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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni Dec 2018

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary contributing factor in the development of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Nicotine contained in tobacco is a major addictive alkaloid, which enhances the effects of ALDs. The major enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism is cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) which is produced in the liver. Alcohol can stimulate the CYP2A5 enzyme. We utilized cyp2a5-/- knockout mice in this research to examine the effects of CYP2A5.

The cyp2a5-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed liquid ethanol diet with or without nicotine to induce ALD. Nicotine enhancing effects on ALD were observed in WT mice but not ...


Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright Dec 2018

Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organisms adapt to their environments by adjusting their biochemistry and physiology; such adaptation is limited by resource availability and physiological constraints. The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna inhabits a wide range of environments and must survive and reproduce within a range of temperatures. One limit to low-temperature adaptation is thought to be the availability of unsaturated fatty acids necessary to maintain proper fluidity of cellular membranes. D. magna maintained at 10 ºC on a diet poor in unsaturated fatty acids have been observed to produce clutches that fail to develop. However, this has not been observed on a diet rich in ...


Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley May 2018

Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley

Theses and Dissertations

The United States poultry industry generated 38.6 billion pounds (17,500 metric ton) of meat in 2014 which averaged to 121 pounds (55 kg) per individual of the U.S that same year. Of that meat generated by the poultry industry, an estimated 1 million cases of Salmonellosis will occur. Out of the 1 million cases approximately 40, 000 to 50,000 will be confirmed cases by the CDC. Recently, the USDA has requested changes in the inspection process and are currently allowing processors more freedom to utilize innovation to drive the increase in safer and more desirable foods ...


Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

Valued readers, it is with a heavy heart that I inform you that this is the last issue of Killi-Data News. The good news is that we will be back as Killifish Research Review. The dissolution of Killi-Data International created a prob- lem: how can the newsletter of a defunct organization live on without that organization? But other additional problems were building in the background. The first issue numbered 15 pages. The previous issue was 28 pages. The number of killifish related papers is increasing while time on our end (the editorial team) is running out. It takes a lot ...


Killi-Data News (Fall), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Fall), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

Many interesting papers have been published over the last three months. The large volume of papers coupled with the start of the new college semester (and the workload it brings) delayed this issue of Killi-Data News. But better late than never—or so I hope! In this issue Richard van der Laan provides an insightful review of the recent Aphanius papers as to their taxonomic implications and questions. The systematic issues he raises show the importance of the Molecular project: we need to get more samples of the various cyprinodontiforme families to resolve unsettled systematic and taxonomic issues. In the ...


Killi-Data News (Summer), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Summer), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

Over the last three months several interesting and exciting pa- pers have been published. By now most of you have heard the Nothobranchius fish poo news emanating from the Valenzano lab. That paper is reviewed and certainly has repercussions for the health of our captive fish. Polaçik et al have published interesting data with ramifications as to how we breed and incubate annual killifish. The big news in this issue is the paper from the Reznick lab which Jean Huber reviews. The contents of that paper goes to the heart of the question of just what a killifish is. The ...


Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

This is the start of Killi-Data News’ second year. In this first issue of the year we have the usual review of research pub- lications as well as input from Martin Reichard on his lab’s Nothobranchius research. Martin is responding to my reviews of his lab’s work in the previous edition. I am serious about making sure the content in this newsletter is reliable but I erred in the previous edition and Martin has written extensively to correct my mistake in the section “Erratum”. This reply is welcomed and owed to readers. I must confess that I don ...


Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

This is the fourth edition, and concluding issue of the first volume, of Killi-Data News and I am happy that it has been well received by readers. At 25 pages this issue is a bit thin- ner than the last but this is because we agreed to make the cut-off for submissions the 1 st of December so we could get this edition out by the New Year. This is an exciting edition full of new species descrip- tions and analyses that will keep taxonomists busy for years to come. Costa has given us two molecular phylogenies on Melanorivulus as ...


Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

This is the start of Killi-Data News’ second year. In this first issue of the year we have the usual review of research pub- lications as well as input from Martin Reichard on his lab’s Nothobranchius research. Martin is responding to my reviews of his lab’s work in the previous edition. I am serious about making sure the content in this newsletter is reliable but I erred in the previous edition and Martin has written extensively to correct my mistake in the section “Erratum”. This reply is welcomed and owed to readers. I must confess that I don ...


Investigating The Genetic Structure Of Northern Long-Eared Bats In Nebraska, Jonathan Korbitz Mar 2018

Investigating The Genetic Structure Of Northern Long-Eared Bats In Nebraska, Jonathan Korbitz

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Abstract:

The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) is one of many species of hibernating bats in North America affected by a recently discovered fungal disease called white-nose syndrome (WNS). Northern long-eared bats seem to be extremely susceptible to the disease with mass fatalities occurring among populations in eastern North America. Researchers in the eastern distribution of this species have performed mtDNA analysis to identify the population structure of the species; however, genetic analysis has yet to be done in western parts of its distribution. The goal of this study is to create a better understanding of the genetic makeup of ...


Contractile Response Of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein To Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed To Different Concentrations Of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, Manoj B. Kudupoje, James L. Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A. Dawson, Kyle R. Mcleod, Eric S. Vanzant Feb 2018

Contractile Response Of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein To Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed To Different Concentrations Of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, Manoj B. Kudupoje, James L. Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A. Dawson, Kyle R. Mcleod, Eric S. Vanzant

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Ergot alkaloids, in their active isomeric form, affect animal health and performance, and adsorbents are used to mitigate toxicities by reducing bioavailability. Adsorbents with high specificity (molecularly imprinted polymers: MIP) adsorb ergot alkaloids in vitro, but require evaluation for biological implications. Using ex vivo myography, synthetic polymers were evaluated for effects on the bioactivity of ergotamine tartrate (ETA). Polymers were first evaluated using isotherms. Lateral saphenous veins were collected from 17 steers for four independent studies: dose response of ETA, adsorbent dose response, validation of pre-myograph incubation conditions and MIP/ non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) comparison. Norepinephrine normalized percent contractile response ...


Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim Jan 2018

Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The effects of dietary ingredients on the proteome profile of postmortem beef longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle were evaluated. In the first experiment, the influence of dietary ractopamine on the whole-muscle proteome of beef LL was examined. Five proteins were differentially abundant between ractopamine-fed (RAC) and non-ractopamine fed (CON) groups. The differentially abundant proteins were over-abundant in RAC and were related to muscle structure development (F-actin-capping protein subunit beta-2 and PDZ and LIM domain protein-3), chaperone (heat shock protein beta-1), oxygen transportation (myoglobin), and glycolysis (L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain). These findings indicated that ractopamine influences the abundance of proteins associated with ...


Evidence For Extra-Gastric Expression Of The Proton Pump H+/K+ -Atpase In The Gills And Kidney Of The Teleost Oreochromis Niloticus, Ebtesam Barnawi Jan 2018

Evidence For Extra-Gastric Expression Of The Proton Pump H+/K+ -Atpase In The Gills And Kidney Of The Teleost Oreochromis Niloticus, Ebtesam Barnawi

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

It is well known that stomach acid secretion by oxynticopeptic cells of the gastric mucosa is accomplished by the H+/ K+-ATPase (HKA), which is comprised of the HKα1 (gene: atp4a) and HKβ (gene: atp4b) subunits. However, the role of the HKA in extra-gastric organs such as the gill and kidney is less clear especially in fishes. This pump may contribute to active ion and/or acid-base regulation either through direct ion transport or through secondary transport proteins against unfavorable concentration gradients via the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. In the present work I have demonstrated uptake of the K ...


Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert Jan 2018

Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) undermines production efficiency in all animal agriculture, culminating in major economic losses annually. The effects of HS in pigs is realized through depressed growth, altered body composition, and impaired reproductive performance. Pigs, unlike other mammals, do not possess functional sweat glands, making them rely on other mechanisms to thermoregulate during a heat challenge. Continual investigation of hyperthermia in pigs is crucial for developing new strategies and/or technologies that mitigate the effects of HS imposed on the pork industry. The studies conducted in this dissertation investigate the complex interplay of whole-animal physiology as well as cellular and ...


Influence Of Physical Activity On Tibial Bone Material Properties In Laying Hens, A. B. Rodriguez-Navarro, H. M. Mccormack, R. H. Fleming, P. Alvarez-Lloret, J. Romero-Pastor, Tanya Prozorov, I. C. Dunn Jan 2018

Influence Of Physical Activity On Tibial Bone Material Properties In Laying Hens, A. B. Rodriguez-Navarro, H. M. Mccormack, R. H. Fleming, P. Alvarez-Lloret, J. Romero-Pastor, Tanya Prozorov, I. C. Dunn

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Laying hens develop a type of osteoporosis that arises from a loss of structural bone, resulting in high incidence of fractures. In this study, a comparison of bone material properties was made for lines of hens created by divergent selection to have high and low bone strength and housed in either individual cages, with restricted mobility, or in an aviary system, with opportunity for increased mobility. Improvement of bone biomechanics in the high line hens and in aviary housing was mainly due to increased bone mass, thicker cortical bone and more medullary bone. However, bone material properties such as cortical ...