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Animal Sciences

Iowa State University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 60

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert Jan 2018

Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) undermines production efficiency in all animal agriculture, culminating in major economic losses annually. The effects of HS in pigs is realized through depressed growth, altered body composition, and impaired reproductive performance. Pigs, unlike other mammals, do not possess functional sweat glands, making them rely on other mechanisms to thermoregulate during a heat challenge. Continual investigation of hyperthermia in pigs is crucial for developing new strategies and/or technologies that mitigate the effects of HS imposed on the pork industry. The studies conducted in this dissertation investigate the complex interplay of whole-animal physiology as well as cellular and ...


Influence Of Physical Activity On Tibial Bone Material Properties In Laying Hens, A. B. Rodriguez-Navarro, H. M. Mccormack, R. H. Fleming, P. Alvarez-Lloret, J. Romero-Pastor, Tanya Prozorov, I. C. Dunn Jan 2018

Influence Of Physical Activity On Tibial Bone Material Properties In Laying Hens, A. B. Rodriguez-Navarro, H. M. Mccormack, R. H. Fleming, P. Alvarez-Lloret, J. Romero-Pastor, Tanya Prozorov, I. C. Dunn

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Laying hens develop a type of osteoporosis that arises from a loss of structural bone, resulting in high incidence of fractures. In this study, a comparison of bone material properties was made for lines of hens created by divergent selection to have high and low bone strength and housed in either individual cages, with restricted mobility, or in an aviary system, with opportunity for increased mobility. Improvement of bone biomechanics in the high line hens and in aviary housing was mainly due to increased bone mass, thicker cortical bone and more medullary bone. However, bone material properties such as cortical ...


Dietary Modifications Designed To Affect Lipid Metabolism, Pilar A. Garcia, Constance Kies Jun 2017

Dietary Modifications Designed To Affect Lipid Metabolism, Pilar A. Garcia, Constance Kies

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

At the time this study was planned, there was not yet a consensus about dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of heart disease. There was considerable controversy about the efficacy of moderate changes in dietary fat, and there was very little information about the responses of women to dietary change.

The NC-167 Regional Technical Committee includes scientists experienced with dietary studies with normal humans and with various animal models. It was deemed economical and efficient to have a human study conducted with analytic expertise contributed by all members of the committee. Thus, a direct comparison of the whole diet, rather ...


Comparative Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment Of Egg Yolks From First-Cycle Laying Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil Or Ground Flaxseed, I. J. Ehr, M. E. Persia, E. A. Bobeck Jun 2017

Comparative Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enrichment Of Egg Yolks From First-Cycle Laying Hens Fed Flaxseed Oil Or Ground Flaxseed, I. J. Ehr, M. E. Persia, E. A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

When laying hen diets are enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate value-added eggs for human consumption markets, concentrations of alphalinolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids (ALA, EPA, and DHA) in the yolk can reach 250mg/50g whole egg. Flaxseed, a rich source of ALA, is commonly used for omega-3 enrichment; however, the impact of dietary flaxseed source (extracted oil vs. milled seed) on fatty acid transfer to egg yolk in laying hens is unknown. Therefore, transfer of ALA, EPA, and DHA into egg yolk from extracted flaxseed oil or milled flaxseed was evaluated in Hy-Line W-36 laying hens over ...


Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont Jan 2016

Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Newcastle Disease (ND) is caused by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and is a major problem in developing countries where vaccination against NDV is not easily achievable. A step required for NDV infection is the cleavage of the NDV fusion (F) protein. Using structural information of the NDV F protein and the only known host protein binding partner, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), we computer modeled the interaction between the two proteins by looking at a docked structure of these two proteins. With our docked structure, we visualized one of the catalytic domains of PDIA3 being near the cleavage site of ...


Repeated Stressors In Adulthood Increase The Rate Of Biological Ageing, Michaela Hau, Mark F. Haussmann, Timothy J. Greives, Christa Matlack, David Costantini, Michael Quetting, James S. Adelman, Ana C. Miranda, Jesko Partecke Jan 2015

Repeated Stressors In Adulthood Increase The Rate Of Biological Ageing, Michaela Hau, Mark F. Haussmann, Timothy J. Greives, Christa Matlack, David Costantini, Michael Quetting, James S. Adelman, Ana C. Miranda, Jesko Partecke

James S. Adelman

Individuals of the same age can differ substantially in the degree to which they have accumulated tissue damage, akin to bodily wear and tear, from past experiences. This accumulated tissue damage reflects the individual’s biological age and may better predict physiological and behavioural performance than the individual‘s chronological age. However, at present it remains unclear how to reliably assess biological age in individual wild vertebrates. We exposed hand-raised adult Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) to a combination of repeated immune and disturbance stressors for over one year to determine the effects of chronic stress on potential biomarkers of biological ...


Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating Mar 2014

Impact Of Obesity On Ovotoxicity Induced By 7,12-Dimethylbenz[A]Anthracene In Mice, Jackson Nteeba, Shanthi Ganesan, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

Insulin, elevated during obesity, regulates xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes, potentially through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, in extraovarian tissues. PI3K regulates oocyte viability, follicular activation, and ovarian chemical biotransformation. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen and ovotoxicant, destroys all stages of follicles, leading to premature ovarian failure. Obesity has been reported to promote DMBA-induced tumors, but it remains unknown whether obesity affects ovarian xenobiotic metabolism. Therefore, we investigated ovarian expression of xenobiotic metabolism genes—microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) class Pi (Gstp1) and class mu 1 (Gstm1), and PI3K-signaling members (protein kinase B [AKT] alpha [Akt1], beta [Akt2], and ...


Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan Jan 2014

Liver And Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Proteomes Are Altered In Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Judson Kyle Grubbs, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Nicholas K. Gabler, Jack C. Dekkers, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Science Publications

Animals selected for residual feed intake (RFI) can be used as a model to elucidate molecular explanations for differences in growth efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the protein profile and posttranslational modifications of mitochondria from skeletal muscle and liver relate to feed efficiency gains in pigs divergently selected for RFI. Mitochondria were isolated from the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and the liver from pigs (n = 9 each for the high and low RFI line; BW = 95.8 kg). Mitochondria protein profile differences were determined using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis. Proteins were ...


Chemical Hydrolysis Of Phosvitin And The Functional Properties Of The Hydrolysates, Himali Samaraweera, Sun Hee Moon, Eunjoo Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Joo-Won Suh, Dong U. Ahn Nov 2013

Chemical Hydrolysis Of Phosvitin And The Functional Properties Of The Hydrolysates, Himali Samaraweera, Sun Hee Moon, Eunjoo Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Joo-Won Suh, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Science Publications

As a highly phosphorylated protein, phosvitin shows a powerful antioxidant and metal-binding activity. However, its extraordinary resistance to protease activities limits the possibility of using phosvitin as a source for the production of functional peptides. The objectives of this study were to test the possibilities of using alkaline or acid hydrolysis to produce small peptides from phosvitin and to investigate the functional properties of the resulting peptides. Phosvitin was dissolved in various concentrations of NaOH (0.025N-0.3N) or HCl (0.05N–6N) and incubated in a shaker water bath (37◦C for NaOH and 60◦CforHCl) for 1-6 h ...


Role Of A Gamma-Aminobutryic Acid (Gaba) Receptor Mutation In The Evolution And Spread Of Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Resistance To Cyclodiene Insecticides, H. Wang, Brad S. Coates, H. Chen, Thomas W. Sappington, T. Guillemaud, B. D. Siegfried Oct 2013

Role Of A Gamma-Aminobutryic Acid (Gaba) Receptor Mutation In The Evolution And Spread Of Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Resistance To Cyclodiene Insecticides, H. Wang, Brad S. Coates, H. Chen, Thomas W. Sappington, T. Guillemaud, B. D. Siegfried

Entomology Publications

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a damaging pest of cultivated corn that was controlled by applications of cyclodiene insecticides from the late 1940s until resistance evolved ∼10 years later. Range expansion from the western plains into eastern USA coincides with resistance development. An alanine to serine amino acid substitution within the Rdl subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides in many species. We found that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G/T at the GABA receptor cDNA position 838 (G/T838) of D. v. virgifera resulted in the alanine to ...


Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Mar 2013

Genetic Parameters For Concentrations Of Minerals In Longissimus Muscle And Their Associations With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, Richard G. Tait Jr., Qing Duan, Q. Liu, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in LM and to evaluate their associations with beef palatability traits. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of mineral concentrations and for trained sensory panel assessments. Nine minerals, including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for mineral concentrations in LM varied from 0.01 to 0.54. Iron ...


Glutathione S-Transferase Class Mu Regulation Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Protein During Vcd-Induced Ovotoxicity In Neonatal Rat Ovaries, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Jill A. Madden, Nivedita Sen, Patricia B. Hoyer, Aileen F. Keating Feb 2013

Glutathione S-Transferase Class Mu Regulation Of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Protein During Vcd-Induced Ovotoxicity In Neonatal Rat Ovaries, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Jill A. Madden, Nivedita Sen, Patricia B. Hoyer, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian primordial and small primary follicles via apoptosis. In mice, VCD exposure induces ovarian mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members, including isoform mu (Gstm). Extra-ovarian GSTM negatively regulates pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-related kinase 1 (ASK1) through protein complex formation, which dissociates during stress, thereby initiating ASK1-induced apoptosis. The present study investigated the ovarian response of Gstm mRNA and protein to VCD. Induction of Ask1 mRNA at VCD-induced follicle loss onset was determined. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was investigated and VCD exposure effects thereon evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) regulation of GSTM protein was also ...


Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy J. Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. Mcclelland Jan 2013

Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy J. Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. Mcclelland

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch ...


Genetic Parameters For Carnitine, Creatine, Creatinine, Carnosine, And Anserine Concentration In Longissimus Muscle And Their Association With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, M. A. O'Neil, Richard G. Tait Jr., Almass A. Abuzaid, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy Dec 2012

Genetic Parameters For Carnitine, Creatine, Creatinine, Carnosine, And Anserine Concentration In Longissimus Muscle And Their Association With Palatability Traits In Angus Cattle, R. G. Mateescu, A. J. Garmyn, M. A. O'Neil, Richard G. Tait Jr., Almass A. Abuzaid, Mary S. Mayes, Dorian J. Garrick, A. L. Van Eenennaam, D. L. Vanoverbeke, G. G. Hilton, Donald C. Beitz, James M. Reecy

Animal Science Publications

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine concentration in LM and to evaluate their associations with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and beef palatability traits. Longissimus muscle samples from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, anserine, and other nutrients, and for trained sensory panel and WBSF assessments. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine concentrations in LM from ...


Comparison Of Reproductive And Flight Capacity Of Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Developing From Diapause And Non-Diapause Larvae, Daosong Xie, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang Oct 2012

Comparison Of Reproductive And Flight Capacity Of Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Developing From Diapause And Non-Diapause Larvae, Daosong Xie, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang

Entomology Publications

The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), uses both diapause and migration as life history strategies. To determine the role of diapause plays in the population dynamics of L. sticticalis, the reproductive and flight potentials of adults originating from diapause and nondiapause larvae were investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Preoviposition period, lifetime fecundity, and daily egg production of females originating from diapause larvae were not significantly different from those originating from nondiapause larvae, showing that diapause has no significant effect on reproductive capacity when adults are provided with an adequate carbohydrate source. However, females that developed from diapause larvae ...


Synchronized Oviposition Triggered By Migratory Flight Intensifies Larval Outbreaks Of Beet Webworm, Yun Xia Cheng, Li Zhi Luo, Xing Fu Jiang, Thomas W. Sappington Feb 2012

Synchronized Oviposition Triggered By Migratory Flight Intensifies Larval Outbreaks Of Beet Webworm, Yun Xia Cheng, Li Zhi Luo, Xing Fu Jiang, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

Identifying the reproductive consequences of insect migration is critical to understanding its ecological and evolutionary significance. However, many empirical studies are seemingly contradictory, making recognition of unifying themes elusive and controversial. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. is a long-range migratory pest of many crops in the northern temperate zone from 36°N to 55°N, with larval populations often exploding in regions receiving immigrants. In laboratory experiments, we examined (i) the reproductive costs of migratory flight by tethered flight, and (ii) the reproductive traits contributing to larval outbreaks of immigrant populations. Our results suggest that the beet webworm does ...


Microrna Expression And Function During Porcine Oocyte Maturation And Early Embryonic Development, Elane Courtney Wright Jan 2012

Microrna Expression And Function During Porcine Oocyte Maturation And Early Embryonic Development, Elane Courtney Wright

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding oocyte maturation and embryo development in the pig is essential to improving farm animal reproduction efficiency. Many reproductive tissues are associated with a high degree of transcriptional and translational turnover that may be in part regulated by non-coding RNA such as microRNA (miRNA). The oocyte consists of a storage of maternal RNA and nutrients that are utilized to support oocyte maturation and early embryo development. MiRNA have been identified in the oocyte and throughout early embryo development in many species including the pig. MiRNA exert their biological impact on the cell through post transcriptional gene regulation (PTGR) by interacting ...


Stem-Boring Caterpillars Of Switchgrass In The Midwestern United States, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Jennifer E. Buhay, Thomas W. Sappington, Emily A. Heaton, Jeffrey D. Bradshaw, Michael E. Gray May 2011

Stem-Boring Caterpillars Of Switchgrass In The Midwestern United States, Jarrad R. Prasifka, Jennifer E. Buhay, Thomas W. Sappington, Emily A. Heaton, Jeffrey D. Bradshaw, Michael E. Gray

Entomology Publications

Lepidopteran stem borers were collected from switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., tillers showing symptoms of infestation at seven locations in Illinois and Iowa, with additional observations made on larval and adult activity. Blastobasis repartella (Dietz) (Coleophoridae), whose only known host is switchgrass, was common in plots grown for >5 yr, whereas the polyphagous stalk borer, Papaipema nebris (Guenée) (Noctuidae), was abundant in newly established (i.e., first- and second-year) switchgrass. Haimbachia albescens Capps (Crambidae) was collected from two locations in Illinois, making switchgrass the first known host for this species. Entry holes made by B. repartella and H. albescens were usually ...


Relationship Of Flight And Reproduction In Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera Exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), A Migrant Lacking The Oogenesis-Flight Syndrome, Xing Fu Jiang, Li Zhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington Nov 2010

Relationship Of Flight And Reproduction In Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera Exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), A Migrant Lacking The Oogenesis-Flight Syndrome, Xing Fu Jiang, Li Zhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome, common in many migratory insects, is characterized by a suite of traits including migration during the pre-oviposition period followed by a switch to oogenesis. No negative effects of inter-ovipositional flight on lifetime fecundity were observed. Instead, adult reproductive output suffered when female flight was initiated the first day after eclosion and before oviposition, suggesting that migratory flight overlaps with the oviposition period rather than being confined to ...


Novel Relationships Among Lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) Revealed By A Taxonomically Comprehensive Molecular Data Set, Nicholas J. Lang, Kevin J. Roe, Claude B. Renaud, Howard S. Gill, Ian C. Potter, Jörg Freyhof, Alexander M. Naseka, Philip Cochran, Hector Espinosa Pérez, Evelyn M. Habit, Bernard R. Kuhajda, David A. Neely, Yuri S. Reshetnikov, Vladimir B. Salnikov, Maria Th. Stoumboudi, Richard L. Mayden Jan 2009

Novel Relationships Among Lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) Revealed By A Taxonomically Comprehensive Molecular Data Set, Nicholas J. Lang, Kevin J. Roe, Claude B. Renaud, Howard S. Gill, Ian C. Potter, Jörg Freyhof, Alexander M. Naseka, Philip Cochran, Hector Espinosa Pérez, Evelyn M. Habit, Bernard R. Kuhajda, David A. Neely, Yuri S. Reshetnikov, Vladimir B. Salnikov, Maria Th. Stoumboudi, Richard L. Mayden

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The systematics of lampreys was investigated using complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences from all genera and nearly all recognized species. The families Geotriidae and Petromyzontidae are monophyletic, but the family Mordaciidae was resolved as two divergent lineages at the base of the tree. Within Petromyzontidae, the nonparasitic Lethenteron sp. S and Okkelbergia aepyptera were recognized as distinct lineages, Lethenteron morii and Lampetra zanandreai were moved to new genera, a sister species relationship was recovered between Caspiomyzon wagneri and Eudontomyzon hellenicus, and a clade was recovered inclusive of Entosphenus hubbsi and western North American Lampetra (L. ayresii and L. richardsoni). The ...


Post-Orbital Color Pattern Variation And The Evolution Of A Radiation Of Turtles (Graptemys), Erin M. Myers Jan 2008

Post-Orbital Color Pattern Variation And The Evolution Of A Radiation Of Turtles (Graptemys), Erin M. Myers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

One of the most studied areas in the field of evolutionary biology is the formation and maintenance of new species, as well as variation in the rate and extent to which taxa radiate. A range of evolutionary processes, from ecological adaptation to sexual selection and reinforcement, can lead species formation. However, the generation of new species likely results from several isolating mechanisms acting in concert. The map turtle complex (genus: Graptemys) is an excellent model system for exploring the nature of speciation given its exceptional species richness and morphological diversity, particularly in facial coloration patterns. This research utilizes an integrative ...


Taxonomic Review, Phylogeny, And Geographical Population Structure Of The Sawfishes (Chondrichthyes, Pristiformes), Vicente Vieira Faria Jan 2007

Taxonomic Review, Phylogeny, And Geographical Population Structure Of The Sawfishes (Chondrichthyes, Pristiformes), Vicente Vieira Faria

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sawfishes (Pristidae) are considered endangered species worldwide, but their conservation and management have been undermined due to poor understanding of the group's natural taxonomy. The main purpose of this work was to review the taxonomy of sawfishes based on historical taxonomic literature supplemented with empirical observations on morphology, genetics, and geographic distribution. A molecular phylogenetics study based on both mitochondrial and nuclear genes was carried out to estimate the evolutionary interrelationships among the different species of sawfishes. Seven distinct living species are recognized based on external morphology and DNA sequence comparisons. Four are distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, two ...


Redesigning Beef Cattle To Have A More Healthful Fatty Acid Composition, Shu Zhang, Travis J. Knight, Richard G. Tait Jr., Allen H. Trenkle, Doyle E. Wilson, Gene H. Rouse, Daryl R. Strohbehn, James M. Reecy, Donald C. Beitz, Jennifer A. Minick Jan 2006

Redesigning Beef Cattle To Have A More Healthful Fatty Acid Composition, Shu Zhang, Travis J. Knight, Richard G. Tait Jr., Allen H. Trenkle, Doyle E. Wilson, Gene H. Rouse, Daryl R. Strohbehn, James M. Reecy, Donald C. Beitz, Jennifer A. Minick

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

We propose to improve the fatty acid composition of beef by capitalizing on the natural genetic differences among animals. It is our thought that improvements in the healthfulness of the fatty acid composition of beef can be made while maintaining other positive attributes. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is responsible for the conversion of 16:0 and 18:0 to 16:1 and 18:1, respectively, the two major monounsaturated fatty acids of bovine lipids.


Identification Of Genes For Carcass Merit And Meat Quality In The Pig, Max Rothschild, Daniel Ciobanu, Steven Lonergan, Jack Dekkers, Ken Stalder Jan 2003

Identification Of Genes For Carcass Merit And Meat Quality In The Pig, Max Rothschild, Daniel Ciobanu, Steven Lonergan, Jack Dekkers, Ken Stalder

Animal Science Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Advances in the fields of molecular genetics and genomics have been considerable over the past several years. Recent discoveries in human genetics and in molecular biology have led to the development of a very useful genetic map of the pig. Several recent quantitative trait loci (QTL) scans and candidate gene analyses have identified important chromosomal regions and individual genes associated with carcass and meat quality traits. The causative mutations for porcine stress syndrome (HAL or RYR1) and the acid meat (RN) disorder, both with effects on meat quality are now known. Candidate genes for carcass merit (MC4R) and meat quality ...


A Genome Scan To Detect Qtl Affecting Growth, Composition, And Meat Quality Traits In A Berkshire X Yorkshire Cross, Jack Dekkers, Jong-Joo Kim, Massoud Malek, Hauke Thomsen, Hakkyo Lee, Hong-Hua Zhao, Max Rothschild Jan 2003

A Genome Scan To Detect Qtl Affecting Growth, Composition, And Meat Quality Traits In A Berkshire X Yorkshire Cross, Jack Dekkers, Jong-Joo Kim, Massoud Malek, Hauke Thomsen, Hakkyo Lee, Hong-Hua Zhao, Max Rothschild

Animal Science Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The techniques of molecular biology and molecular genetics have rapidly progressed. These methods, coupled with advances in human genetics, have opened new vistas for investigators wishing to identify genes that control quantitative traits (quantitative trait loci or QTL). Also, over the past years, a great deal of progress has been made in development of genetic maps in the pig. For example, a large international mapping effort (Archibald et al., 1994), a USDA/ARS effort (Rohrer et al., 1996) and a U.S. coordinated effort (Rothschild, 1994) have produced several genetic linkage maps for the pig. Based on these linkage maps ...


Posttranslational Processing And Functional Analysis Of Tractin, An L1 Family Member In Leech , Yingzhi Xu Jan 2003

Posttranslational Processing And Functional Analysis Of Tractin, An L1 Family Member In Leech , Yingzhi Xu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

During neurogenesis, glycosylated cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) mediate the growth cone navigation and synapse formation. The structure of neuronal CAMs of Ig superfamily is characterized by the variability and complexity of their extracellular region which contain multiple tandemly arranged domains. The diversity in the structure of the neuronal CAMs is generated by alternative splicing and posttranslational modification, such as differential glycosylation and proteolytic processing.;Tractin is a member of the L1-family of neuronal CAMs in leech. It contains six Ig domains, 4 FNIII-like domains, an acidic domain, 12 repeats of a novel proline- and glycine-rich motif (PG/YG) with sequence ...


Protein Structure, Distribution Of Homoplasy And Phylogenetic Inference , Olivier Fedrigo Jan 2003

Protein Structure, Distribution Of Homoplasy And Phylogenetic Inference , Olivier Fedrigo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

All molecular phylogenetic methods are based on two assumptions: independence of characters and constant selective pressure. It is well known that these assumptions are often violated, but it is assumed that the methods are robust to such violations. However, the increase of unorthodox phylogenies makes us wonder about their reliability. None of the currently used phylogenetic methods and models account for a change of functional/structural constraint at the protein level. In order to understand the consequences on the phylogenetic inference, I studied the distribution of the structural/functional misleading phylogenetic signal in the tree and described the effect of ...


Irreversible Thiol Oxidation In Carbonic Anhydrase Iii: Protection By S-Glutathiolation And Detection In Aging Rats, Robert J. Mallis, Michael J. Hamann, Wei Zhao, Tiequan Zhang, Suzanne Hendrich, James A. Thomas Mar 2002

Irreversible Thiol Oxidation In Carbonic Anhydrase Iii: Protection By S-Glutathiolation And Detection In Aging Rats, Robert J. Mallis, Michael J. Hamann, Wei Zhao, Tiequan Zhang, Suzanne Hendrich, James A. Thomas

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Proteins with reactive sulfhydryls are central to many important metabolic reactions and also contribute to a variety of signal transduction systems. In this re- port, we examine the mechanisms of oxidative dam- age to the two reactive sulfhydryls of carbonic anhy- drase III. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxy radicals, or hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced irreversibly oxidized forms, primarily cysteine sulfinic acid or cys- teic acid, of carbonic anhydrase III if glutathione (GSH) was not present. When GSH was approximate- ly equimolar to protein thiols, irreversible oxidation was prevented. H2O2 and peroxyl radicals both gener- ated S-glutathiolated carbonic anhydrase III via par- ...


A Candidate Gene Analysis For Response To Salmonella Enteritidis Challenge Or Vaccination In Young Chicks , Wei Liu Jan 2002

A Candidate Gene Analysis For Response To Salmonella Enteritidis Challenge Or Vaccination In Young Chicks , Wei Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella enteritidis (SE) contamination of poultry products is a major cause of food-borne disease worldwide. The candidate gene approach for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for chicken response to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was applied in the current study. The Iowa Salmonella Response Resource Population (ISRRP), formed by crossing outbred broiler sires with three diverse, highly inbred dam lines (two major histocompatibility complex-congenic Leghorn lines G-B1 and G-B2 and one Fayoumi line) was studied. The F1 generation was evaluated as young chicks for either bacterial load in spleen and cecum after pathogenic SE inoculation, or antibody level after SE vaccination ...


Phylogeographic Analysis Of The Threatened And Endangered Superconglutinate-Producing Mussels Of The Genus Lampsilis (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Kevin J. Roe, Charles Lydeard, Paul D. Hartfield Jan 2001

Phylogeographic Analysis Of The Threatened And Endangered Superconglutinate-Producing Mussels Of The Genus Lampsilis (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Kevin J. Roe, Charles Lydeard, Paul D. Hartfield

Kevin J. Roe

Several species of freshwater unionid mussels in the genus Lampsilis exhibit a remarkable reproductive strategy. Female mussels of these species enclose their larvae in a minnow-like lure, called a ‘superconglutinate’, to attract piscivorous fishes. When a fish attempts to ingest the superconglutinate the lure ruptures and the larvae are released to parasitize the fish. Of the four species of mussel which exhibit this strategy and are endemic to the Gulf Coast drainages of the southeastern United States, three are protected under the Endangered Species Act, and one is recognized as imperilled. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 16S ...