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Animal Sciences

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Articles 1 - 30 of 113

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter May 2019

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung Jan 2019

Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Male Hymenochirus sp. frogs are known to release pheromone that attracts females of the same species. Four methods for collecting secretions containing pheromone in Hymenochirus sp. were tested: norepinephrine injection, gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection, homogenization of gland tissue, and electrostimulation of the skin over the breeding gland area. The samples collected were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. The HPLC chromatograph for the male norepinephrine sample contained a peak at 6.4 min that was not in the female norepinephrine sample HPLC chromatograph. The male norepinephrine sample mass spectrum had a peak of m/z 292.0 not ...


Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk Jan 2019

Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fish scales are specialized biological structures of current interest in innovative materials design because of the combination of protective function, flexibility, and light weight they offer. This study presents a developmental and functional investigation of a particular fish scale structure, the scutes (bony external plates) of the armored Bronze Corydoras Catfish (Corydoras aeneus). Scutes in this model fish species were analyzed via three complementary approaches. First, scutes were documented throughout fish development via high-quality microscope images. These images were subsequently used to inform fabrication of synthetic models to characterize the relationship between scute overlap and overall bending stiffness of scute ...


Relación Entre La Grasa Subcutánea Y Desempeño Maternal En Vacas Angus Primerizas, Esteban Mendoza De La Pava, Adel David Kalil Rey Jan 2019

Relación Entre La Grasa Subcutánea Y Desempeño Maternal En Vacas Angus Primerizas, Esteban Mendoza De La Pava, Adel David Kalil Rey

Zootecnia

El objetivo del presente estudio, tuvo como finalidad lograr identificar el porcentaje de grasa dorsal que se moviliza en vacas Angus primerizas posterior al parto y cómo este podría verse relacionado con el desempeño maternal y el peso al destete del ternero. Para poder lograr este objetivo, se evaluaron doce vacas primerizas de la raza Angus del CIC (centro de investigación y capacitación) San Miguel en Facatativa, Cundinamarca, con diversos parámetros productivos como: peso corporal, puntaje de condición corporal del preparto y al destete, espesor de grasa dorsal (preparto y destete), espesor de grasa en el anca (preparto y destete ...


Effects Of Aquatic Acidification On Calcium Uptake In White River Shrimp Litopenaeus Setiferus Gills, Maria-Flora Jacobs Jan 2019

Effects Of Aquatic Acidification On Calcium Uptake In White River Shrimp Litopenaeus Setiferus Gills, Maria-Flora Jacobs

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research regarding aquatic acidification has examined the protonation of the carbonate and does not consider calcium to be a limiting factor. This is the first study to suggest that pH may affect the uptake of calcium in crustacean gills. This project describes ion transport mechanisms present in the cell membranes of white river shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus gill epithelium, and the effects of pH on the uptake of calcium by these means. Partially purified membrane vesicles (PPMV) of shrimp gills were prepared through a homogenization process that has been used previously to define ion transport in crab and lobster gill ...


The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni Dec 2018

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary contributing factor in the development of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Nicotine contained in tobacco is a major addictive alkaloid, which enhances the effects of ALDs. The major enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism is cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) which is produced in the liver. Alcohol can stimulate the CYP2A5 enzyme. We utilized cyp2a5-/- knockout mice in this research to examine the effects of CYP2A5.

The cyp2a5-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed liquid ethanol diet with or without nicotine to induce ALD. Nicotine enhancing effects on ALD were observed in WT mice but not ...


Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright Dec 2018

Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organisms adapt to their environments by adjusting their biochemistry and physiology; such adaptation is limited by resource availability and physiological constraints. The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna inhabits a wide range of environments and must survive and reproduce within a range of temperatures. One limit to low-temperature adaptation is thought to be the availability of unsaturated fatty acids necessary to maintain proper fluidity of cellular membranes. D. magna maintained at 10 ºC on a diet poor in unsaturated fatty acids have been observed to produce clutches that fail to develop. However, this has not been observed on a diet rich in ...


Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley May 2018

Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley

Theses and Dissertations

The United States poultry industry generated 38.6 billion pounds (17,500 metric ton) of meat in 2014 which averaged to 121 pounds (55 kg) per individual of the U.S that same year. Of that meat generated by the poultry industry, an estimated 1 million cases of Salmonellosis will occur. Out of the 1 million cases approximately 40, 000 to 50,000 will be confirmed cases by the CDC. Recently, the USDA has requested changes in the inspection process and are currently allowing processors more freedom to utilize innovation to drive the increase in safer and more desirable foods ...


Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim Jan 2018

Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The effects of dietary ingredients on the proteome profile of postmortem beef longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle were evaluated. In the first experiment, the influence of dietary ractopamine on the whole-muscle proteome of beef LL was examined. Five proteins were differentially abundant between ractopamine-fed (RAC) and non-ractopamine fed (CON) groups. The differentially abundant proteins were over-abundant in RAC and were related to muscle structure development (F-actin-capping protein subunit beta-2 and PDZ and LIM domain protein-3), chaperone (heat shock protein beta-1), oxygen transportation (myoglobin), and glycolysis (L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain). These findings indicated that ractopamine influences the abundance of proteins associated with ...


Evidence For Extra-Gastric Expression Of The Proton Pump H+/K+ -Atpase In The Gills And Kidney Of The Teleost Oreochromis Niloticus, Ebtesam Barnawi Jan 2018

Evidence For Extra-Gastric Expression Of The Proton Pump H+/K+ -Atpase In The Gills And Kidney Of The Teleost Oreochromis Niloticus, Ebtesam Barnawi

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

It is well known that stomach acid secretion by oxynticopeptic cells of the gastric mucosa is accomplished by the H+/ K+-ATPase (HKA), which is comprised of the HKα1 (gene: atp4a) and HKβ (gene: atp4b) subunits. However, the role of the HKA in extra-gastric organs such as the gill and kidney is less clear especially in fishes. This pump may contribute to active ion and/or acid-base regulation either through direct ion transport or through secondary transport proteins against unfavorable concentration gradients via the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. In the present work I have demonstrated uptake of the K ...


Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert Jan 2018

Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) undermines production efficiency in all animal agriculture, culminating in major economic losses annually. The effects of HS in pigs is realized through depressed growth, altered body composition, and impaired reproductive performance. Pigs, unlike other mammals, do not possess functional sweat glands, making them rely on other mechanisms to thermoregulate during a heat challenge. Continual investigation of hyperthermia in pigs is crucial for developing new strategies and/or technologies that mitigate the effects of HS imposed on the pork industry. The studies conducted in this dissertation investigate the complex interplay of whole-animal physiology as well as cellular and ...


Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler Dec 2017

Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), constituents of crude oil, are implicated as a potent source of adverse toxicological effects on living organisms. To model the effects of PAHs in response to environmental oil spill disasters a species of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) was captured and exposed to crude oil in a laboratory-controlled setting. Over a period of 7 days, fish were dosed with crude oil by gavage, culled, and organs were harvested for analysis. Excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) of gall bladder tissue homogenates was used to verify exposure. Effects of PAHs on the p53 gene were evaluated as an indicator of genotoxicity ...


Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers Dec 2017

Regulation Of Liver Mitochondrial Metabolism During Hibernation By Post-Translational Modification, Katherine E. Mathers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hibernation, characterized by a seasonal reduction in metabolism and body temperature, allows animals to conserve energy when environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food availability) are unfavourable. During hibernation, small mammals such as the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) cycle between two distinct metabolic states: torpor, where metabolic rate is suppressed by >95% and body temperature falls to ~5 °C, and interbout euthermia (IBE), where metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly increase and are maintained at euthermic levels several hours. Suppression of metabolism during entrance into torpor is paralleled by rapid suppression of liver mitochondrial metabolism. In my thesis, I aimed ...


Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Ion Transport In Rio Negro Characiformes, Vineza D. Reduta May 2017

Investigation Into The Mechanism Of Ion Transport In Rio Negro Characiformes, Vineza D. Reduta

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Four fish species within the Characiform Order [(Rosy tetras (Hyphessobrycon rosaceus), Serpae tetras (Hyphessobrycon eques), Emperor tetras (Nematobrycon palmeri) and Penguin tetras (Thayeria obliqua)] are native to the ion-poor, acidic waters of the Rio Negro. In this paper, we focus on Wood’s revised Na+/NH4+ exchange model to gain better insight into the mechanisms of ion transport within the Characids. We exposed each species to two experimental treatments: (i) 1mM ammonia (high external ammonia [HEA]), to test coupling of Na+ uptake and ammonia excretion, and (ii) 100μM Acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), to test coupling of Na+ uptake and ...


Evolutionary Genetic Aspects Of Host Association In Generalist Ectoparasites, Benoit Talbot May 2017

Evolutionary Genetic Aspects Of Host Association In Generalist Ectoparasites, Benoit Talbot

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite the use of the host for dispersal by most parasite species, the extremely loose relationship typical between highly mobile hosts and generalist ectoparasites may lead to very different gene flow patterns between the two, leading in turn to different spatial genetic structure, and potentially different demographic history. I examined how similar gene flow patterns are between Cimex adjunctus, a generalist ectoparasite of bats present throughout North America, and two of its key bat hosts. I first analyzed the continent-scale genetic structure and demographic history of C. adjunctus and compared it to that of two of its hosts, the little ...


Evaluation Of Different Probiotic Strains Supplemented In Commercial Broiler Rations And Their Influences On Performance, Yield, And Intestinal Microbiota., Justin M. Glasscock May 2017

Evaluation Of Different Probiotic Strains Supplemented In Commercial Broiler Rations And Their Influences On Performance, Yield, And Intestinal Microbiota., Justin M. Glasscock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus subtilis, as probiotic strains compared to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD) 50 as the antibiotic growth promotor, supplemented in commercial broiler rations and their influences on performance, yield, and intestinal microbiota. This trial was completed as a randomized-block design with 4,800 birds split into 96, 5’x10’ pens, and randomly assigned to one of eight treatment groups. The birds were placed at a stocking density of 1.00 ft2/bird, (50 birds/pen), and reared on used pine shaving for 55 days. Throughout the study ...


Identification Of Molecular Signatures Of Environmental And Nutritional Stress Responses In Poultry, Phuong Hieu Nguyen May 2017

Identification Of Molecular Signatures Of Environmental And Nutritional Stress Responses In Poultry, Phuong Hieu Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry production plays an important role in the food supply and security for billions of people. Poultry meat is considered the most efficient, nutritious source of protein, without religious taboos, and is relatively inexpensive. However, the poultry industry is facing substantial challenges. The global environmental temperature has experienced dramatic changes in the last few years. Modern broilers are not well adapted to environmental challenges (heat and cold stress), which have resulted in heavy economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. In addition, the use of feed restriction regimens in management of breeders as well as the transportation of young chicks ...


Characterization Of Calcium Homeostasis Parameters In Trpv3 And Cav3.2 Double Null Mice, Aujan Mehregan Jan 2017

Characterization Of Calcium Homeostasis Parameters In Trpv3 And Cav3.2 Double Null Mice, Aujan Mehregan

Masters Theses

In mammals, calcium influx is required for oocyte maturation and egg activation, as it supports the persistent calcium oscillations induced by fertilization. These oscillations are required for the initiation of embryo development. The molecular identities of the plasma membrane calcium-permeant channels that underlie calcium influx are not established. Among these channels, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid, member 3 (TRPV3) allows divalent cations, namely strontium (Sr2+) and calcium (Ca2+) with high permeability, into cells, and its expression pattern seems to predict an essential role in the initiation of development. Another channel that was identified to be expressed in oocytes/eggs ...


Effects Of Mound Nests Of The Ant Formica Podzolica On Soil Moisture, Nitrogen, And Vegetation, Madison Sankovitz Jan 2017

Effects Of Mound Nests Of The Ant Formica Podzolica On Soil Moisture, Nitrogen, And Vegetation, Madison Sankovitz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ants are widely regarded as ‘ecosystem engineers’ because they change the biological, chemical, and physical properties of the soil around their nests through nest construction and contributions to nutrient cycling. These processes were investigated in a species of alpine ant, Formica podzolica, to quantify its effects on soil structure and vegetation composition in an alpine ecosystem in Nederland, Colorado. Measurements of vegetation percent cover, biomass, species diversity and abundance, soil moisture and pH, and 15N in plants were taken at various distances from nests. A stable isotope analysis was utilized to determine the amount of 15N in vegetation ...


The Role Of Hif1alpha And Hif2alpha In Muscle Development And Satellite Cell Function, Shiqi Yang Dec 2016

The Role Of Hif1alpha And Hif2alpha In Muscle Development And Satellite Cell Function, Shiqi Yang

Open Access Theses

Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are central mediators of cellular responses to fluctuations of oxygen, an environmental regulator of stem cell activity. Muscle satellite cells are myogenic stem cells whose quiescence, activation, self-renewal and differentiation are influenced by microenvironment oxygen levels. However, the in vivo roles of HIFs in quiescent satellite cells and activated satellite cells (myoblasts) are poorly understood. Expression analyses indicate that HIF1α and HIF2α are preferentially expressed in pre- and post-differentiation myoblasts, respectively. Interestingly, double knockout of HIF1α and HIF2α (HIF1α/2α dKO) in embryonic myoblasts results in apparently normal muscle development and growth. However, HIF1α/2α dKO ...


Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman Dec 2016

Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman

Masters Theses

The objective is to determine the effect of reducing nitrogen input through feeding low rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on milk production, nitrogen efficiency and metabolism in heat-stressed cows. Forty-eight mid-lactating, Holstein cows were assigned to treatments using a randomized block design in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments (n = 12/treatment). Treatments included two levels of RDP (10 and 8%) and two levels of RUP (8 and 6%). From d 1 to 21, a common diet (10% RDP-8% RUP) was fed to cows followed with their respective treatment diets fed from d 22 to ...


Effects Of Acute Heat And Oxidative Stress On The Hepatic Expression Of Orexin And Its Related Receptors, Stephanie Khaldi Dec 2016

Effects Of Acute Heat And Oxidative Stress On The Hepatic Expression Of Orexin And Its Related Receptors, Stephanie Khaldi

Theses and Dissertations

It is widely known that orexin A and B peptides as well as their receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus and distributed throughout the central nervous system, but there have been few studies regarding its presences in other parts of the body. There is now evidence that orexin (ORX) and its receptors (ORXR1/2) are present in the avian liver; however, their regulation under different environmental conditions is still unknown. In the current study, we sought to determine the effects of heat and oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) on the hepatic expression of ORX and ORXR1 ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Behaviour And Neurochemistry In The Polyphenic Spider, Anelosimus Studiosus (Araneae: Theridiidae), Jennifer B. Price Aug 2016

Exploring The Relationship Between Behaviour And Neurochemistry In The Polyphenic Spider, Anelosimus Studiosus (Araneae: Theridiidae), Jennifer B. Price

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The importance of social behaviour is evident in human society, but there are both costs and benefits associated with cooperation and sociality throughout the animal kingdom. At what point do the benefits outweigh the costs, and when do selective pressures favour sociality and colonization over solitude and independence? To investigate these questions, we have focused on an anomalous species of spider, Anelosimus studiosus, also known now as the northern social spider. Throughout its broad range, A. studiosus is solitary and aggressive, but recently, colonies of cooperative and social individuals have been observed at northern latitudes. This leads to two research ...


Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne Aug 2016

Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne

Theses and Dissertations

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells recognize motifs known as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are common to groups of microbes. Examples include LPS on Gram-negative bacteria, the structural motif PGN common to all bacteria, MDP the smallest immunostimulatory unit of PGN, and poly I:C the dsRNA analog. PAMP recognition by and stimulation of the innate immune system is crucial to an individual’s ability to quickly limit microbial growth and stimulate the adaptive immune system. Characterization of the in vivo immune responses initiated by PAMPs has not been directly addressed. Using growing feathers (GF) as a ...


Influencing Pathways That Cause Metastasis And Stemness In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, Alyse Lynn Huisken-Hill Jun 2016

Influencing Pathways That Cause Metastasis And Stemness In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, Alyse Lynn Huisken-Hill

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women between the ages of 35 and 74. With 22 thousand new cases and 15 thousand deaths annually ovarian cancer is among the most deadly cancers with a death to incidence ratio of 68%. With 70% of cases High Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and causes 90% of ovarian cancer deaths. 80% of patients have reoccurrence within five years and only 15-30% of patients with recurrent metastatic ovarian cancer respond to current therapies, chemotherapy and surgery. One reason for the high ...


Physical Modeling Of Vortical Cross-Step Filtration In The Oral Cavity Of American Paddlefish (Polyodon Spathula), Hannah Brooks May 2016

Physical Modeling Of Vortical Cross-Step Filtration In The Oral Cavity Of American Paddlefish (Polyodon Spathula), Hannah Brooks

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores the filter-feeding mechanisms of the American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. The data indicate that paddlefish use a filtration method termed cross-step filtration, which utilizes vortices formed behind the branchial arches by the incoming water flow. Videos of these vortices were obtained and quantified for the first time inside the oral cavities of preserved paddlefish. Since the paddlefish can move the branchial arches within the oral cavity, the effects of changing branchial arch angle on vortex characteristics were studied in 3D models. The vortices in three models with different arch angles were quantified. The data demonstrated that a change ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar May 2016

Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar

Theses and Dissertations

The use of antibiotics in poultry growth and disease control has led to antibiotics resistant problem in human beings, which is a big concern among consumers. With the necessity for judicious use of antibiotics in poultry production, alternative strategies to improve disease resistance in poultry production are necessary. The research is more inclined towards using the natural products available to grow healthier and antibiotic free meat animals. In the context of exploring natural and sustainable resource of alternative to antibiotics, the biochemical milieu of eggshell membranes (ESM) were analyzed by using mass spectrometry techniques including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization ...


An Investigation Of Juvenile Alewife (Alosa Pseudoharengus) Habitat Use And Growth Using Natural Markers, Gregory Norman Labonte Jan 2016

An Investigation Of Juvenile Alewife (Alosa Pseudoharengus) Habitat Use And Growth Using Natural Markers, Gregory Norman Labonte

All Theses & Dissertations

This research attempts to connect patterns in growth and migration of an anadromous species. The goal of this research was to understand habitat movements and growth of juvenile alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Penobscot Estuary and Bay through the use of otolith microchemistry, otolith growth increments, and a laboratory stable isotope turnover study. Understanding the connection between growth and movement of juvenile alewives may lead to more accurate and sophisticated conservation and restoration methods for anadromous species.


Changes In Brain Water Content In The Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus) Due To High External Ammonia Exposure, Phillip Q.H. Pham-Ho Jan 2016

Changes In Brain Water Content In The Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus) Due To High External Ammonia Exposure, Phillip Q.H. Pham-Ho

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In fishes, hyperammonemia may occur following feeding or exposure to abnormally high concentrations of environmental ammonia due to sewage effluents, agricultural run-off and in crowded aquaculture pens. Increased internal ammonia can result in hyperactivity, convulsions, coma and death. In mammals, it is also associated with potentially fatal brain edema, in which the accumulation of intracellular water results in swelling, increased intracranical pressure and herniation leading to death. Recently it was shown that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) experience brain swelling following exposure to high external ammonia (HEA). However, the mechanism of ammonia-induced brain swelling in fishes remains ...


Autophagy And Its Potential Role In Stress And Feed Efficiency Using Avian Lines, Alissa Laura Piekarski Dec 2015

Autophagy And Its Potential Role In Stress And Feed Efficiency Using Avian Lines, Alissa Laura Piekarski

Theses and Dissertations

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular mechanism that is responsible for the degradation and recycling of damaged organelles. Recently, autophagy has been involved in critical roles during overall development of the organism and degradation of damaged cellular components. This pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals, however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian) species. First, we characterized genes involved in the autophagy pathway in male and female Jungle Fowl to determine gender and tissue specific differences. Secondly, tissue and genotype differences in Japanese quail selected ...