Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Animal Sciences

Series

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 83

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines Jan 2019

Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

Carotenoids serve various ecological roles in animals including coloration, immune responses, and vision. Carotenoid-derived coloration is greatly emphasized in the literature, particularly relating to mate choice and aposematic warning. However, the trade-offs between the color and non-color functions of carotenoids are not thoroughly explored. In the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), some larval populations have yellow pigmentation, using carotenoids derived from their diets for aposematic warning coloration. Other larval populations are white in color, having genetically lost the ability to produce the yellow pigment. Because carotenoids are essential to life functions in both the yellow and white populations, we aim ...


Contractile Response Of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein To Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed To Different Concentrations Of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, Manoj B. Kudupoje, James L. Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A. Dawson, Kyle R. Mcleod, Eric S. Vanzant Feb 2018

Contractile Response Of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein To Ergotamine Tartrate Exposed To Different Concentrations Of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, Manoj B. Kudupoje, James L. Klotz, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Karl A. Dawson, Kyle R. Mcleod, Eric S. Vanzant

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Ergot alkaloids, in their active isomeric form, affect animal health and performance, and adsorbents are used to mitigate toxicities by reducing bioavailability. Adsorbents with high specificity (molecularly imprinted polymers: MIP) adsorb ergot alkaloids in vitro, but require evaluation for biological implications. Using ex vivo myography, synthetic polymers were evaluated for effects on the bioactivity of ergotamine tartrate (ETA). Polymers were first evaluated using isotherms. Lateral saphenous veins were collected from 17 steers for four independent studies: dose response of ETA, adsorbent dose response, validation of pre-myograph incubation conditions and MIP/ non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP) comparison. Norepinephrine normalized percent contractile response ...


Influence Of Physical Activity On Tibial Bone Material Properties In Laying Hens, A. B. Rodriguez-Navarro, H. M. Mccormack, R. H. Fleming, P. Alvarez-Lloret, J. Romero-Pastor, Tanya Prozorov, I. C. Dunn Jan 2018

Influence Of Physical Activity On Tibial Bone Material Properties In Laying Hens, A. B. Rodriguez-Navarro, H. M. Mccormack, R. H. Fleming, P. Alvarez-Lloret, J. Romero-Pastor, Tanya Prozorov, I. C. Dunn

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Laying hens develop a type of osteoporosis that arises from a loss of structural bone, resulting in high incidence of fractures. In this study, a comparison of bone material properties was made for lines of hens created by divergent selection to have high and low bone strength and housed in either individual cages, with restricted mobility, or in an aviary system, with opportunity for increased mobility. Improvement of bone biomechanics in the high line hens and in aviary housing was mainly due to increased bone mass, thicker cortical bone and more medullary bone. However, bone material properties such as cortical ...


Changes In Zooplankton Community, And Seston And Zooplankton Fatty Acid Profiles At The Freshwater/Saltwater Interface Of The Chowan River, North Carolina, Deborah A. Lichti, Jacques Rinchard, David G. Kimmel Aug 2017

Changes In Zooplankton Community, And Seston And Zooplankton Fatty Acid Profiles At The Freshwater/Saltwater Interface Of The Chowan River, North Carolina, Deborah A. Lichti, Jacques Rinchard, David G. Kimmel

Environmental Science and Ecology Faculty Publications

The variability in zooplankton fatty acid composition may be an indicator of larval fish habitat quality as fatty acids are linked to fish larval growth and survival. We sampled an anadromous fish nursery, the Chowan River, during spring of 2013 in order to determine how the seston fatty acid composition varied in comparison with the zooplankton community composition and fatty acid composition during the period of anadromous larval fish residency. The seston fatty acid profiles showed no distinct pattern in relation to sampling time or location. The mesozooplankton community composition varied spatially and the fatty acid profiles were typical of ...


Comparative Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment Of Egg Yolks From First-Cycle Laying Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil Or Ground Flaxseed, I. J. Ehr, M. E. Persia, E. A. Bobeck Jun 2017

Comparative Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment Of Egg Yolks From First-Cycle Laying Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil Or Ground Flaxseed, I. J. Ehr, M. E. Persia, E. A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

When laying hen diets are enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate value-added eggs for human consumption markets, concentrations of alphalinolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids (ALA, EPA, and DHA) in the yolk can reach 250mg/50g whole egg. Flaxseed, a rich source of ALA, is commonly used for omega-3 enrichment; however, the impact of dietary flaxseed source (extracted oil vs. milled seed) on fatty acid transfer to egg yolk in laying hens is unknown. Therefore, transfer of ALA, EPA, and DHA into egg yolk from extracted flaxseed oil or milled flaxseed was evaluated in Hy-Line W-36 laying hens over ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker Mar 2017

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Mar 2017

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Increased engorgement weights were noted for ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on ...


Rewiring Metabolism Under Oxygen Deprivation: Naked Mole-Rats Evolved A Means To Cope With Anoxia, Jay F. Storz, Grant B. Mcclelland Jan 2017

Rewiring Metabolism Under Oxygen Deprivation: Naked Mole-Rats Evolved A Means To Cope With Anoxia, Jay F. Storz, Grant B. Mcclelland

Jay F. Storz Publications

When faced with a reduced availability of oxygen in the environment (hypoxia), vertebrates can make a variety of respiratory, cardiovascular, and hematological adjustments to ensure an uninterrupted supply of oxygen to the cells of metabolizing tissues (1, 2). These are adaptive solutions for “aerobic organisms in an aerobic world” (3). Coping with the complete absence of oxygen (anoxia) requires more fundamental alterations of cellular metabolism that are typically nothing more than emergency stopgap measures to buy time until the oxygen supply is (hopefully) reestablished (4). On page 307 of this issue [Science 356 (6335)], Park et al. (5) identify a ...


Biochemical Composition Of Turbinid Snails And Its Sensitivity To Ocean Climate Change, Roslizawati Ab Lah Jan 2017

Biochemical Composition Of Turbinid Snails And Its Sensitivity To Ocean Climate Change, Roslizawati Ab Lah

Theses

Information on the biochemical composition of under-utilised species, such as turban snails, is required to establish their nutritional quality, and improve consumer acceptance as a novel food source. Turbo militaris, Lunella undulata and L. torquata are large common gastropod species with overlapping distributions in eastern Australia. The edible foot tissue from these three species was analysed for comparison of their proximate composition, fatty acids and mineral elements. All species were found to have a high protein content and low lipid levels that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), with a favourable ratio of omega–3/omega–6 PUFAs for ...


Behavioural And Biochemical Responses To Dietary Mercury Exposure In Two Commercially Important Marine Species, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki Jan 2017

Behavioural And Biochemical Responses To Dietary Mercury Exposure In Two Commercially Important Marine Species, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki

Theses

Mercury is a toxic metal with a global distribution. Studies on waterborne exposure to inorganic mercury in aquatic organisms showed changes in biochemical markers and behaviour. Few studies have focused on the effects of inorganic mercury ingestion. This thesis investigated dietary exposure of mercuric chloride to post-larvae and juveniles of Penaeus monodon and juvenile Acanthopagrus australis and showed that biochemical marker response depends on the organism, age (post-larvae or juvenile), tissue analysed (e.g. muscle and neurologic tissue) and exposure period (up to 16 days). Additionally, swimming behaviour was a sensitive parameter for post-larvae prawn studies, but not for juvenile ...


Beyond Zar: The Use And Abuse Of Classification Statistics For Otolith Chemistry, C. M. Jones, M. Palmers, J. J. Schaffler Jan 2017

Beyond Zar: The Use And Abuse Of Classification Statistics For Otolith Chemistry, C. M. Jones, M. Palmers, J. J. Schaffler

OEAS Faculty Publications

Classification method performance was evaluated using otolith chemistry of juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus when assumptions of data normality were met and were violated. Four methods were tested [linear discriminant function analysis (LDFA), quadratic discriminant function analysis (QDFA), random forest (RF) and artificial neural networks (ANN)] using computer simulation to determine their performance when variable-group means ranged from small to large and their performance under conditions of typical skewness to double the amount of skewness typically observed. Using the kappa index, the parametric methods performed best after applying appropriate data transformation, gaining 2% better performance with LDFA performing slightly better ...


Frontiers In Otolith Chemistry: Insights, Advances And Applications, B. D. Walther, K. E. Limburg, C. M. Jones, J. J. Schaffler Jan 2017

Frontiers In Otolith Chemistry: Insights, Advances And Applications, B. D. Walther, K. E. Limburg, C. M. Jones, J. J. Schaffler

OEAS Faculty Publications

The rapid proliferation of publications employing chemical assays of fish hard parts, and otoliths in particular, has led to many novel insights into the migration patterns, life history strategies and mixed stock dynamics of fishes across the globe (Campana et al., 2000; Elsdon et al., 2008; Walther & Limburg, 2012). These insights include uncovering diverse migratory strategies within species and populations (Kerr et al., 2009; Hogan et al., 2014; Schoen et al., 2016), quantifying rates of mixing among stocks across management boundaries (Rooker et al., 2008; Walther & Thorrold, 2010) and estimating the relative importance of particular natal habitats for recruitment (Thorrold et al., 2001; Schaffler et al., 2015; Anstead et al., 2016). Much of this work has been driven by advances in instrumentation that allow more precise and higher throughput analyses with greater spatial and ...


A Study Of Defensive Mechanisms Employed By Two Species Of Nudibranchs Using Toxicity And Unpalatability Analyses, Sean Youn Oct 2016

A Study Of Defensive Mechanisms Employed By Two Species Of Nudibranchs Using Toxicity And Unpalatability Analyses, Sean Youn

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Nudibranchs are marine invertebrates that have developed an intriguing defense mechanism, including warning coloration and the use of chemicals accumulated through their sponge diet. The goal of this study was to determine whether the strength of chemical defenses differs between dietary and accumulated secondary metabolites for two species: Glossodoris vespa and Ceratosoma brevicaudatum. First, NMR spectroscopy was used to not only identify specific compounds in the mantle (outer covering) and the viscera (gut) but also to analyze the possibility of nudibranch species transporting more toxic compounds for defensive purposes. Next, toxicity (brine shrimp) and palatability (Palaemon shrimp) assays were used ...


Long-Range Acoustic Interactions In Insect Swarms: An Adaptive Gravity Model, Dan Gorbonos, Reuven Ianconescu, James G. Puckett, Rui Ni, Nicholas T. Ouellette, Nir S. Gov Jul 2016

Long-Range Acoustic Interactions In Insect Swarms: An Adaptive Gravity Model, Dan Gorbonos, Reuven Ianconescu, James G. Puckett, Rui Ni, Nicholas T. Ouellette, Nir S. Gov

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

The collective motion of groups of animals emerges from the net effect of the interactions between individual members of the group. In many cases, such as birds, fish, or ungulates, these interactions are mediated by sensory stimuli that predominantly arise from nearby neighbors. But not all stimuli in animal groups are short range. Here, we consider mating swarms of midges, which are thought to interact primarily via long-range acoustic stimuli. We exploit the similarity in form between the decay of acoustic and gravitational sources to build a model for swarm behavior. By accounting for the adaptive nature of the midges ...


Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak May 2016

Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak

Senior Honors Projects

In the US livestock production industry, improving reproductive efficiency will improve animal welfare and maintain reasonable costs of meat and milk for consumers. In recent research, abnormalities in epigenetic markers in sperm during spermatogenesis, has been linked to male subfertility in many species. Epigenetics is the study of changes in organisms caused by modifications of gene expression, including DNA methylation, rather than alteration of the genetic code itself. When this process is disturbed, it can negatively impact semen therefore decreasing its fertility. Through further research on how DNA methylation influences gene expression during spermatogenesis and its impact on sperm quality ...


Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont Jan 2016

Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Newcastle Disease (ND) is caused by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and is a major problem in developing countries where vaccination against NDV is not easily achievable. A step required for NDV infection is the cleavage of the NDV fusion (F) protein. Using structural information of the NDV F protein and the only known host protein binding partner, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), we computer modeled the interaction between the two proteins by looking at a docked structure of these two proteins. With our docked structure, we visualized one of the catalytic domains of PDIA3 being near the cleavage site of ...


Discovery & Born-Digital Archiving: Open Source Systems For Preservation And Access, L. Bryan Cooper, Margarita Perez-Martinez Dec 2015

Discovery & Born-Digital Archiving: Open Source Systems For Preservation And Access, L. Bryan Cooper, Margarita Perez-Martinez

Works of the FIU Libraries

The Everglades Explorer (EE) portal at http://ee.fiu.edu continues to evolve with the addition of the Internet Archive's Archive-It, and future planned alignment with the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA). The reasons for the development of the portal continue to exist, as originally perceived four years ago. Adaptations to ongoing change and system testing continues, and the use of Archive-It has broad institutional potential beyond EE. Cross-walking skills continue to grown, and will benefit future syndication and discovery system integration. The metadata normalization and harmonization will help save time for the end-user. Preservation and access to ...


Wintering Bald Eagle Count Trends In The Conterminous United States, 1986-2010, Wade L. Eakle, Laura Bond, Mark R. Fuller, Richard A. Fischer, Karen Steenhof Sep 2015

Wintering Bald Eagle Count Trends In The Conterminous United States, 1986-2010, Wade L. Eakle, Laura Bond, Mark R. Fuller, Richard A. Fischer, Karen Steenhof

Biomolecular Research Center Publications and Presentations

We analyzed counts from the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey to examine state, regional, and national trends in counts of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) within the conterminous 48 United States from 1986 to 2010. Using hierarchical mixed model methods, we report trends in counts from 11 729 surveys along 844 routes in 44 states. Nationwide Bald Eagle counts increased 0.6% per yr over the 25-yr period, compared to an estimate of 1.9% per yr from 1986 to 2000. Trend estimates for Bald Eagles were significant (P ≤ 0.05) and positive in the northeastern and northwestern U.S ...


Linking Old Librarianship To New: Aligning 5-Steps Of The Innovator's Dna In Creating Thematic Discovery Systems For The Everglades, L. Bryan Cooper, Margarita Perez Martinez May 2015

Linking Old Librarianship To New: Aligning 5-Steps Of The Innovator's Dna In Creating Thematic Discovery Systems For The Everglades, L. Bryan Cooper, Margarita Perez Martinez

Works of the FIU Libraries

This poster presentation from the May 2015 Florida Library Association Conference, along with the Everglades Explorer discovery portal at http://ee.fiu.edu, demonstrates how traditional bibliographic and curatorial principles can be applied to: 1) selection, cross-walking and aggregation of metadata linking end-users to wide-spread digital resources from multiple silos; 2) harvesting of select PDFs, HTML and media for web archiving and access; 3) selection of CMS domains, sub-domains and folders for targeted searching using an API.

Choosing content for this discovery portal is comparable to past scholarly practice of creating and publishing subject bibliographies, except metadata and data are ...


The Development Of Skeletal Muscle In Young Horses: An Ultrasonography And Satellite Cell Approach, Emma K. Lavigne May 2015

The Development Of Skeletal Muscle In Young Horses: An Ultrasonography And Satellite Cell Approach, Emma K. Lavigne

Honors Scholar Theses

Muscle growth in young horses is characterized by an increase in muscle cross-sectional area, which can be accomplished through the activation and differentiation of satellite cells. Satellite cells can be stimulated or inhibited in response to different cytokines and growth factors and are key mediators of muscle hypertrophy and regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle in horses under 5 years of age and to obtain preliminary data on satellite cell behavior in foals. The area, width, height, and subcutaneous fat were measured using ultrasonography at 6-month increments over the ...


The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang Apr 2014

The Role Of Sirtuin 1 And Ceramide In T10C12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induced Delipidation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wei Wang

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Project 1: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in adipocytes through multiple pathways, with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) generally facilitating, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) generally opposing these reductions. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone/protein deacetylase that affects energy homeostasis, often functions coordinately with AMPK, and is capable of binding to PPARγ, thereby inhibiting its activity. This study investigated the role of SIRT1 in the response of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to t10c12 CLA by testing the following hypotheses: 1) SIRT1 is functionally required for robust TG reduction ...


Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating Mar 2014

Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

Insulin, elevated during obesity, regulates xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, potentially through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, in extraovarian tissues. PI3K regulates oocyte viability, follicular activation, and ovarian chemical biotransformation. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen and ovotoxicant, destroys all stages of follicles, leading to premature ovarian failure. Obesity has been reported to promote DMBA-induced tumors, but it remains unknown whether obesity affects ovarian xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, we investigated ovarian expression of xenobiotic metabolism genes—microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) class Pi (Gstp1) and class mu 1 (Gstm1), and PI3K-signaling members (protein kinase B [AKT] alpha [Akt1], beta [Akt2], and ...


The Biopolitics Of The Border, Etienne S. Benson Jan 2014

The Biopolitics Of The Border, Etienne S. Benson

Departmental Papers (HSS)

First a story about science. In the early decades of the twentieth century, the British ornithologist Henry Eliot Howard made a remarkable discovery. In a series of books culminating in his Territory in Bird Life of 1920, Howard described the instinct for the possession of "territory" that he had found in warblers and other birds. The drive to claim and defend a clearly bordered portion of the landscape, he argued, was the controlling factor in the birds' social life. Among other things, it regulated which males could breed, kept the population in balance with its resources, determined how the birds ...


Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan Jan 2014

Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Science Publications

Animals selected for residual feed intake (RFI) can be used as a model to elucidate molecular explanations for differences in growth efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the protein profile and posttranslational modifications of mitochondria from skeletal muscle and liver relate to feed efficiency gains in pigs divergently selected for RFI. Mitochondria were isolated from the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and the liver from pigs (n = 9 each for the high and low RFI line; BW = 95.8 kg). Mitochondria protein profile differences were determined using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis. Proteins were ...


Chemical Hydrolysis Of Phosvitin And The Functional Properties Of The Hydrolysates, Himali Samaraweera, Sun Hee Moon, Eunjoo Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Joo-Won Suh, Dong U. Ahn Nov 2013

Chemical Hydrolysis Of Phosvitin And The Functional Properties Of The Hydrolysates, Himali Samaraweera, Sun Hee Moon, Eunjoo Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Joo-Won Suh, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Science Publications

As a highly phosphorylated protein, phosvitin shows a powerful antioxidant and metal-binding activity. However, its extraordinary resistance to protease activities limits the possibility of using phosvitin as a source for the production of functional peptides. The objectives of this study were to test the possibilities of using alkaline or acid hydrolysis to produce small peptides from phosvitin and to investigate the functional properties of the resulting peptides. Phosvitin was dissolved in various concentrations of NaOH (0.025N-0.3N) or HCl (0.05N–6N) and incubated in a shaker water bath (37◦C for NaOH and 60◦CforHCl) for 1-6 h ...


Role Of A Gamma-Aminobutryic Acid (Gaba) Receptor Mutation In The Evolution And Spread Of Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Resistance To Cyclodiene Insecticides, H. Wang, Brad S. Coates, H. Chen, Thomas W. Sappington, T. Guillemaud, B. D. Siegfried Oct 2013

Role Of A Gamma-Aminobutryic Acid (Gaba) Receptor Mutation In The Evolution And Spread Of Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Resistance To Cyclodiene Insecticides, H. Wang, Brad S. Coates, H. Chen, Thomas W. Sappington, T. Guillemaud, B. D. Siegfried

Entomology Publications

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a damaging pest of cultivated corn that was controlled by applications of cyclodiene insecticides from the late 1940s until resistance evolved ∼10 years later. Range expansion from the western plains into eastern USA coincides with resistance development. An alanine to serine amino acid substitution within the Rdl subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides in many species. We found that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G/T at the GABA receptor cDNA position 838 (G/T838) of D. v. virgifera resulted in the alanine to ...


Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair Aug 2013

Bioengineered Lysozyme Reduces Bacterial Burden And Inflammation In A Murine Model Of Mucoid Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection, Charlotte C. Teneback, Thomas C. Scanlon, Matthew J. Wargo, Jenna L. Bement, Karl E. Griswold, Laurie W. Leclair

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The spread of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is a growing global concern and has prompted an effort to explore potential adjuvant and alternative therapies derived from nature's repertoire of bactericidal proteins and peptides. In humans, the airway surface liquid layer is a rich source of antibiotics, and lysozyme represents one of the most abundant and effective antimicrobial components of airway secretions. Human lysozyme is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ac


The Role Of Gnrh-Ii And Its Receptor In Testicular Function, Amy Desaulniers Aug 2013

The Role Of Gnrh-Ii And Its Receptor In Testicular Function, Amy Desaulniers

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

The second mammalian isoform of GnRH (GnRH-II) has been linked to regulation of cell proliferation, feed intake, and the interaction between energy balance and reproductive behavior. In contrast to the native form of GnRH (GnRH-I), GnRH-II is an inefficient modulator of gonadotropin secretion. Unlike many species, a functional receptor (GnRHR-II) specific to this ligand has been discovered in the pig that may be directly involved in testosterone production. Therefore, our objective was to identify the role of GnRH-II and its receptor in testicular function. First, there was 6-fold more GnRHR-II protein in the testis than anterior pituitary gland of boars ...


Effect Of Anthraquinone Dyes On The Carbohydrate, Protein And Lipid Content In The Muscle Of Channa Punctatus And Cyprinus Carpio, Rajee Olaganathan, Jamila Patterson Mar 2013

Effect Of Anthraquinone Dyes On The Carbohydrate, Protein And Lipid Content In The Muscle Of Channa Punctatus And Cyprinus Carpio, Rajee Olaganathan, Jamila Patterson

Publications

Channa punctatus and Cyprinus carpio was exposed to sub lethal concentrations viz., 6.15 and 6.60 mg/l of vat blue 4 and vat green 1 respectively for a period of thirty days. The cumulative effect of these two dyes on the total carbohydrate, protein and lipid levels in the muscle of both the fishes were assayed on 7th, 18th and 30th day of exposure. The mean carbohydrate content of C. punctatus (both control and treated fish) collected on 18th and 30th day showed a significant difference (P < 0.01 to 0.04). In the case of control and treated C. carpio the data collected on 30th day showed significant variation (P < 0.04) in the carbohydrate content of the muscle. Student’s ‘t’ test analysis conducted on the protein content of C. punctatus during different occasions registered a significant decrease; in case of lipid content, except between the 1st and 30th day in all other cases the ‘t’ value is not significant. In case of C. carp protein and lipid content were observed to increase during the 7th day and thereafter a marked decrease was recorded on the 18th and 30th day of exposure. When the data was subjected to student’s ‘t’ test, both in protein and lipid, significant difference could not be recorded.


Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Mar 2013

Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in LM and to evaluate their associations with beef palatability traits. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of mineral concentrations and for trained sensory panel assessments. Nine minerals, including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for mineral concentrations in LM varied from 0.01 to 0.54. Iron ...