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Such protection of mice against pneumococcal infection is seen only when CRP is administered into mice 6 hours before to 2 hours after the injection of pneumococci, but not when CRP is given to mice at a later time. Our first aim was to define the mechanism of CRP-mediated initial protection of mice against infection. It was proposed that CRP binds to phosphocholine (PCh) moieties present in the cell wall and activates the complement system on the pneumococcal surface that kills the pathogen. We ...


The Development And Applications Of Nmr Metabolomics Analysis Of Bacterial Metabolomes, Steven M. Halouska Dec 2013

The Development And Applications Of Nmr Metabolomics Analysis Of Bacterial Metabolomes, Steven M. Halouska

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Metabolomics is a relatively new field that involves the study of metabolic responses that are occurring within a biological system. Metabolite profiles of an organism, tissue extract, and biofluids are important indicators to determine the physiological state of a biological profile. Comparison of such profiles from different phenotypes can be used to identify specific metabolic changes leading to the understanding of metabolic pathways, disease progression, drug toxicity and efficacy, and cellular responses to different intracellular and extracellular conditions. Metabolomics investigations often use sophisticated analytical techniques such as NMR spectroscopy to provide an unbiased and comprehensive approach to evaluate metabolic perturbation ...


Effects Of Three Deafness-Causing Gamma-Actin Mutations On Actin Structure And Function, Karina Annette Kruth Dec 2013

Effects Of Three Deafness-Causing Gamma-Actin Mutations On Actin Structure And Function, Karina Annette Kruth

Theses and Dissertations

Hearing requires proper function of the auditory hair cell, which is critically dependent upon its actin-based cytoskeletal structure. Eleven point mutations in gamma (γ) nonmuscle actin have been identified as causing progressive autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNA20/26); however, exactly why these mutations lead to deafness is unclear. Organization, stability, and repair of the hair cell cytoskeleton are highly regulated by actin binding proteins (ABPs), and two of the mutations, K118M and K118N, are located near an area of the actin monomer believed to be important in actin-ABP interactions. A third mutation, D51N, is located in a region of ...


Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle Dec 2013

Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle

Michael Menze

MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.


Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle Dec 2013

Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.


Identification Of Disulfide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle Dec 2013

Identification Of Disulfide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.


Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1., Morgan Roberts, Jacquelyn Crail, Megan Laffoon, William Fernandez, Michael Menze, Mary Konkle Dec 2013

Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1., Morgan Roberts, Jacquelyn Crail, Megan Laffoon, William Fernandez, Michael Menze, Mary Konkle

Faculty Scholarship

MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.


Ferritin-Based Photo-Oxidation Of Biomass For Nanoparticle Synthesis, Bioremediation, And Hydrogen Evolution, Oscar Petrucci Dec 2013

Ferritin-Based Photo-Oxidation Of Biomass For Nanoparticle Synthesis, Bioremediation, And Hydrogen Evolution, Oscar Petrucci

Theses and Dissertations

The cell is the basic unit of all living organisms. It is an amazing machine capable of self-replicating, growing, and synthesizing and shuttling thousands of compounds. To perform all of these activities the cell needs energy. The original source of energy for all living beings is the Sun. The energy of the sun is collected by the autotrophs (mostly plants) through photosynthesis and stored in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates and lipids through carboxylic acid intermediates; animals use these compounds to obtain the energy for their cells. Most of the energy extracted by the cell comes from the citric acid ...


Investigation Into The Effects Of Pegylation On The Thermodynamic Stability Of The Ww Domain, Sam S. Matthews Dec 2013

Investigation Into The Effects Of Pegylation On The Thermodynamic Stability Of The Ww Domain, Sam S. Matthews

Theses and Dissertations

The covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to a protein surface (known as PEGylation), has been demonstrated to increase the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins by reducing kidney clearance and immunogenicity and by protecting against proteolysis. Theses beneficial effects could be further enhanced if PEGylation consistently increased protein conformational stability (i.e. the difference in free energy between the folded and unfolded states). However, the effects of PEGylation on protein conformational stability are unpredictable; PEGylation has been reported to increase, decrease, or have no effect on the conformational stability of medicinal proteins.This thesis details the results of two ...