Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 31

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter May 2019

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley May 2018

Microbiome Of Commercial Broilers Through Evisceration And Immersion Chilling, John A. Handley

Theses and Dissertations

The United States poultry industry generated 38.6 billion pounds (17,500 metric ton) of meat in 2014 which averaged to 121 pounds (55 kg) per individual of the U.S that same year. Of that meat generated by the poultry industry, an estimated 1 million cases of Salmonellosis will occur. Out of the 1 million cases approximately 40, 000 to 50,000 will be confirmed cases by the CDC. Recently, the USDA has requested changes in the inspection process and are currently allowing processors more freedom to utilize innovation to drive the increase in safer and more desirable foods ...


Identification Of Molecular Signatures Of Environmental And Nutritional Stress Responses In Poultry, Phuong Hieu Nguyen May 2017

Identification Of Molecular Signatures Of Environmental And Nutritional Stress Responses In Poultry, Phuong Hieu Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Poultry production plays an important role in the food supply and security for billions of people. Poultry meat is considered the most efficient, nutritious source of protein, without religious taboos, and is relatively inexpensive. However, the poultry industry is facing substantial challenges. The global environmental temperature has experienced dramatic changes in the last few years. Modern broilers are not well adapted to environmental challenges (heat and cold stress), which have resulted in heavy economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. In addition, the use of feed restriction regimens in management of breeders as well as the transportation of young chicks ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson Jan 2017

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Acute Heat And Oxidative Stress On The Hepatic Expression Of Orexin And Its Related Receptors, Stephanie Khaldi Dec 2016

Effects Of Acute Heat And Oxidative Stress On The Hepatic Expression Of Orexin And Its Related Receptors, Stephanie Khaldi

Theses and Dissertations

It is widely known that orexin A and B peptides as well as their receptors are expressed in the hypothalamus and distributed throughout the central nervous system, but there have been few studies regarding its presences in other parts of the body. There is now evidence that orexin (ORX) and its receptors (ORXR1/2) are present in the avian liver; however, their regulation under different environmental conditions is still unknown. In the current study, we sought to determine the effects of heat and oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) on the hepatic expression of ORX and ORXR1 ...


Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne Aug 2016

Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne

Theses and Dissertations

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells recognize motifs known as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are common to groups of microbes. Examples include LPS on Gram-negative bacteria, the structural motif PGN common to all bacteria, MDP the smallest immunostimulatory unit of PGN, and poly I:C the dsRNA analog. PAMP recognition by and stimulation of the innate immune system is crucial to an individual’s ability to quickly limit microbial growth and stimulate the adaptive immune system. Characterization of the in vivo immune responses initiated by PAMPs has not been directly addressed. Using growing feathers (GF) as a ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar May 2016

Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar

Theses and Dissertations

The use of antibiotics in poultry growth and disease control has led to antibiotics resistant problem in human beings, which is a big concern among consumers. With the necessity for judicious use of antibiotics in poultry production, alternative strategies to improve disease resistance in poultry production are necessary. The research is more inclined towards using the natural products available to grow healthier and antibiotic free meat animals. In the context of exploring natural and sustainable resource of alternative to antibiotics, the biochemical milieu of eggshell membranes (ESM) were analyzed by using mass spectrometry techniques including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson Jan 2016

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Autophagy And Its Potential Role In Stress And Feed Efficiency Using Avian Lines, Alissa Laura Piekarski Dec 2015

Autophagy And Its Potential Role In Stress And Feed Efficiency Using Avian Lines, Alissa Laura Piekarski

Theses and Dissertations

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular mechanism that is responsible for the degradation and recycling of damaged organelles. Recently, autophagy has been involved in critical roles during overall development of the organism and degradation of damaged cellular components. This pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals, however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian) species. First, we characterized genes involved in the autophagy pathway in male and female Jungle Fowl to determine gender and tissue specific differences. Secondly, tissue and genotype differences in Japanese quail selected ...


Transcriptomics Of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells, Nhung Thi Nguyen Dec 2015

Transcriptomics Of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells, Nhung Thi Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

Chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) are derived from extraembryonic tissue of the embryo and first appear at stage X of development. They enter the bloodstream and migrate to the genital ridge, unite with somatic tissue to form a developing gonad, and then differentiate to sperm or ova (Fujimoto et al., 1976). Understanding molecular features of both male and female PGCs not only clarify the differentiation mechanism of such cells toward different germ lines, but will also help in selecting for highly productive types of commercial chicken. Most previous studies focused on the location of PGCs (Eyal-Giladi et al., 1981; Swift ...


In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri Dec 2015

In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri

Theses and Dissertations

The applications of nanoparticles are growing, but little is known about their interactions with the immune system as most studies did not use suitable in vivo test systems. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the utility of chicken growing feathers as an in vivo test site for iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) interactions with the immune system. The first objective of this study was to monitor leukocyte infiltration into the growing feather pulp upon the administration of IONP and IO-mIgG preparations. The second objective was to test the utility of IONPs as vaccine adjuvants by monitoring primary and memory ...


Leptin Regulates The Expression Of Autophagy-Related Genes In Chickens, Peter Olawale Ishola Dec 2015

Leptin Regulates The Expression Of Autophagy-Related Genes In Chickens, Peter Olawale Ishola

Theses and Dissertations

Autophagy or cellular self-digestion, a lysosomal degradation pathway that is conserved from yeast to human, plays a key role in recycling cellular constituents, including damaged organelles. It also plays a pivotal role in the adaptation of cells to a plethora of distinct stressors including starvation. Autophagy has been extensively studied in mammals and yeast, but little is known in avian species. Thus, the major objective of the present study was to determine the effects of leptin on autophagy-related genes in chicken hypothalamus, muscle and liver. Leptin is an adipocytokine that is mostly produced by white adipose cells in mammals (as ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2015

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Measuring The Role Of Inhibition In Auditory Discrimination In Mice, Tazima Nur Dec 2014

Measuring The Role Of Inhibition In Auditory Discrimination In Mice, Tazima Nur

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how inhibitory neurons affect sensory information processing in the cerebral cortex is an ongoing goal of both neuroscience and statistical physics research. In this master's thesis research project, an experimental system has been designed and built for studying how auditory dynamic range depends on inhibitory neurons, based on observations of mouse behavior. In this thesis, firstly, the topic of inhibition and information processing has been introduced. Then two papers related to inhibition and dynamic range has been reviewed in detail. One of the papers is an experimental work that analyzes the affect of inhibition on dynamic range. The ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2014

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Ergot Alkaloids And Bovine Bodily Fluids On Cytochrome P450 Activity, Nicholas Scott Ezell May 2013

Effects Of Ergot Alkaloids And Bovine Bodily Fluids On Cytochrome P450 Activity, Nicholas Scott Ezell

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis evaluates the PromegaTM P450-Glo assay (PromegaTM V9800) as a tool for quantifying ergot alkaloid concentration. Current techniques used for detection of ergot alkaloids are slow and expensive, do not detect all ergot alkaloids, or are not effective on bovine bodily fluids. The first study was conducted to determine effects of commercial ergot alkaloids (n = 6; 0 - 400 μM) on the PromegaTM P450-Glo assay. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity in assay had a differential response to each ergot alkaloid and concentration. As concentrations of ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine increased CYP450 activity was inhibited (P < 0.05). Increases in ergonovine and pergolide concentration did not affect (P > 0.1 ...


Instructions For Authors, Discovery Editors Jan 2013

Instructions For Authors, Discovery Editors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2013

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2012

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2011

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2010

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Dean, Lalit Verma Jan 2009

Letter From The Dean, Lalit Verma

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Instructions For Authors, Discovery Editors Jan 2009

Instructions For Authors, Discovery Editors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Melanocortin-1-Receptor (Mcr-1) Gene Polymorphisms Associated With The Chicken E Locus Alleles, Andrew Ellett Jan 2000

Melanocortin-1-Receptor (Mcr-1) Gene Polymorphisms Associated With The Chicken E Locus Alleles, Andrew Ellett

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

The melanocortin 1-receptor (MCl-R) gene has been associated with E locus phenotypes in chickens. Variant alleles of the E locus are important for accurate down color sexing and also for the inhibition of unwanted tissue pigmentation in broilers. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) based tests for various replacement substitutions found in the published E allele sequences gave unexpected results when tested against known alleles of the E locus. To resolve these issues and gain a better understanding of how replacement substitutions in the MCl-R gene are affecting E locus phenotypes, a number of accessions of the e+, eb, wheaten ( ewh and ...


Plasma Corticosterone Levels In Cholesterol-Fed Cockerels Before And After A Twenty Minute Run, Stanley N. David, Clarene L. David Jan 1986

Plasma Corticosterone Levels In Cholesterol-Fed Cockerels Before And After A Twenty Minute Run, Stanley N. David, Clarene L. David

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Cockerels were exercised to observe the influence of physical activity on plasma corticosterone concentrations. The birds were maintained on a commercial mash or on an atherogenic diet. Plasmas were collected on the first day, fifteen days after the first collection and immediately after a 20 minute run on that fifteenth day. The plasma corticosterone levels as determined by radioimmunoassay showed extreme variations within collections. Hence, the data analysis indicated no significant changes of the Compound β in the blood of the cockerels due to diet, or exercise or the combination of both. The causes for the wide variation of plasma ...


Concanavalin A-Nonbinding Enzymes Of Crotalus Scutulatus Scutulatus Venom, C. K. Childs, Michael W. Hinson, Dewey H. Sifford, Bob D. Johnson Jan 1986

Concanavalin A-Nonbinding Enzymes Of Crotalus Scutulatus Scutulatus Venom, C. K. Childs, Michael W. Hinson, Dewey H. Sifford, Bob D. Johnson

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus crude venom was separated into two fractions by Concanavalin A Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. The Concanavalin A-nonbinding fraction (F-l) exhibited phosphomonoesterase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase EC 3.1 .3.2), phosphodiesterase, 5 '-nucleotidase (5 '-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase EC 3.1.3.5), phospholipase A (phosphatidate 2-acylhydrolase EC 3.1.1.4), hyaluronidase (hyaluronate glycanohydrolase EC 3.2.1.d), N-benzoyl-Larginine ethyl esterase, p-toluenesulfonyl-L-arginine methyl esterase, L-amino acid oxidase (L-amino acid: O2 oxidoreductase [deaminating] EC 1.4.3.2), and caseinolytic activities. Thrombin-like and NAD nucleosidase (5 '-ribonudeotide phosphohydrolase EC 3.1.3.5) activities were not observed. DEAE Sephadex ...


Role Of Centriolar Matrix And Striated Rootlets In Centriolar Pairing And Orientation During Spermatogenesis In Hydractina Echinata, Maurice G. Kleve Jan 1985

Role Of Centriolar Matrix And Striated Rootlets In Centriolar Pairing And Orientation During Spermatogenesis In Hydractina Echinata, Maurice G. Kleve

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Transmission electron microscopy of the spermatogenic stages of the hydroid, Hydractinia echinata, reveals a series of complex structural and positional changes in the centrioles of spermatocytes and spermatids. The newly generated centriolar pairs of spermatocytes form an unusual four-centriole aggregate that persists until cell division. The distal centrioles of this aggregate are shrouded with a very dense matrix that accumulates after centriolar replication. This matrix facilitates the mechanical attachment between distal centrioles and microtubular nucleating satellites, striated rootlets and pericentriolar processes. The association of these accessory structures occurs sequentially and is repeated in spermatocytes and spermatids. An electron dense plaque ...


Electrophoretic Patterns Of Plasma Proteins And Hemoglobin Of The Pigeon Columba Liva Domestica, Lloyd D. Snow, Earl L. Hanebrink, Bob D. Johnson Jan 1969

Electrophoretic Patterns Of Plasma Proteins And Hemoglobin Of The Pigeon Columba Liva Domestica, Lloyd D. Snow, Earl L. Hanebrink, Bob D. Johnson

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Metabolic Changes Induced In Rats By Feeding Different Levels Of Galactose With Two Levels Of Corn Oil, Carolyn Qualls Sharp Jan 1967

Metabolic Changes Induced In Rats By Feeding Different Levels Of Galactose With Two Levels Of Corn Oil, Carolyn Qualls Sharp

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Interrelationships Of Certain Metabolic Responses To Threonine Deficiency And To Various Dietary Carbohydrates In The White Rat, Elizabeth Bright Jan 1965

Interrelationships Of Certain Metabolic Responses To Threonine Deficiency And To Various Dietary Carbohydrates In The White Rat, Elizabeth Bright

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.