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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

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Articles 1 - 6 of 6

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Predator-Induced Plasticity In Sleep Architecture In Wild-Caught Norway Rats (Rattus Norvegicus), John Lesku, Rebekah Bark, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima Jun 2008

Predator-Induced Plasticity In Sleep Architecture In Wild-Caught Norway Rats (Rattus Norvegicus), John Lesku, Rebekah Bark, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima

Charles J. Amlaner

Sleep is a prominent behaviour in the lives of animals, but the unresponsiveness that characterizes sleep makes it dangerous. Mammalian sleep is composed of two neurophysiological states: slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Given that the intensity of stimuli required to induce an arousal to wakefulness is highest during deep SWS or REM sleep, mammals may be most vulnerable during these states. If true, then animals should selectively reduce deep SWS and REM sleep following an increase in the risk of predation. To test this prediction, we simulated a predatory encounter with 10 wild-caught Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus ...


Biomechanical Modeling Of Forelimb Adduction In The Eastern Mole, Scalopusaquaticus, Mark Sandefur Apr 2008

Biomechanical Modeling Of Forelimb Adduction In The Eastern Mole, Scalopusaquaticus, Mark Sandefur

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The hypertrophied musculoskeletal system driving adduction of Sealopus aquatieus's forelimb supports the locomotion of these burrowing subterranean mammals. Due to the excessive bulk of the major muscles contributing to this action, it was thought that this particular species may represent a rare case of a mammalian species with a greatly enhanced force contribution from each muscle, correlating with a reduction in the potential for the forelimb to adduct at a high velocity. By assessing the lever ratios of five significant muscles contributing to forelimb adduction, combined with vector analyses for the angles of these muscles' insertions, a model was ...


Partial Isolation And Chemical Characterization Of Cytotoxic Compounds In Freshwater Sponges, Aaron Bertoni Apr 2008

Partial Isolation And Chemical Characterization Of Cytotoxic Compounds In Freshwater Sponges, Aaron Bertoni

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Marine sponges are known to produce or sequester compounds useful for defense against predation and to prevent fouling by parasites. Many of the compounds extracted from marine sponges have been shown to possess useful antitumoral properties. The present study investigates two species of freshwater sponges, Eunapius fragilis and Ephydatia muelleri, for possible cytotoxic compounds as determined by brine shrimp microassay. Results show that both species have cytotoxic compounds extractable in methanol and at least two cytotoxic compounds may be present in Eunapiusfragilis, both of which are extractable in hexane. The present study provides strong support for continued natural product research ...


Post-Orbital Color Pattern Variation And The Evolution Of A Radiation Of Turtles (Graptemys), Erin M. Myers Jan 2008

Post-Orbital Color Pattern Variation And The Evolution Of A Radiation Of Turtles (Graptemys), Erin M. Myers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

One of the most studied areas in the field of evolutionary biology is the formation and maintenance of new species, as well as variation in the rate and extent to which taxa radiate. A range of evolutionary processes, from ecological adaptation to sexual selection and reinforcement, can lead species formation. However, the generation of new species likely results from several isolating mechanisms acting in concert. The map turtle complex (genus: Graptemys) is an excellent model system for exploring the nature of speciation given its exceptional species richness and morphological diversity, particularly in facial coloration patterns. This research utilizes an integrative ...


Stable Isotope Dynamics In Summer Flounder Tissues, With Application To Dietary Assessments In Chesapeake Bay, Andre Buchheister Jan 2008

Stable Isotope Dynamics In Summer Flounder Tissues, With Application To Dietary Assessments In Chesapeake Bay, Andre Buchheister

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Stable isotope techniques were applied to summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, in Chesapeake Bay to elucidate the relative importance of different prey groups on the growth and productivity of this species. Prior to field application, a laboratory diet-shift study was conducted to evaluate methodological assumptions and obtain necessary isotopic parameters. Specifically, the goals of the laboratory study were to 1) determine isotopic turnover rates and fractionations of δ13C and δ15N in liver, whole blood, and white muscle and 2) estimate the relative importance of growth and metabolic processes on isotopic turnover. Groups of captive juvenile summer flounder (130-255mm total length) were ...


Single Slide Sets To Accompany The Srs Basics Of Sleep Guide (Version 1.1), Charles Amlaner (Editor), Orfeu Buxton (Editor) Dec 2007

Single Slide Sets To Accompany The Srs Basics Of Sleep Guide (Version 1.1), Charles Amlaner (Editor), Orfeu Buxton (Editor)

Charles J. Amlaner

Contains 10 hour-long peer-reviewed lectures in Powerpoint based on the SRS basics of sleep guide.