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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Mar 2017

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Increased engorgement weights were noted for ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on ...


Frontiers In Otolith Chemistry: Insights, Advances And Applications, B. D. Walther, K. E. Limburg, C. M. Jones, J. J. Schaffler Jan 2017

Frontiers In Otolith Chemistry: Insights, Advances And Applications, B. D. Walther, K. E. Limburg, C. M. Jones, J. J. Schaffler

OEAS Faculty Publications

The rapid proliferation of publications employing chemical assays of fish hard parts, and otoliths in particular, has led to many novel insights into the migration patterns, life history strategies and mixed stock dynamics of fishes across the globe (Campana et al., 2000; Elsdon et al., 2008; Walther & Limburg, 2012). These insights include uncovering diverse migratory strategies within species and populations (Kerr et al., 2009; Hogan et al., 2014; Schoen et al., 2016), quantifying rates of mixing among stocks across management boundaries (Rooker et al., 2008; Walther & Thorrold, 2010) and estimating the relative importance of particular natal habitats for recruitment (Thorrold et al., 2001; Schaffler et al., 2015; Anstead et al., 2016). Much of this work has been driven by advances in instrumentation that allow more precise and higher throughput analyses with greater spatial and ...


Beyond Zar: The Use And Abuse Of Classification Statistics For Otolith Chemistry, C. M. Jones, M. Palmers, J. J. Schaffler Jan 2017

Beyond Zar: The Use And Abuse Of Classification Statistics For Otolith Chemistry, C. M. Jones, M. Palmers, J. J. Schaffler

OEAS Faculty Publications

Classification method performance was evaluated using otolith chemistry of juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus when assumptions of data normality were met and were violated. Four methods were tested [linear discriminant function analysis (LDFA), quadratic discriminant function analysis (QDFA), random forest (RF) and artificial neural networks (ANN)] using computer simulation to determine their performance when variable-group means ranged from small to large and their performance under conditions of typical skewness to double the amount of skewness typically observed. Using the kappa index, the parametric methods performed best after applying appropriate data transformation, gaining 2% better performance with LDFA performing slightly better ...


Molecular Phylogenetics Of Perciform Fishes Using The Nuclear Recombination Activating Gene 1, Andrew R. Mahon Apr 2007

Molecular Phylogenetics Of Perciform Fishes Using The Nuclear Recombination Activating Gene 1, Andrew R. Mahon

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The order Perciformes contains one-third of all extant fishes in twenty different suborders and over 10,000 species. Few systematic investigations have been performed on this large group of fishes at the suborder level and their evolutionary history is widely recognized as problematic. This dissertation presents three studies: a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the putative suborders of the order Perciformes, an analysis of interrelationships of the families of the perciform suborder Percoidei, and a multi-gene investigation of the percoid superfamily Sparoidea.

The taxa sampled in this dissertation represent one of the most inclusive molecular datasets, to date, testing the monophyly ...


Chemical Evidence For Dietary Toxin Sequestration In The Asian Snake Rhabdophis Tigrinus, Deborah A. Hutchinson Jul 2006

Chemical Evidence For Dietary Toxin Sequestration In The Asian Snake Rhabdophis Tigrinus, Deborah A. Hutchinson

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Rhabdophis tigrinus (Colubridae: Natricinae) is an oviparous, bufophagous (toad-eating) snake from eastern Asia that possesses defensive integumentary glands on the neck known as nuchal glands. These glands are used in antipredator displays and typically contain bufadienolide toxins. Whereas toads are known to synthesize bufadienolide steroids from cholesterol precursors, we found that chemically undefended R. tigrinus must sequester bufadienolides from ingested toads in order to exhibit these compounds in their nuchal glands. Chemically defended females are capable of provisioning their embryos with these toxins so their unfed hatchlings possess defensive bufadienolides prior to consuming toads themselves. All of the hatchling R ...


Hybridization Between The Watersnakes Nerodia Sipedon And Nerodia Fasciata, In The Carolinas: A Morphological And Molecular Approach, Konrad Mebert Apr 2003

Hybridization Between The Watersnakes Nerodia Sipedon And Nerodia Fasciata, In The Carolinas: A Morphological And Molecular Approach, Konrad Mebert

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

A few traditionally applied diagnostic characters of color pattern were compared with an additional set of morphological and genetic characters to evaluate differences between Nerodia sipedon and N. fasciata and to study the dynamics across their hybrid zone in the Carolinas. Many of the morphological characters exhibited significant interspecific differences, although only the number of dorsally complete crossbands (CBa) was diagnostic by itself. A discriminant function analysis of morphological characters was successful in separating both taxa. Species-specific nuclear markers, identified by the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique were nearly fixed and served as diagnostic markers. They revealed extensive introgression ...


Demographic Assessment Of The Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) In Chesapeake Bay Using Extractable Lipofuscins As Age Markers, Se-Jong Ju, David H. Secor, H. Rodger Harvey Jan 2003

Demographic Assessment Of The Blue Crab (Callinectes Sapidus) In Chesapeake Bay Using Extractable Lipofuscins As Age Markers, Se-Jong Ju, David H. Secor, H. Rodger Harvey

OEAS Faculty Publications

The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) plays an important economic and ecological role in estuaries and coastal habitats from the Gulf of Mexico to the east coast of North America, but demographic assessments are limited by length-based methods. We applied an alternative aging method using biochemical measures of metabolic byproducts (lipofuscins) sequestered in the neural tissue of eyestalks to examine population age structure. From Chesapeake Bay, subsamples of animals collected from the 1998-99 (n-769) and 1999-2000 (n=367) winter dredge surveys were collected and lipofuscin was measured. Modal analysis of the lipofuscin index provided separation into three modes, whereas carapace-width data ...


Aspects Of Larval Ecology Of Squilla Empusa (Crustacea, Stomatopoda) In Chesapeake Bay, Steven G. Morgan Jan 1980

Aspects Of Larval Ecology Of Squilla Empusa (Crustacea, Stomatopoda) In Chesapeake Bay, Steven G. Morgan

OEAS Faculty Publications

Larvae of Squilla empusa were collected from the plankton and were laboratory-reared in 16 combinations of temperature and salinity to determine their tolerances. Larvae survived longer and molted more frequently when reared at 25%, and 20° or 25° C, which corresponds to the natural conditions of Chesapeake Bay when the larvae were collected.

A 2 year planktonic survey conducted in the lower region of the bay by the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences was compared with a survey made at the bay mouth in 1976. The seasonal occurrence of Squilla empusa larvae extended from the last week of July until ...