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Animal Sciences

2010

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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Genotype And Breed Trend Influences On Citric Acid And Coagulation Times Of Raw Milk, Melissa Looney Dec 2010

Genotype And Breed Trend Influences On Citric Acid And Coagulation Times Of Raw Milk, Melissa Looney

Dairy Science

The objective of the study was to determine if citric acid levels measured in milk was related to genetic variants identified in Holstein and Jersey cows. The data used were milk samples collected from both Holstein and Jersey cows at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. Citric acid levels and other constituents were measured using FTIR methods with the FOSS MilkoscanTM FT2 on each sample. Genotypes were obtained for the DGAT 1 locus using polymerase chain reaction and an enzymatic digestion using the MWO I restriction enzyme. Observations were obtained on 13 Holsteins and 12 Jersey cows. Results indicated that citric ...


Molecular Cloning And Characterization Of The Porcine Fto Promoter And Coding Regions.Pdf, Jinming Huang, Yunzhou Yang, Gang Liu, Jibin Zhang, Xinxing Dong, Ying Bai, Meiying Fang Nov 2010

Molecular Cloning And Characterization Of The Porcine Fto Promoter And Coding Regions.Pdf, Jinming Huang, Yunzhou Yang, Gang Liu, Jibin Zhang, Xinxing Dong, Ying Bai, Meiying Fang

Jibin Zhang

The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been widely reported to be associated with fat mass or fat deposition in different species. In the present study, we cloned both promoter and codingregions of the gene in pigs with over 5 Kb of sequence for the former region and 1,596 bp for the latter region. Comparative analysis of the promoter region among 20 species including pig revealed four conserved regions that harbor transcriptional factors involved in adipose differentiation. Using a pooled DNA sequencing approach, we discovered 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pig FTO gene and four ...


Relationship Of Flight And Reproduction In Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera Exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), A Migrant Lacking The Oogenesis-Flight Syndrome, Xing Fu Jiang, Li Zhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington Nov 2010

Relationship Of Flight And Reproduction In Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera Exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), A Migrant Lacking The Oogenesis-Flight Syndrome, Xing Fu Jiang, Li Zhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome, common in many migratory insects, is characterized by a suite of traits including migration during the pre-oviposition period followed by a switch to oogenesis. No negative effects of inter-ovipositional flight on lifetime fecundity were observed. Instead, adult reproductive output suffered when female flight was initiated the first day after eclosion and before oviposition, suggesting that migratory flight overlaps with the oviposition period rather than being confined to ...


The Evolution Of Platelet Responses To Collagen Under Conditions Of Hemodynamic Flow, Alec A. Schmaier Aug 2010

The Evolution Of Platelet Responses To Collagen Under Conditions Of Hemodynamic Flow, Alec A. Schmaier

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Collagen activates platelets through the immune-type GPVI receptor, but the mechanism by which this receptor has adapted to function in platelets under conditions of rapid blood flow is unclear. Additionally, it is unknown if responses to collagen are conserved in nucleated thrombocytes found in non-mammalian vertebrates, which do not express GPVI. Here we show that the GPVI proline-rich domain accelerates GPVI signaling kinetics and is required for maximal adhesion to collagen under flow. The proline-rich domain accelerates signaling through binding and directly activating the Src-family kinase Lyn. Chicken thrombocytes are potently activated by collagen but do not form 3-dimensional aggregates ...


Four Aspects Of Dogwood Pollination: Insect Visitation, A Novel Approach To Identify Pollen, Floral Volatile Emission, And Tracking Parentage, Paul Raymond Rhoades Aug 2010

Four Aspects Of Dogwood Pollination: Insect Visitation, A Novel Approach To Identify Pollen, Floral Volatile Emission, And Tracking Parentage, Paul Raymond Rhoades

Masters Theses

Part 1: Visitation of potential pollinators to Cornus florida and C. kousa flowers was assessed in East Tennessee in 2008 and 2009. Data regarding insect visitation rates to multiple trees per location were gathered throughout the flowering period. Diurnal and seasonal variations in visitation were recorded. Pollen coverage was assessed on portions of captured insect exoskeletons that were most likely to contact the stigma. Eleven families in four insect orders were collected from C. florida and 26 families in five orders from C. kousa. The most important pollinators in eastern Tennessee were bees in the Andrenidae and Halictidae. The most ...


Poisonous Rangeland Plants In San Luis Obispo County, Sara Litten, Amanda Ou Jun 2010

Poisonous Rangeland Plants In San Luis Obispo County, Sara Litten, Amanda Ou

Animal Science

Poisonous Rangeland Plants in San Luis Obispo County is a comprehensive educational guide to rangeland plants that are toxic to domestic livestock. This guide begins with an exploration of how the biological systems are affected by the poisonous plant toxins. The biochemistry behind these toxins is included in the discussion. Next, reference material for fourteen plants that inhabit San Luis Obispo County is provided. This information includes specific toxins found in poisonous plants, affected animals, symptoms of poisoning, stages of growth, lethal dose, and distribution of the plant in California. This section of the guide is filled with helpful photos ...


Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson Jun 2010

Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The mammary alveolar cell-T (MAC-T) cell line is able to uniformly differentiate and secrete casein proteins in response to dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin and is extensively used to study bovine mammary epithelial cell function. Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to increase milk protein synthesis both in vivo and in mammary cell models, and induce cytoskeletal rearrangement in 3T3 fibroblast cell line and a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. Few studies have focused on identifying the mechanisms involved in differentiated MAC-T cells’ response to GH. We tested the hypothesis that MAC-T cells would respond directly to GH and that ...


T10c12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Causes Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes And Mice, Shan Jiang Apr 2010

T10c12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Causes Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes And Mice, Shan Jiang

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

T10c12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) causes the reduction of triglyceride contents in adipocytes. T10c12 CLA’s delipidation effect is associated with decreased nutrient uptake, adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and increased energy expenditure, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes. However, the molecular mechanisms of CLA’s delipidation effects are still unknown. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of cellular energy levels, is activated by an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio or various cellular stresses. We demonstrated that t10c12 CLA activated AMPK in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, leading to inhibition of anabolic biosynthesis and increase of energy expenditure. Strong activation of AMPK ...


From The Valleys To The Mountains: The Biographic History Of Antelope Squirrels, Bats, And Chipmunks In Western North America, Stacy James Mantooth Apr 2010

From The Valleys To The Mountains: The Biographic History Of Antelope Squirrels, Bats, And Chipmunks In Western North America, Stacy James Mantooth

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Genetic differentiation within and between species often coincides with significant geological or climatic changes that have shaped the sizes and locations of their geographic ranges and altered the connectivity between populations over time. Across western North America, many endemic taxa experienced high levels of initial divergence associated with geological transformations of the Neogene, with subsequent diversification and geographic structuring of populations associated with climatic changes during the Quaternary. As such, we can use a combination of molecular markers and genetic analyses to effectively examine the evolutionary and biogeographic histories of populations, species, and regional biotas whose signatures of differentiation are ...


The Interictal State In Epilepsy And Behavior, Daniel Tice Barkmeier Jan 2010

The Interictal State In Epilepsy And Behavior, Daniel Tice Barkmeier

Wayne State University Dissertations

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, affecting up to 1% of the world population. Epilepsy remains poorly understood and there are currently no medications to cure it. Patients with epilepsy have both seizures as well as another type of abnormal activity between seizures, known as interictal spikes. Interictal spikes have thus far been poorly researched, yet growing evidence supports an important role for them in epilepsy. In this project, we first show the high variability between reviewers in marking interictal spikes on intracranial EEG, and then develop and test an automated detection method to solve this problem ...


Morphological Changes And Immunohistochemical Expression Of Rage And Its Ligands In The Sciatic Nerve Of Hyperglycemic Pig (Sus Scrofa), Judyta K. Juranek, Alexey Aleshin, Eileen M. Rattigan, Lynne Johnson, Wu Qu, Fei Song, Radha Ananthakrishnan, Nosirudeen Quadri, Shi Du Yan, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Ann Marie Schmidt, Matthew S. Geddis Jan 2010

Morphological Changes And Immunohistochemical Expression Of Rage And Its Ligands In The Sciatic Nerve Of Hyperglycemic Pig (Sus Scrofa), Judyta K. Juranek, Alexey Aleshin, Eileen M. Rattigan, Lynne Johnson, Wu Qu, Fei Song, Radha Ananthakrishnan, Nosirudeen Quadri, Shi Du Yan, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Ann Marie Schmidt, Matthew S. Geddis

Publications and Research

The aim of our project was to study the effect of streptozotocin (STZ)—induced hyperglycemia on sciatic nerve morphology, blood plasma markers and immunohistochemical expression of RAGE (the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products), and its ligands—S100B and Carboxymethyl Lysine (CML)-advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in the laboratory pig. Six months after STZ—injections, blood plasma measurements, morphometric analysis of sciatic nerve fiber density, immunofluorescent distribution of potential molecular neuropathy contributors, ELISA measurement of plasma AGE level and HPLC analysis of sciatic nerve levels of one of the pre-AGE and the glycolysis intermediate products—methyl-glyoxal (MG) were performed. The results ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2010

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


A Bird’S-Eye View On The Function Of Sleep, Charles Amlaner, Niels Rattenborg Dec 2009

A Bird’S-Eye View On The Function Of Sleep, Charles Amlaner, Niels Rattenborg

Charles J. Amlaner

Sleep has been detected in every animal that has been adequately studied (Cirelli & Tononi, 2008). The ubiquitous nature of sleep suggests that it evolved early in the course of evolution and therefore may serve a conserved function essential to all animals. This hypothesis forms the rationale behind the development of “simple” animal models of sleep (Allada & Siegel, 2008; Mignot, 2008). By studying sleep in animals such as the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), where the power of genetic techniques can be readily employed,we may gain insight into the initial (perhaps cellular) function of sleep, a function that may still be relevant to understanding sleep in humans. Indeed, recent studies have already demonstrated remarkable similarities between sleep in Drosophila and sleep in mammals (Hendricks, Finn, Panckeri, et al., 2000; Shaw, Cirelli, Greenspan, et al., 2000; reviewed in Cirelli & Bushey, 2008). Although the utility of studying sleep in“simple”animal models is undeniable, it is unlikely that this approach alone will tell the whole story, especially given that Drosophilado not exhibit brain states comparable to mammalian slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep (Cirelli, 2006; Cirelli & Bushey, 2008; Hendricks & Sehgal, 2004; Nitz, van Swinderen, Tononi, et al ...