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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Comparative Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment Of Egg Yolks From First-Cycle Laying Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil Or Ground Flaxseed, I. J. Ehr, M. E. Persia, E. A. Bobeck Jun 2017

Comparative Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment Of Egg Yolks From First-Cycle Laying Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil Or Ground Flaxseed, I. J. Ehr, M. E. Persia, E. A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

When laying hen diets are enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate value-added eggs for human consumption markets, concentrations of alphalinolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids (ALA, EPA, and DHA) in the yolk can reach 250mg/50g whole egg. Flaxseed, a rich source of ALA, is commonly used for omega-3 enrichment; however, the impact of dietary flaxseed source (extracted oil vs. milled seed) on fatty acid transfer to egg yolk in laying hens is unknown. Therefore, transfer of ALA, EPA, and DHA into egg yolk from extracted flaxseed oil or milled flaxseed was evaluated in Hy-Line W-36 laying hens over ...


Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating Mar 2014

Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

Insulin, elevated during obesity, regulates xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, potentially through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, in extraovarian tissues. PI3K regulates oocyte viability, follicular activation, and ovarian chemical biotransformation. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen and ovotoxicant, destroys all stages of follicles, leading to premature ovarian failure. Obesity has been reported to promote DMBA-induced tumors, but it remains unknown whether obesity affects ovarian xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, we investigated ovarian expression of xenobiotic metabolism genes—microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) class Pi (Gstp1) and class mu 1 (Gstm1), and PI3K-signaling members (protein kinase B [AKT] alpha [Akt1], beta [Akt2], and ...


Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan Jan 2014

Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Science Publications

Animals selected for residual feed intake (RFI) can be used as a model to elucidate molecular explanations for differences in growth efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the protein profile and posttranslational modifications of mitochondria from skeletal muscle and liver relate to feed efficiency gains in pigs divergently selected for RFI. Mitochondria were isolated from the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and the liver from pigs (n = 9 each for the high and low RFI line; BW = 95.8 kg). Mitochondria protein profile differences were determined using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis. Proteins were ...


Chemical Hydrolysis Of Phosvitin And The Functional Properties Of The Hydrolysates, Himali Samaraweera, Sun Hee Moon, Eunjoo Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Joo-Won Suh, Dong U. Ahn Nov 2013

Chemical Hydrolysis Of Phosvitin And The Functional Properties Of The Hydrolysates, Himali Samaraweera, Sun Hee Moon, Eunjoo Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Joo-Won Suh, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Science Publications

As a highly phosphorylated protein, phosvitin shows a powerful antioxidant and metal-binding activity. However, its extraordinary resistance to protease activities limits the possibility of using phosvitin as a source for the production of functional peptides. The objectives of this study were to test the possibilities of using alkaline or acid hydrolysis to produce small peptides from phosvitin and to investigate the functional properties of the resulting peptides. Phosvitin was dissolved in various concentrations of NaOH (0.025N-0.3N) or HCl (0.05N–6N) and incubated in a shaker water bath (37◦C for NaOH and 60◦CforHCl) for 1-6 h ...


Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Mar 2013

Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in LM and to evaluate their associations with beef palatability traits. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of mineral concentrations and for trained sensory panel assessments. Nine minerals, including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for mineral concentrations in LM varied from 0.01 to 0.54. Iron ...


Glutathione S-Transferase Class Mu Regulation Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Protein During Vcd-Induced Ovotoxicity In Neonatal Rat Ovaries, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Jill A. Madden, Nivedita Sen, Patricia B. Hoyer, Aileen F. Keating Feb 2013

Glutathione S-Transferase Class Mu Regulation Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Protein During Vcd-Induced Ovotoxicity In Neonatal Rat Ovaries, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Jill A. Madden, Nivedita Sen, Patricia B. Hoyer, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian primordial and small primary follicles via apoptosis. In mice, VCD exposure induces ovarian mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members, including isoform mu (Gstm). Extra-ovarian GSTM negatively regulates pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-related kinase 1 (ASK1) through protein complex formation, which dissociates during stress, thereby initiating ASK1-induced apoptosis. The present study investigated the ovarian response of Gstm mRNA and protein to VCD. Induction of Ask1 mRNA at VCD-induced follicle loss onset was determined. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was investigated and VCD exposure effects thereon evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) regulation of GSTM protein was also ...


Genetic Parameters For Carnitine, Creatine, Creatinine, Carnosine, And Anserine Concentration In Longissimus Muscle And Their Association With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, M. A. O'Neil, Richard G. Tait Jr., Almass A. Abuzaid, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Dec 2012

Genetic Parameters For Carnitine, Creatine, Creatinine, Carnosine, And Anserine Concentration In Longissimus Muscle And Their Association With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, M. A. O'Neil, Richard G. Tait Jr., Almass A. Abuzaid, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine concentration in LM and to evaluate their associations with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and beef palatability traits. Longissimus muscle samples from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, anserine, and other nutrients, and for trained sensory panel and WBSF assessments. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine concentrations in LM from ...


Genetic Control Of Immune Responsiveness: A Review Of Its Use As A Tool For Selection For Disease Resistance, C. M. Warner, David Lynn Meeker, Max F. Rothschild Jan 1987

Genetic Control Of Immune Responsiveness: A Review Of Its Use As A Tool For Selection For Disease Resistance, C. M. Warner, David Lynn Meeker, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

Disease resistance and immune responsiveness have been traits generally ignored by animal breeders. Recent advances in immunology and molecular biology have opened new avenues towards our understanding of genetic control of these traits. The major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) appears to play a central role in all immune functions and disease resistance. The need to understand the relationship between immune responsiveness, disease resistance and production traits is discussed in this review. Antagonistic relationships might prevent simultaneous improvement of all of these traits by conventional breeding methods. It is suggested that genetic engineering methods may allow the simultaneous improvement of disease ...


Genetic Control Of Immune Response To Pseudorabies And Atrophic Rhinitis Vaccines: I. Heterosis, General Combining Ability And Relationship To Growth And Backfat, David Lynn Meeker, Max F. Rothschild, L. L. Christian, C. M. Warner, H. T. Hill Jan 1987

Genetic Control Of Immune Response To Pseudorabies And Atrophic Rhinitis Vaccines: I. Heterosis, General Combining Ability And Relationship To Growth And Backfat, David Lynn Meeker, Max F. Rothschild, L. L. Christian, C. M. Warner, H. T. Hill

Animal Science Publications

Data from 988 pigs from 119 litters farrowed in two seasons of a three-breed diallel crossbreeding experiment were analyzed to estimate general combining abilities of breeds and heterosis for humoral immune response to pseudorabies virus and atrophic rhinitis vaccines. Twenty purebred boars and 85 sows of the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds were mated to provide the nine breed-of-sire and breed-of-dam combinations. Immune response was measured after vaccination. A modified-live pseudorabies virus (PR) vaccine was administered to piglets at 28 d of age and response measured as log2 serum neutralization titers at 56 d. An inactivated B. bronchiseptica bacterin ...


Genetic Control Of Immune Response To Pseudorabies And Atrophic Rhinitis Vaccines: Ii: Comparison Of Additive Direct And Maternal Genetic Effects, David Lynn Meeker, Max F. Rothschild, L. L. Christian, C. M. Warner, H. T. Hill Jan 1987

Genetic Control Of Immune Response To Pseudorabies And Atrophic Rhinitis Vaccines: Ii: Comparison Of Additive Direct And Maternal Genetic Effects, David Lynn Meeker, Max F. Rothschild, L. L. Christian, C. M. Warner, H. T. Hill

Animal Science Publications

Data from 52 litters farrowed in two seasons of a cross-fostering experiment were analyzed to estimate variances and covariances for additive direct and maternal genetic effects on immune response to pseudorabies virus and B. bronchiseptica vaccine. Twenty purebred boars and 44 sows of the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds were used. Immune response was measured after vaccine challenge. A modified-live pseudorabies (PR) vaccine was administered to piglets at 28 d of age; response was measured by log, serum neutralization titers at 56 d. An inactivated B. bronchiseptica bacterin was administered at 28, 42 and 112 d. Antibody levels were measured ...


Breed And Swine Lymphocyte Antigen Haplotype Differences In Agglutination Titers Following Vaccination With B. Bronchiseptica, Max F. Rothschild, H. L. Chen, L. L. Christian, W. R. Lie, L. Venier, M. Cooper, C. Briggs, C. M. Warner Jan 1984

Breed And Swine Lymphocyte Antigen Haplotype Differences In Agglutination Titers Following Vaccination With B. Bronchiseptica, Max F. Rothschild, H. L. Chen, L. L. Christian, W. R. Lie, L. Venier, M. Cooper, C. Briggs, C. M. Warner

Animal Science Publications

Genetic differences in immune response to B. bronchiseptica after vaccination with a commercial B. bronchiseptica bacterin were investigated in 1,069 8-wk-old pigs. These pigs were from 65 litters born in the spring and 66 litters born in the fall of 1982 and were purebreds from the Chester White (n = 128), Duroc (n = 281), Hampshire (n = 143), Landrace (n = 309) and Yorkshire (n = 208) breeds. Each litter was raised separately. Individual pigs were vaccinated im at 4 and 6 wk of age with 2 ml of B. bronchiseptica bacterin. At 8 wk of age, 8 ml of blood were collected ...