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Animal Sciences

2013

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Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Chemical Hydrolysis Of Phosvitin And The Functional Properties Of The Hydrolysates, Himali Samaraweera, Sun Hee Moon, Eunjoo Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Joo-Won Suh, Dong U. Ahn Nov 2013

Chemical Hydrolysis Of Phosvitin And The Functional Properties Of The Hydrolysates, Himali Samaraweera, Sun Hee Moon, Eunjoo Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Joo-Won Suh, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Science Publications

As a highly phosphorylated protein, phosvitin shows a powerful antioxidant and metal-binding activity. However, its extraordinary resistance to protease activities limits the possibility of using phosvitin as a source for the production of functional peptides. The objectives of this study were to test the possibilities of using alkaline or acid hydrolysis to produce small peptides from phosvitin and to investigate the functional properties of the resulting peptides. Phosvitin was dissolved in various concentrations of NaOH (0.025N-0.3N) or HCl (0.05N–6N) and incubated in a shaker water bath (37◦C for NaOH and 60◦CforHCl) for 1-6 h ...


Welcome To The Journal Of Evolution And Health, Aaron Blaisdell, Paul Jaminet, David C. Pendergrass Oct 2013

Welcome To The Journal Of Evolution And Health, Aaron Blaisdell, Paul Jaminet, David C. Pendergrass

Aaron P Blaisdell

Welcome to the first issue of the Journal of Evolution and Health! The Journal of Evolution and Health is the peer-reviewed, open-access journal of the Ancestral Health Society, a community of scientists, healthcare professionals, and laypersons who collaborate to understand health challenges from an evolutionary perspective.


Role Of A Gamma-Aminobutryic Acid (Gaba) Receptor Mutation In The Evolution And Spread Of Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Resistance To Cyclodiene Insecticides, H. Wang, Brad S. Coates, H. Chen, Thomas W. Sappington, T. Guillemaud, B. D. Siegfried Oct 2013

Role Of A Gamma-Aminobutryic Acid (Gaba) Receptor Mutation In The Evolution And Spread Of Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Resistance To Cyclodiene Insecticides, H. Wang, Brad S. Coates, H. Chen, Thomas W. Sappington, T. Guillemaud, B. D. Siegfried

Entomology Publications

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a damaging pest of cultivated corn that was controlled by applications of cyclodiene insecticides from the late 1940s until resistance evolved ∼10 years later. Range expansion from the western plains into eastern USA coincides with resistance development. An alanine to serine amino acid substitution within the Rdl subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides in many species. We found that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G/T at the GABA receptor cDNA position 838 (G/T838) of D. v. virgifera resulted in the alanine to ...


Welcome To The Journal Of Evolution And Health, Aaron Blaisdell, Paul Jaminet, David C. Pendergrass Sep 2013

Welcome To The Journal Of Evolution And Health, Aaron Blaisdell, Paul Jaminet, David C. Pendergrass

Journal of Evolution and Health

Welcome to the first issue of the Journal of Evolution and Health! The Journal of Evolution and Health is the peer-reviewed, open-access journal of the Ancestral Health Society, a community of scientists, healthcare professionals, and laypersons who collaborate to understand health challenges from an evolutionary perspective.


Molecular Characterization Of The Pathophysiology Of The Digital Laminae In Acute Carbohydrate-Induced Equine Laminitis, Erica Ann Pawlak Sep 2013

Molecular Characterization Of The Pathophysiology Of The Digital Laminae In Acute Carbohydrate-Induced Equine Laminitis, Erica Ann Pawlak

Open Access Dissertations

Equine laminitis is a devastating condition that results in the failure of the tissue responsible for suspending the skeleton within the hoof capsule. The digital laminae is composed of two interdigitated layers, the dermal lamellae surrounding the distal pedal bone, and the epidermal lamellae, which interfaces with the hoof wall. During laminitis, these layers separate, allowing for rotation and sinking of the pedal bone. While there are multiple diseases and physiological conditions associated with the development of laminitis, including sepsis, metabolic syndrome, and unequal weight bearing, the exact cause remains elusive. Prior work by our research group identified the metalloprotease ...


Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair Aug 2013

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is a growing global concern and has prompted an effort to explore potential adjuvant and alternative therapies derived from nature's repertoire of bactericidal proteins and peptides. In humans, the airway surface liquid layer is a rich source of antibiotics, and lysozyme represents one of the most abundant and effective antimicrobial components of airway secretions. Human lysozyme is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ac


Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Performance Traits In Beef Cattle Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue, Bryan Christopher Bastin Aug 2013

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Performance Traits In Beef Cattle Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue, Bryan Christopher Bastin

Masters Theses

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum Schreb.) is the most prevalent forage in the Midsouth United States due in part to the presence of the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum. The fungus, while conferring hardiness to tall fescue, contributes to decreased production efficiency in cow-calf operations. A previous genome-wide association study was performed using the Illumina 50k bovine SNP chip. Twenty-four SNP were found to be associated (P < 0.05) with adjusted birth weight and adjusted 205-day weights of calves from 48 beef cows at Ames Plantation. The first objective was to validate each SNP by testing associations with several additional phenotypes. Custom Taqman genotyping assays (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) were subsequently designed to genotype each SNP in beef cattle located at Tennessee Tech University (n = 654), to validate associations in a large, independent herd. The results yielded 15 associations that were significant (P < 0.05) with 6 phenotypes linked to those affected by fescue toxicosis. The second objective investigated the link between fescue toxicosis and the XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, member 4 (XKR4) gene. Serum ...


The Role Of Gnrh-Ii And Its Receptor In Testicular Function, Amy Desaulniers Aug 2013

The Role Of Gnrh-Ii And Its Receptor In Testicular Function, Amy Desaulniers

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The second mammalian isoform of GnRH (GnRH-II) has been linked to regulation of cell proliferation, feed intake, and the interaction between energy balance and reproductive behavior. In contrast to the native form of GnRH (GnRH-I), GnRH-II is an inefficient modulator of gonadotropin secretion. Unlike many species, a functional receptor (GnRHR-II) specific to this ligand has been discovered in the pig that may be directly involved in testosterone production. Therefore, our objective was to identify the role of GnRH-II and its receptor in testicular function. First, there was 6-fold more GnRHR-II protein in the testis than anterior pituitary gland of boars ...


Validation Of Antibodies Used To Study Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Two Species Of Fundulus, Jenna D. Hill May 2013

Validation Of Antibodies Used To Study Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Two Species Of Fundulus, Jenna D. Hill

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors and the master regulators of oxygen-dependent gene expression in animals. The focus of this thesis is the distribution of HIF protein in tissues of the fish Fundulus heteroclitus and F. grandis, two widespread species that occur in naturally hypoxic waters. Polyclonal antibodies against HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α were tested on proteins made in vitro and on extracts made from several tissues of normoxic and hypoxic fish. Antibodies against HIF-1α and 3α bound specifically to full length protein made in vitro, and produced bands on western blots of nuclear extracts of near the expected ...


Effects Of Ergot Alkaloids And Bovine Bodily Fluids On Cytochrome P450 Activity, Nicholas Scott Ezell May 2013

Effects Of Ergot Alkaloids And Bovine Bodily Fluids On Cytochrome P450 Activity, Nicholas Scott Ezell

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis evaluates the PromegaTM P450-Glo assay (PromegaTM V9800) as a tool for quantifying ergot alkaloid concentration. Current techniques used for detection of ergot alkaloids are slow and expensive, do not detect all ergot alkaloids, or are not effective on bovine bodily fluids. The first study was conducted to determine effects of commercial ergot alkaloids (n = 6; 0 - 400 μM) on the PromegaTM P450-Glo assay. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity in assay had a differential response to each ergot alkaloid and concentration. As concentrations of ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine increased CYP450 activity was inhibited (P < 0.05). Increases in ergonovine and pergolide concentration did not affect (P > 0.1 ...


Characterization And Potential Utility Of Porcine Trophoblast-Derived Stem-Like Cells, Edison A. Suasnavas May 2013

Characterization And Potential Utility Of Porcine Trophoblast-Derived Stem-Like Cells, Edison A. Suasnavas

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In mammals, the trophoblast lineage of the embryo is specified before implantation. It is restricted to become the fetal portion of the placenta. We have isolated and cultured trophoblast-derived cells from day 10 and day 13 porcine embryos. These cells demonstrate morphological and biological characteristics that make them unique. We have demonstrated that these cells can grow in vitro in a defined, serum-replacement medium for over a year without showing any signs of senescence. Trophoblast-derived cells placed into serum-containing medium, however, rapidly senesce and fail to proliferate. Gene expression analysis by RT-PCR and Fluidigm analysis of cells in culture from ...


Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Apr 2013

Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Richard G. Tait Jr.

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in LM and to evaluate their associations with beef palatability traits. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of mineral concentrations and for trained sensory panel assessments. Nine minerals, including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for mineral concentrations in LM varied from 0.01 to 0.54. Iron ...


Genetic Parameters For Carnitine, Creatine, Creatinine, Carnosine, And Anserine Concentration In Longissimus Muscle And Their Association With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, M. A. O'Neil, Richard G. Tait Jr., Almass A. Abuzaid, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Apr 2013

Genetic Parameters For Carnitine, Creatine, Creatinine, Carnosine, And Anserine Concentration In Longissimus Muscle And Their Association With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, M. A. O'Neil, Richard G. Tait Jr., Almass A. Abuzaid, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Richard G. Tait Jr.

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine concentration in LM and to evaluate their associations with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and beef palatability traits. Longissimus muscle samples from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, anserine, and other nutrients, and for trained sensory panel and WBSF assessments. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine concentrations in LM from ...


Acute Toxicity Of Copper Sulfate And Potassium Dichromate On Stygobiont Proasellus: General Aspects Of Groundwater Ecotoxicology And Future Perspectives, Ana Reboleira, Nelson Abrantes, Pedro Oromí, Fernando Gonçalves Mar 2013

Acute Toxicity Of Copper Sulfate And Potassium Dichromate On Stygobiont Proasellus: General Aspects Of Groundwater Ecotoxicology And Future Perspectives, Ana Reboleira, Nelson Abrantes, Pedro Oromí, Fernando Gonçalves

Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

Karst systems harbor large groundwater resources for human consumption and represent an important habitat for rare and unprotected specialized animals, the so-called stygofauna. Due to the highly adapted features towards underground life, together with the geographic isolation provided by the subterranean aquifers, groundwater-dwelling animals may lose the ability to face sudden changes on their ecosystems, and therefore the risk of extinction is remarkably high. A little is known about their sensitiveness, especially linked to contamination pressure in urbanized karst areas. Understanding the impact of contaminants on stygofauna is important for setting groundwater environmental quality and management of karst systems. We ...


Effect Of Anthraquinone Dyes On The Carbohydrate, Protein And Lipid Content In The Muscle Of Channa Punctatus And Cyprinus Carpio, Rajee Olaganathan, Jamila Patterson Mar 2013

Effect Of Anthraquinone Dyes On The Carbohydrate, Protein And Lipid Content In The Muscle Of Channa Punctatus And Cyprinus Carpio, Rajee Olaganathan, Jamila Patterson

Publications

Channa punctatus and Cyprinus carpio was exposed to sub lethal concentrations viz., 6.15 and 6.60 mg/l of vat blue 4 and vat green 1 respectively for a period of thirty days. The cumulative effect of these two dyes on the total carbohydrate, protein and lipid levels in the muscle of both the fishes were assayed on 7th, 18th and 30th day of exposure. The mean carbohydrate content of C. punctatus (both control and treated fish) collected on 18th and 30th day showed a significant difference (P < 0.01 to 0.04). In the case of control and treated C. carpio the data collected on 30th day showed significant variation (P < 0.04) in the carbohydrate content of the muscle. Student’s ‘t’ test analysis conducted on the protein content of C. punctatus during different occasions registered a significant decrease; in case of lipid content, except between the 1st and 30th day in all other cases the ‘t’ value is not significant. In case of C. carp protein and lipid content were observed to increase during the 7th day and thereafter a marked decrease was recorded on the 18th and 30th day of exposure. When the data was subjected to student’s ‘t’ test, both in protein and lipid, significant difference could not be recorded.


Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Mar 2013

Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in LM and to evaluate their associations with beef palatability traits. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of mineral concentrations and for trained sensory panel assessments. Nine minerals, including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for mineral concentrations in LM varied from 0.01 to 0.54. Iron ...


Glutathione S-Transferase Class Mu Regulation Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Protein During Vcd-Induced Ovotoxicity In Neonatal Rat Ovaries, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Jill A. Madden, Nivedita Sen, Patricia B. Hoyer, Aileen F. Keating Feb 2013

Glutathione S-Transferase Class Mu Regulation Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Protein During Vcd-Induced Ovotoxicity In Neonatal Rat Ovaries, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Jill A. Madden, Nivedita Sen, Patricia B. Hoyer, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian primordial and small primary follicles via apoptosis. In mice, VCD exposure induces ovarian mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members, including isoform mu (Gstm). Extra-ovarian GSTM negatively regulates pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-related kinase 1 (ASK1) through protein complex formation, which dissociates during stress, thereby initiating ASK1-induced apoptosis. The present study investigated the ovarian response of Gstm mRNA and protein to VCD. Induction of Ask1 mRNA at VCD-induced follicle loss onset was determined. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was investigated and VCD exposure effects thereon evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) regulation of GSTM protein was also ...


Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy J. Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. Mcclelland Jan 2013

Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy J. Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. Mcclelland

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch ...


Agricultural Geo-Engineering; Past, Present & Future, Erich J. Knight Mr. Jan 2013

Agricultural Geo-Engineering; Past, Present & Future, Erich J. Knight Mr.

Erich J Knight Mr.

Historic hall marks of GHG emissions are reviewed, providing repeated demonstration of anthropogenic land use changes on climate forcing.

New Astrophysical and Paleoclimate concordance with extinction events demonstrating climate adaptation by prehistoric man.

A review of new research concerning Soil Carbon, Carboniferous Aerosols, extent of Pyrolytic-Carbon fraction in soil and the first survey of the extensive deep soil carbon sink.

How thermal conversion technologies can integrate and optimize the recycling of valuable nutrients while providing energy and building soil carbon.

New discoveries from the Advanced Spectrometry & Meta-Genomics studies in soil microbiology which demonstrate unaccounted for ecological services provided by a ...


Unbearable Future, Etienne S. Benson Jan 2013

Unbearable Future, Etienne S. Benson

Departmental Papers (HSS)

“Two research scientists kill five bears” was the headline splashed across the front page of the Tundra Times on April 8, 1966. The perpetrators were Vagn Flyger and Martin Schein, biologists from Maryland who had just spent three weeks on Alaska’s North Slope trying to tranquilize and tag polar bears. According to Flyger and Schein’s own later report, they had in fact accidentally killed only four bears (Flyger 1967: 53). Of the thirty-eight they had pursued by aircraft over the sea ice near Barrow, Alaska, they had managed to hit seven with darts laden with a powerful muscle ...


The Effect Of Visual Wulst Lesions And Trigeminal Nerve Sectioning On The Discrimination Of Magnetic Inclination In The Homing Pigeon (Columba Livia), Merissa Acerbi Jan 2013

The Effect Of Visual Wulst Lesions And Trigeminal Nerve Sectioning On The Discrimination Of Magnetic Inclination In The Homing Pigeon (Columba Livia), Merissa Acerbi

Honors Projects

The ability of homing pigeons to return to their loft from unknown places has fascinated scientists for centuries. It is well established that homing pigeons, like migratory birds, posses an innate magnetic inclination compass to determine direction by measuring the angle between the magnetic field vector and the Earth's surface. Recent work has indicated that the avian magnetic compass is light mediated and appears to mediate magnetic information to the brain. This occurs via a visual pathway with processing in the visual Wulst area of the forebrain. There is, however, also evidence from other avian species that magnetic direction ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2013

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Instructions For Authors, Discovery Editors Jan 2013

Instructions For Authors, Discovery Editors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.