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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating Jul 2019

Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating

Aileen Keating

Insulin, elevated during obesity, regulates xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, potentially through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, in extraovarian tissues. PI3K regulates oocyte viability, follicular activation, and ovarian chemical biotransformation. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen and ovotoxicant, destroys all stages of follicles, leading to premature ovarian failure. Obesity has been reported to promote DMBA-induced tumors, but it remains unknown whether obesity affects ovarian xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, we investigated ovarian expression of xenobiotic metabolism genes—microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) class Pi (Gstp1) and class mu 1 (Gstm1), and PI3K-signaling members (protein kinase B [AKT] alpha [Akt1], beta [Akt2], and ...


Glutathione S-Transferase Class Mu Regulation Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Protein During Vcd-Induced Ovotoxicity In Neonatal Rat Ovaries, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Jill A. Madden, Nivedita Sen, Patricia B. Hoyer, Aileen F. Keating Jul 2019

Glutathione S-Transferase Class Mu Regulation Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Protein During Vcd-Induced Ovotoxicity In Neonatal Rat Ovaries, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Jill A. Madden, Nivedita Sen, Patricia B. Hoyer, Aileen F. Keating

Aileen Keating

4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian primordial and small primary follicles via apoptosis. In mice, VCD exposure induces ovarian mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members, including isoform mu (Gstm). Extra-ovarian GSTM negatively regulates pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-related kinase 1 (ASK1) through protein complex formation, which dissociates during stress, thereby initiating ASK1-induced apoptosis. The present study investigated the ovarian response of Gstm mRNA and protein to VCD. Induction of Ask1 mRNA at VCD-induced follicle loss onset was determined. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was investigated and VCD exposure effects thereon evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) regulation of GSTM protein was also ...


Paper Spray High-Resolution Accurate Mass Spectrometry For Quantitation Of Voriconazole In Equine Tears, Jonathan P. Mochel Apr 2019

Paper Spray High-Resolution Accurate Mass Spectrometry For Quantitation Of Voriconazole In Equine Tears, Jonathan P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

Paper spray high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry is a fast and versatile analysis method. This ambient ionization technique enables the quantitation of xenobiotics in complex biological matrices without chromatography or conventional sample extraction. The simplicity, rapidity, and affordability of the paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) method make the technique especially attractive for clinical investigations where fast and affordable sample analysis is crucial. A new PS-MS method for the quantitation of voriconazole in equine tears was developed and validated. For a concentration range of 10 to 1000 ng/mL, good linearity (R2 > 0.99), inter- and intra-run precision (coefficient of variation ...


Identification Of Ctla2a, Defb29, Wfdc15b, Serpina1f And Mup19 As Novel Tissue-Specific Secretory Factors In Mouse..Pdf, Jibin Zhang, Jinsoo Ahn, Yeunsu Suh, Seongsoo Hwang, Michael E. Davis, Kichoon Lee May 2015

Identification Of Ctla2a, Defb29, Wfdc15b, Serpina1f And Mup19 As Novel Tissue-Specific Secretory Factors In Mouse..Pdf, Jibin Zhang, Jinsoo Ahn, Yeunsu Suh, Seongsoo Hwang, Michael E. Davis, Kichoon Lee

Jibin Zhang

Secretoryfactors in animals play an important role in communication between different cells, tissues and organs. Especially, the secretoryfactors with specific expression in one tissue may reflect important functions and unique status of that tissue in an organism. In this study, we identified potential tissue-specificsecretoryfactors in the fat, muscle, heart, lung, kidney and liver in the mouse by analyzing microarray data from NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public repository and searching and predicting their subcellular location in GeneCards and WoLF PSORT, and then confirmed tissue-specific expression of the genes using semi-quantitative PCR reactions. With this approach, we confirmed 11 lung ...


The Effects Of Acute And Chronic Hypoxia On Cortisol, Glucose And Lactate Concentrations In Different Populations Of Three-Spined Stickleback, E. A. O'Connor, T. G. Pottinger, L. U. Sneddon Apr 2015

The Effects Of Acute And Chronic Hypoxia On Cortisol, Glucose And Lactate Concentrations In Different Populations Of Three-Spined Stickleback, E. A. O'Connor, T. G. Pottinger, L. U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The response of individuals from three different populations of three-spined sticklebacks to acute and chronic periods of hypoxia (4.4 kPa DO, 2.2 mg l-1) were tested using measures of whole-body (WB) cortisol, glucose and lactate. Although there was no evidence of a neuroendocrine stress response to acute hypoxia, fish from the population least likely to experience hypoxia in their native habitat had the largest response to low oxygen, with significant evidence of anaerobic glycolysis after two hours of hypoxia. However, there was no measurable effect of a more prolonged period (seven days) of hypoxia on any of the ...


Welcome To The Journal Of Evolution And Health, Aaron Blaisdell, Paul Jaminet, David C. Pendergrass Oct 2013

Welcome To The Journal Of Evolution And Health, Aaron Blaisdell, Paul Jaminet, David C. Pendergrass

Aaron P Blaisdell

Welcome to the first issue of the Journal of Evolution and Health! The Journal of Evolution and Health is the peer-reviewed, open-access journal of the Ancestral Health Society, a community of scientists, healthcare professionals, and laypersons who collaborate to understand health challenges from an evolutionary perspective.


Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Apr 2013

Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Richard G. Tait Jr.

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in LM and to evaluate their associations with beef palatability traits. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of mineral concentrations and for trained sensory panel assessments. Nine minerals, including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for mineral concentrations in LM varied from 0.01 to 0.54. Iron ...


Genetic Parameters For Carnitine, Creatine, Creatinine, Carnosine, And Anserine Concentration In Longissimus Muscle And Their Association With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, M. A. O'Neil, Richard G. Tait Jr., Almass A. Abuzaid, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Apr 2013

Genetic Parameters For Carnitine, Creatine, Creatinine, Carnosine, And Anserine Concentration In Longissimus Muscle And Their Association With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, M. A. O'Neil, Richard G. Tait Jr., Almass A. Abuzaid, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Richard G. Tait Jr.

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine concentration in LM and to evaluate their associations with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and beef palatability traits. Longissimus muscle samples from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, anserine, and other nutrients, and for trained sensory panel and WBSF assessments. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine concentrations in LM from ...


Acute Toxicity Of Copper Sulfate And Potassium Dichromate On Stygobiont Proasellus: General Aspects Of Groundwater Ecotoxicology And Future Perspectives, Ana Reboleira, Nelson Abrantes, Pedro Oromí, Fernando Gonçalves Mar 2013

Acute Toxicity Of Copper Sulfate And Potassium Dichromate On Stygobiont Proasellus: General Aspects Of Groundwater Ecotoxicology And Future Perspectives, Ana Reboleira, Nelson Abrantes, Pedro Oromí, Fernando Gonçalves

Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

Karst systems harbor large groundwater resources for human consumption and represent an important habitat for rare and unprotected specialized animals, the so-called stygofauna. Due to the highly adapted features towards underground life, together with the geographic isolation provided by the subterranean aquifers, groundwater-dwelling animals may lose the ability to face sudden changes on their ecosystems, and therefore the risk of extinction is remarkably high. A little is known about their sensitiveness, especially linked to contamination pressure in urbanized karst areas. Understanding the impact of contaminants on stygofauna is important for setting groundwater environmental quality and management of karst systems. We ...


Inferring And Testing Hypotheses Of Cladistic Character Dependence By Using Character Compatibility, F. Robin O’Keefe, Peter J. Wagner Sep 2012

Inferring And Testing Hypotheses Of Cladistic Character Dependence By Using Character Compatibility, F. Robin O’Keefe, Peter J. Wagner

F. Robin O’Keefe

The notion that two characters evolve independently is of interest for two reasons. First, theories of biological integration often predict that change in one character requires complementary change in another. Second, character independence is a basic assumption of most phylogenetic inference methods, and dependent characters might confound attempts at phylogenetic inference. Previously proposed tests of correlated character evolution require a model phylogeny and therefore assume that nonphylogenetic correlation has a negligible effect on initial tree construction. This paper develops “tree-free” methods for testing the independence of cladistic characters. These methods can test the character independence model as a hypothesis before ...


Viability Of Lactic Acid Bacteria And Sensory Evaluation In Cinnamomum Verum And Allium Sativum-Bio-Yogurts Made From Camel And Cow Milk, Ahmad Salihin Hj Baba, Shori A. B. Dec 2011

Viability Of Lactic Acid Bacteria And Sensory Evaluation In Cinnamomum Verum And Allium Sativum-Bio-Yogurts Made From Camel And Cow Milk, Ahmad Salihin Hj Baba, Shori A. B.

Ahmad Salihin Hj Baba

The present study investigate the effect of herbal water extract prepared from Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum on the viability of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus spp and Streptococcus thermophilus) in cow- and camel-milk yogurts during 21 day refrigerated storage. The organoleptic properties of fresh-yogurts were evaluated. Lactobacillus spp count for fresh cow milk-yogurts (0 day) in both present and absent of C. verum and A. sativum was ranged from 1.4×0 6 to 2.1×10 6 cfu/mL. These values were not significantly changed throughout the 21 days of refrigerated storage. Lactobacillusspp count in fresh plain camel milk- ...


Molecular Cloning And Characterization Of The Porcine Fto Promoter And Coding Regions.Pdf, Jinming Huang, Yunzhou Yang, Gang Liu, Jibin Zhang, Xinxing Dong, Ying Bai, Meiying Fang Nov 2010

Molecular Cloning And Characterization Of The Porcine Fto Promoter And Coding Regions.Pdf, Jinming Huang, Yunzhou Yang, Gang Liu, Jibin Zhang, Xinxing Dong, Ying Bai, Meiying Fang

Jibin Zhang

The fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been widely reported to be associated with fat mass or fat deposition in different species. In the present study, we cloned both promoter and codingregions of the gene in pigs with over 5 Kb of sequence for the former region and 1,596 bp for the latter region. Comparative analysis of the promoter region among 20 species including pig revealed four conserved regions that harbor transcriptional factors involved in adipose differentiation. Using a pooled DNA sequencing approach, we discovered 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pig FTO gene and four ...


A Bird’S-Eye View On The Function Of Sleep, Charles Amlaner, Niels Rattenborg Dec 2009

A Bird’S-Eye View On The Function Of Sleep, Charles Amlaner, Niels Rattenborg

Charles J. Amlaner

Sleep has been detected in every animal that has been adequately studied (Cirelli & Tononi, 2008). The ubiquitous nature of sleep suggests that it evolved early in the course of evolution and therefore may serve a conserved function essential to all animals. This hypothesis forms the rationale behind the development of “simple” animal models of sleep (Allada & Siegel, 2008; Mignot, 2008). By studying sleep in animals such as the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), where the power of genetic techniques can be readily employed,we may gain insight into the initial (perhaps cellular) function of sleep, a function that may still be relevant to understanding sleep in humans. Indeed, recent studies have already demonstrated remarkable similarities between sleep in Drosophila and sleep in mammals (Hendricks, Finn, Panckeri, et al., 2000; Shaw, Cirelli, Greenspan, et al., 2000; reviewed in Cirelli & Bushey, 2008). Although the utility of studying sleep in“simple”animal models is undeniable, it is unlikely that this approach alone will tell the whole story, especially given that Drosophilado not exhibit brain states comparable to mammalian slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep (Cirelli, 2006; Cirelli & Bushey, 2008; Hendricks & Sehgal, 2004; Nitz, van Swinderen, Tononi, et al ...


Basics Of Sleep Guide, Charles Amlaner, Patrick Fuller Apr 2009

Basics Of Sleep Guide, Charles Amlaner, Patrick Fuller

Charles J. Amlaner

No abstract provided.


The Evolution Of Sleep, Charles Amlaner, John Lesku, Niels Rattenborg Dec 2008

The Evolution Of Sleep, Charles Amlaner, John Lesku, Niels Rattenborg

Charles J. Amlaner

No abstract provided.


Predator-Induced Plasticity In Sleep Architecture In Wild-Caught Norway Rats (Rattus Norvegicus), John Lesku, Rebekah Bark, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima Jun 2008

Predator-Induced Plasticity In Sleep Architecture In Wild-Caught Norway Rats (Rattus Norvegicus), John Lesku, Rebekah Bark, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima

Charles J. Amlaner

Sleep is a prominent behaviour in the lives of animals, but the unresponsiveness that characterizes sleep makes it dangerous. Mammalian sleep is composed of two neurophysiological states: slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Given that the intensity of stimuli required to induce an arousal to wakefulness is highest during deep SWS or REM sleep, mammals may be most vulnerable during these states. If true, then animals should selectively reduce deep SWS and REM sleep following an increase in the risk of predation. To test this prediction, we simulated a predatory encounter with 10 wild-caught Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus ...


Single Slide Sets To Accompany The Srs Basics Of Sleep Guide (Version 1.1), Charles Amlaner (Editor), Orfeu Buxton (Editor) Dec 2007

Single Slide Sets To Accompany The Srs Basics Of Sleep Guide (Version 1.1), Charles Amlaner (Editor), Orfeu Buxton (Editor)

Charles J. Amlaner

Contains 10 hour-long peer-reviewed lectures in Powerpoint based on the SRS basics of sleep guide.


Slide Sets To Accompany The Srs Basics Of Sleep Guide, Charles Amlaner (Editor), Orfeu Buxton (Editor) Dec 2006

Slide Sets To Accompany The Srs Basics Of Sleep Guide, Charles Amlaner (Editor), Orfeu Buxton (Editor)

Charles J. Amlaner

Contains 10 hour-long peer-reviewed lectures in Powerpoint based on the SRS basics of sleep guide.


A Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Correlates Of Sleep In Birds, Timothy Roth, John Lesku, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima Nov 2006

A Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Correlates Of Sleep In Birds, Timothy Roth, John Lesku, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima

Charles J. Amlaner

Quantitative comparative studies of sleep have focused exclusively on mammals. Such studies have repeatedly found strong relationships between the time spent in various sleep states and constitutive variables related to morphology, physiology, and life history. These studies influenced the development of several prominent hypotheses for the functions of sleep, but the applicability of these patterns and hypotheses to non-mammalian taxa is unclear. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of sleep in a non-mammalian taxon (birds), focusing on the daily amount of time spent in slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep as determined by electrophysiological methods. We examined ...


A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sleep Architecture In Mammals: The Integration Of Anatomy, Physiology, And Ecology, John Lesku, Timothy Roth, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima Sep 2006

A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Sleep Architecture In Mammals: The Integration Of Anatomy, Physiology, And Ecology, John Lesku, Timothy Roth, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima

Charles J. Amlaner

Among mammalian species, the time spent in the two main "architectural" states of sleep-slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep-varies greatly. Previous comparative studies of sleep architecture found that larger mammals, those with bigger brains, and those with higher absolute basal metabolic rates (BMR) tended to engage in less SWS and REM sleep. Species experiencing a greater risk of predation also exhibited less SWS and REM sleep. In all cases, however, these studies lacked a formal phylogenetic and theoretical framework and used mainly correlational analyses. Using independent contrasts and an updated data set, we extended existing approaches with path analysis ...


Asynchronous Eye Closure As An Anti-Predator Behavior In The Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus Occidentalis), Christian Mathews, John Lesku, Stephen Lima, Charles Amlaner Feb 2006

Asynchronous Eye Closure As An Anti-Predator Behavior In The Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus Occidentalis), Christian Mathews, John Lesku, Stephen Lima, Charles Amlaner

Charles J. Amlaner

Asynchronous eye closure (ASEC), one eye open while the other is closed, is a behavior observed in birds, some aquatic mammals, and reptiles. In birds and aquatic mammals, ASEC is associated with unihemispheric sleep wherein the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to (i.e. neurologically connected to) the closed eye sleeps while the other cerebral hemisphere remains awake with its associated eye open and functional. Evidence from birds suggests that ASEC is an important anti-predator adaptation to mediate the trade-off between the need to remain vigilant and the need to sleep. However, the anti-predator correlates of ASEC remain largely unstudied in other ...


The Evolution Of Sleep: A Phylogenetic Approach, John Lesku, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner Dec 2005

The Evolution Of Sleep: A Phylogenetic Approach, John Lesku, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner

Charles J. Amlaner

No abstract provided.


Sleeping Under Risk Of Predation, Steven Lima, John Lesku, Neil Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner Sep 2005

Sleeping Under Risk Of Predation, Steven Lima, John Lesku, Neil Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner

Charles J. Amlaner

Every studied animal engages in sleep, and many animals spend much of their lives in this vulnerable behavioural state. We believe that an explicit description of this vulnerability will provide many insights into both the function and architecture (or organization) of sleep. Early studies of sleep recognized this idea, but it has been largely overlooked during the last 20 years. We critically evaluate early models that suggested that the function of sleep is antipredator in nature, and outline a new model in which we argue that whole-brain or 'blackout' sleep may be the safest way to sleep given a functionally ...


Phylogeny Of Sleep, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner Dec 2001

Phylogeny Of Sleep, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner

Charles J. Amlaner

No abstract provided.


The Evolutionary Significance Of Unihemispheric Slow Wave Sleep In Birds, Charles Amlaner Apr 2001

The Evolutionary Significance Of Unihemispheric Slow Wave Sleep In Birds, Charles Amlaner

Charles J. Amlaner

No abstract provided.


Sleep-Wake Behavior Patterns And Eye Closure States In Juvenile Greater Rheas (Rhea Americana), Charles Amlaner, William Franklin, Christopher Ritzi, Steven Lima, Niels Rattenborg Apr 2001

Sleep-Wake Behavior Patterns And Eye Closure States In Juvenile Greater Rheas (Rhea Americana), Charles Amlaner, William Franklin, Christopher Ritzi, Steven Lima, Niels Rattenborg

Charles J. Amlaner

No abstract provided.


Unilateral Eye Closure And Interhemispheric Eeg Asymmetry During Sleep In The Pigeon (Columba Livia), Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima Dec 2000

Unilateral Eye Closure And Interhemispheric Eeg Asymmetry During Sleep In The Pigeon (Columba Livia), Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima

Charles J. Amlaner

Aquatic mammals (i.e., Cetaceans, eared seals and manatees) and birds show interhemispheric asymmetries (IA) in slow-wave sleep-related electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, suggesting that the depth of sleep differs between hemispheres. In birds, an association between unilateral eye closure and IA has been reported in five species from three orders (i.e., Galliformes, Charadriiformes, and Anseriformes). Moreover, unilateral eye closure has been observed during behaviorally defined sleep in 29 species from 13 avian orders, suggesting that birds in general display IA during sleep. Despite the apparent prevalence of unilateral eye closure and IA in birds, previous work did not detect A ...


Behavioral, Neurophysiological And Evolutionary Perspectives On Unihemispheric Sleep, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima Nov 2000

Behavioral, Neurophysiological And Evolutionary Perspectives On Unihemispheric Sleep, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima

Charles J. Amlaner

Several animals mitigate the fundamental conflict between sleep and wakefulness by engaging in unihemispheric sleep, a unique state during which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other remains awake. Among mammals, unihemispheric sleep is restricted to aquatic species (Cetaceans, cared seals and manatees). in contrast to mammals, unihemispheric sleep is widespread in birds, and may even occur in reptiles. Unihemispheric sleep allows surfacing to breathe in aquatic mammals and predator detection in birds. Despite the apparent utility in being able to sleep unihemispherically, very few mammals sleep in this manner. This is particularly interesting since the reptilian ancestors to mammals ...


Eye States And Postures Of The Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus Occidentalis), With Special Reference To Asynchronous Eye Closure And Behavioral Sleep, Christian Mathews, Charles Amlaner Aug 2000

Eye States And Postures Of The Western Fence Lizard (Sceloporus Occidentalis), With Special Reference To Asynchronous Eye Closure And Behavioral Sleep, Christian Mathews, Charles Amlaner

Charles J. Amlaner

No abstract provided.


Design Of A Low Power Two-Channel Biotelemetry Transmitter And Demodulator For Use In Studies Of Sleep Behavior In Birds, Charles Amlaner, Brent Carr, Denis Curtis, Samuel Mcgarrah, Derek Sunderman Apr 1999

Design Of A Low Power Two-Channel Biotelemetry Transmitter And Demodulator For Use In Studies Of Sleep Behavior In Birds, Charles Amlaner, Brent Carr, Denis Curtis, Samuel Mcgarrah, Derek Sunderman

Charles J. Amlaner

Current technology in biomedical engineering has made it possible to remotely transmit, demodulate, store and accurately display a large suite of physiological electrical signals. By carefully selecting modern CMOS circuitry, the designer can fabricate micro-miniature, low power systems that ultimately can be hermetically sealed and implanted in a live, free-ranging animal. It was the lack of miniature, low power transmitter circuitry that has hampered some of the basic research questions on sleep patterns in free ranging animals, particularly birds and other small animals. We formulated a team of engineers in our Animal Sleep Research Laboratory to identify the critical technical ...