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Animal Sciences

2011

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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan Dec 2011

Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mammalian hibernation is a highly dynamic physiological process that is composed of a series of torpor bouts, wherein hibernators oscillate between periods of torpor and interbout arousal. Although normally vital to homeostasis, many energetically consumptive processes such as translation or protein synthesis are virtually ceased during hibernation. Earlier studies indicated that protein synthesis had fallen to almost negligible levels. Cap-dependent initiation of translation is well regulated by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its binding partner eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) when hibernators cycle in and out the torpor state. Herein, I investigated well-characterized regulatory mechanisms of global and specific ...


The Effects Of Acute And Chronic Hypoxia On Cortisol, Glucose And Lactate Concentrations In Different Populations Of Three-Spined Stickleback, E. A. O'Connor, T. G. Pottinger, L. U. Sneddon Sep 2011

The Effects Of Acute And Chronic Hypoxia On Cortisol, Glucose And Lactate Concentrations In Different Populations Of Three-Spined Stickleback, E. A. O'Connor, T. G. Pottinger, L. U. Sneddon

Aquaculture Collection

The response of individuals from three different populations of three-spined sticklebacks to acute and chronic periods of hypoxia (4.4 kPa DO, 2.2 mg l-1) were tested using measures of whole-body (WB) cortisol, glucose and lactate. Although there was no evidence of a neuroendocrine stress response to acute hypoxia, fish from the population least likely to experience hypoxia in their native habitat had the largest response to low oxygen, with significant evidence of anaerobic glycolysis after two hours of hypoxia. However, there was no measurable effect of a more prolonged period (seven days) of hypoxia on any of the ...


Ubiquitylation Of Proteins In The Frozen Wood Frog, Alexa Khan, Michael Ulrich, Kenneth Storey, Frank Van Breukelen Aug 2011

Ubiquitylation Of Proteins In The Frozen Wood Frog, Alexa Khan, Michael Ulrich, Kenneth Storey, Frank Van Breukelen

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) are able to withstand freezing. Respiratory and cardiac activity ceases when frozen. Homeostatic functions like protein synthesis and degradation presumably must also be compromised. We investigated the fate of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in the freeze-thaw cycle and how that might gives clues to wood frog survival. We performed western blots for ubiquitin conjugates


The Role Of An Abc Transporter As A Steroid Antagonist In Drosophila, Gregory King, Andrew Andres Aug 2011

The Role Of An Abc Transporter As A Steroid Antagonist In Drosophila, Gregory King, Andrew Andres

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Drosophila melanogaster are holometabolous insects that have several distinct life stages including larvae and a winged adult. The larval stage is mainly a time of feeding and growth, while the adult stage is optimized for sexual reproduction and dissemination. The larval stage can itself be divided into three time periods, or instars: 1st (L1), 2nd (L2), and 3rd (L3) (Figure 1). Larval growth – both between instars and beyond – depends on specific signaling pathways controlled by a cholesterol derived steroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Although 20E is a systemic developmental signal, little is known about the molecular details of how different tissues respond ...


Interspecies Comparison Of Αii-Spectrin Abundance Between Chinook Salmon And Steelhead, Brielle D. Kemis, Ann L. Miracle, Katie A. Wagner, Christa M. Woodley Aug 2011

Interspecies Comparison Of Αii-Spectrin Abundance Between Chinook Salmon And Steelhead, Brielle D. Kemis, Ann L. Miracle, Katie A. Wagner, Christa M. Woodley

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Salmonids, such as Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss), are a staple economic, recreational, tribal, and environmental resource, yet many populations are unsustainable. This study was part of a broad scale effort to monitor the impact of downstream migration obstacles on juvenile salmonid health and survival, which is an essential step towards increasing Smolt-to-Adult Return ratios (SARs). The objective of this study was to determine if juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibit differing quantities of alphaII-Spectrin Breakdown Products (SBDPs) over two consecutive spring migration periods, indicative of neurogenesis rate and/or biological response to head injury. AlphaII-Spectrin is ...


Mitochondrial Metabolic Suppression And Reactive Oxygen Species Production During Hypometabolism In Mammals, Jason Cl Brown Jul 2011

Mitochondrial Metabolic Suppression And Reactive Oxygen Species Production During Hypometabolism In Mammals, Jason Cl Brown

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During hibernation, daily torpor, and fasting, mammals reduce metabolic rate (MR) up to 99%, 95%, and 30%, respectively, compared to resting levels. Mitochondrial metabolic suppression likely contributes to this MR reduction, and the first objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of active, regulated inhibition and passive thermal effects as body temperature (Tb) falls, to mitochondrial metabolic suppression, and to examine the mechanisms involved using top-down elasticity analysis and novel statistical approach. The second objective of this study was to determine how mitochondrial metabolic suppression affects mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, a topic which has ...


An Assessment Of Stable Hydrogen-Isotope Analysis Methods To Assign Geographic Origin To Migratory Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Carla Marie Ahlschwede May 2011

An Assessment Of Stable Hydrogen-Isotope Analysis Methods To Assign Geographic Origin To Migratory Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo Jamaicensis), Carla Marie Ahlschwede

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

Stable-hydrogen isotopes are becoming an increasingly popular method of studying migratory birds, though sample preparation methods may affect results. In this study I examined feathers from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) to determine the relationship between measure of δD due to inter-feather variation or drying methods, assessed the accuracy of results by using two birds of known-origin and estimated possible natal origins of migratory red-tailed hawks. Two feathers per individual were taken from 81 wild hawks caught at Hitchcock Nature Center near Crescent IA and from 2 rescued red-tailed hawks, Raptor Recovery Nebraska near Eagle, NE. 119 of the collected feathers ...


Stem-Boring Caterpillars Of Switchgrass In The Midwestern United States, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Jennifer E. Buhay, Thomas W. Sappington, Emily A. Heaton, Jeffrey D. Bradshaw, Michael E. Gray May 2011

Stem-Boring Caterpillars Of Switchgrass In The Midwestern United States, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Jennifer E. Buhay, Thomas W. Sappington, Emily A. Heaton, Jeffrey D. Bradshaw, Michael E. Gray

Entomology Publications

Lepidopteran stem borers were collected from switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., tillers showing symptoms of infestation at seven locations in Illinois and Iowa, with additional observations made on larval and adult activity. Blastobasis repartella (Dietz) (Coleophoridae), whose only known host is switchgrass, was common in plots grown for >5 yr, whereas the polyphagous stalk borer, Papaipema nebris (Guenée) (Noctuidae), was abundant in newly established (i.e., first- and second-year) switchgrass. Haimbachia albescens Capps (Crambidae) was collected from two locations in Illinois, making switchgrass the first known host for this species. Entry holes made by B. repartella and H. albescens were usually ...


Accumulation Of Polonium-210 In Different Species Of Fish In Lake Mead, Suraj Ghevarghese John, Shungmugam Nallaperumal, Vernon Hodge Apr 2011

Accumulation Of Polonium-210 In Different Species Of Fish In Lake Mead, Suraj Ghevarghese John, Shungmugam Nallaperumal, Vernon Hodge

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Discovered by Pierre Curie and Marie Skłodowska-Curie in 1898, polonium is a chemical element with an atomic number of 84. This rare naturally occurring radioactive element is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and forms in uranium ores. Polonium-210 is an naturally occurring radioactive element with a half-life of 138.376 days(1). This element is found in trace amounts in most organisms. Our research is focused on the accumulation of polonium-210 in fish that occupy in Lake Mead.

The sample species is chosen based on varying lake stratification (layers of the lake). This gives us a good idea of ...


Effect Of Temperature And Oxygen Levels On Lactate Production In Palaemonetes Pugio, Robin Schofield, Teresa Mika, Carl Reiber Apr 2011

Effect Of Temperature And Oxygen Levels On Lactate Production In Palaemonetes Pugio, Robin Schofield, Teresa Mika, Carl Reiber

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Oxygen delivery rates must keep pace with the increased metabolic rate observed in poikilothermic animals exposed to increased temperature if aerobic metabolism is to be maintained. Physical failure of the oxygen delivery system to meet these demands may be a mechanism of cardiac failure in crustaceans at temperature extremes. As part of the determination of the effect of temperature on the cardio-respiratory system, we are measuring whole animal lactate levels in grass shrimp acclimated to 20°C over temperature ranges in normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Lactate levels are measured as an indicator of a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism ...


Determining The Composition Of The Dwelling Tubes Of Antarctic Pterobranchs, Lukasz J. Sewera Apr 2011

Determining The Composition Of The Dwelling Tubes Of Antarctic Pterobranchs, Lukasz J. Sewera

Honors Projects

Pterobranchs are a group of marine invertebrates within the Hemichordata, which share characteristics with both chordates and echinoderms. Pterobranchs live in colonies of secreted tubes, coenicia, which are composed of a gelatinous material of unknown composition. Visually, the tubes appear similar to the tunic of tunicates, a group of invertebrates within the Chordata. The nonproteinaceous tunic of tunicates is composed of cellulose, which is unusual. The goal of this study was to determine the composition of the pterobranch coenicium. Some aspects of pterobranch phylogeny are still unclear even after multiple molecular and morphological studies. Identification of any new shared characteristics ...


Vol. 97, No. 2, Pp. 177-369, Journal Of Parasitology Apr 2011

Vol. 97, No. 2, Pp. 177-369, Journal Of Parasitology

Journal of Parasitology Archives

Contents:

Distribution, Abundance, and Genetic Diversity of Clinostomum spp. Metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea) in a Modified Ozark Stream System. RONALD M. BONETT, MICHAEL A. STEFFEN, ANA L. TRUJANO-ALVAREZ, SAMUEL D. MARTIN, CHARLES R. BURSEY, and CHRIS T. McALLISTER. . 177

Population Biology of Contracaecum rudolphii Sensu Lata (Nematoda) in the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) From Northeastern Poland. GERARD KANAREK. .. 185

Seasonal Occurrence of Helminths in the Anadromous Fish Coilia nasus (Engraulidae): Parasite Indicators of Fish Migratory Movements. WEN X. LI, RUI SONG, SHAN G. WU, HONG ZOU, PIN NIE, and GUI T. WANG. . . 192

Examining the Area Effect for Parasite Communities of ...


Caffeine Metabolism And Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Mrna Expression Levels Of Genetically Diverse Inbred Mouse Strains, Neal Addicott, Michael Malfatti, Gabriela G. Loots Jan 2011

Caffeine Metabolism And Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Mrna Expression Levels Of Genetically Diverse Inbred Mouse Strains, Neal Addicott, Michael Malfatti, Gabriela G. Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes activate or eliminate medications and other xenobiotics, and Caffeine has been used as an indicator of activity for some CYPs. The natural genetic variation in the human population for caffeine metabolizing CYPs does not yet have an established animal model for comparison, but the natural variation in inbred mouse strains presents an attractive starting point. The project gave four different strains of mice a 40mg/kg dose of caffeine and sampled blood and liver tissue after 30 minutes. Samples were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), reverse transcription PCR (rtPCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The ...


In Vivo Investigations Of Polymer Conjugates As Therapeutics, Elizabeth M. Henchey Jan 2011

In Vivo Investigations Of Polymer Conjugates As Therapeutics, Elizabeth M. Henchey

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Polymer conjugates offer a way to introduce materials into the body that would normally be rejected or cause toxicity. Two polymers are investigated in vivo for uses in chemotherapeutic delivery, protein therapeutics, and DNA transfection. A novel polymer, polyMPC, has the ability to increase doxorubicin loading and its solubility, and is conjugated in a way to release its payload in a low pH environment. Through its conjugation, blood clearance time of doxorubicin is increased, and thus tumor exposure to the drug is increased with a single administration. It can be administered at ten times the concentration of free doxorubicin, and ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2011

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.