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Invasive species

Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

An Evaluation Of The Registration And Use Prospects For Four Candidate Toxicants For Controlling Invasive Mongooses (Herpestes Javanicus Auropunctatus), Emily W. Ruell, Chris N. Niebuhr, Robert T. Sugihara, Shane R. Siers Jul 2019

An Evaluation Of The Registration And Use Prospects For Four Candidate Toxicants For Controlling Invasive Mongooses (Herpestes Javanicus Auropunctatus), Emily W. Ruell, Chris N. Niebuhr, Robert T. Sugihara, Shane R. Siers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The eradication or control of invasive small Indian mongooses from islands likely requires toxic baiting when removal by trapping proves insufficient. The one toxic bait currently registered for mongooses in the United States has relatively low palatability and efficacy for mongooses. Developing and registering a new pesticide can be very expensive, while funding for developing toxicants for mongooses is limited. Once registered, use of a toxic bait may be hindered by other factors, such as public opposition to an inhumane toxicant, poorer efficacy than expected, or if the toxic bait is difficult for applicators to apply or store. Therefore, we ...


Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang Apr 2019

Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

The ability of invasive plant species to rapidly overtake native flora has become a growing problem in the Northeast US and elsewhere. A variety of mechanisms contribute to this ability, such as different strategies of resource allocation to fruit and flowers in native compared to invasive species. Life history theory suggests that fruit and flower size should be inversely related, since the plant has a finite number of resources. We hypothesize that there is a ratio of fruit to flower size that allow invasive species to quickly outcompete native species—a larger flower would allow for better pollination, but a ...


Mycorrhizal Colonization And Its Relationship With Plant Performance Differs Between Exotic And Native Grassland Plant Species, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, H. Wayne Polley, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Kirsten Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey Jan 2019

Mycorrhizal Colonization And Its Relationship With Plant Performance Differs Between Exotic And Native Grassland Plant Species, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, H. Wayne Polley, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Kirsten Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many grasslands have been transformed by exotic species with potentially novel ecological interactions. We hypothesized that exotic and native plant species differ, on average, in their percentage mycorrhizal colonization, and that mycorrhizal colonization is positively related to plant performance in the field. We compared colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi in perennial native and exotic species that were paired phylogenetically and by functional groups and grown under a common environment in field plots in Central Texas, USA. Roots were collected from plants in monoculture plots, stained, and percent colonization was assessed with a microscope. Aboveground biomass and dominance in mixture ...


Effects Of The Invasive Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus Sanguineus, On New England Trophic Cascade: Diet And Predation, Madison Bradley Jan 2019

Effects Of The Invasive Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus Sanguineus, On New England Trophic Cascade: Diet And Predation, Madison Bradley

Writing Across the Curriculum

Trophic cascades occur when the community structure is influenced by indirect effects of predation on the lower trophic levels. The trophic cascade can be disrupted when an invasive species is introduced. The Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus has invaded ecosystems in New England and we predict this invasion will negatively affect the classic New England trophic cascade. By the predation indirectly affecting lower trophic levels, H. sanguineus can influence the community structure and diversity at the lower levels. To understand the trophic cascade, we manipulated the food source and competitors in four different mini-ecosystems. By introducing H. sanguineus into an ...


Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. Mcalister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers Jan 2019

Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. Mcalister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine are among the world's most destructive invasive species wherever they are found, with translocations figuring prominently in their range expansions. In contrast, sea turtles are beloved species that are listed as threatened or endangered throughout the world and are the focus of intense conservation efforts. Nest predation by feral swine severely harms sea turtle reproduction in many locations around the world. Here we quantify and economically assess feral swine nest predation at North Island, South Carolina, an important loggerhead sea turtle nesting beach. Feral swine depredation of North Island sea turtle nests was first detected in 2005 ...


Predation And Disease-Related Economic Impacts Of Wild Pigs On Livestock Producers In 13 States, Aaron M. Anderson, Chris Slootmaker, Erin Harper, Ryan S. Miller, Stephanie A. Shwiff Jan 2019

Predation And Disease-Related Economic Impacts Of Wild Pigs On Livestock Producers In 13 States, Aaron M. Anderson, Chris Slootmaker, Erin Harper, Ryan S. Miller, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We report the results of a survey on wild pigs (Sus scrofa) damage to livestock producers in 13 US states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas). The survey was distributed by the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service in the summer of 2017 to a sample of livestock producers in the 13-state region. Findings indicate that predation and disease-related damage can be substantial in certain states and for certain types of livestock. In particular, damage to cattle operations in Texas and Arkansas was substantially higher than damage in other states and types ...


Population Modeling For The Reintroduction Of Mexican Gray Wolves As Predators To Decrease The Feral Hog Population In The Southern United States., John H. Kauphusman Iii Jul 2018

Population Modeling For The Reintroduction Of Mexican Gray Wolves As Predators To Decrease The Feral Hog Population In The Southern United States., John H. Kauphusman Iii

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Invasive species are a problem in the United States. As their populations continue to increase in size they disrupt ecological systems. One of the most notorious invasive species is the feral hog. In Texas, the hog populations cause ecological and agricultural damage that costs the state $52 million annually. The reason for the large continuously growing population is that the feral hogs, unlike its relatives in Europe, have no natural predators and hunters cannot suppress the population growth. In Europe, the gray wolf is a predator to the European wild boar. However, wolves in the U.S. have been extirpated ...


Priority Effects Are Affected By Precipitation Variability And Are Stronger In Exotic Than Native Grassland Species, Kaitlin M. Goodale, Brian J. Wilsey Apr 2018

Priority Effects Are Affected By Precipitation Variability And Are Stronger In Exotic Than Native Grassland Species, Kaitlin M. Goodale, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Exotic perennial grassland species often green up earlier than their native counterparts, allowing them to gain an advantage by dominating resources early (priority effects). Precipitation variability is expected to increase with climate change, and may alter the strength of priority effects. We hypothesized that exotics will have stronger priority effects than natives, precipitation variability will impact the strength of priority effects, and precipitation variability will impact the priority effects of native species more than those of exotics. We seeded one of five native or five exotic grassland species from the Central U.S. spanning multiple functional groups 28 days prior ...


Food Habits Of Imperiled Plains Topminnow And Diet Overlap With Invasive Western Mosquitofish In The Central Great Plains, Joseph Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Julie J. Shaffer Mar 2018

Food Habits Of Imperiled Plains Topminnow And Diet Overlap With Invasive Western Mosquitofish In The Central Great Plains, Joseph Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Julie J. Shaffer

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Plains Topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus) populations have experienced large declines throughout the Central Great Plains, with Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) introductions suggested as a contributing factor. There are limited studies identifying the food habits of Plains Topminnow and the trophic interactions with Western Mosquitofish. This study sought to determine if a diet overlap exists between the Plains Topminnow and the introduced Western Mosquitofish by identifying the feeding habits of both species. We analyzed diets from lentic and lotic populations of Plains Topminnow captured in August and found lentic topminnows employed a generalist diet while lotic topminnow selected for gastropods. Additionally, Western ...


Phenology Differences Between Native And Novel Exotic‐Dominated Grasslands Rival The Effects Of Climate Change, Brian J. Wilsey, Leanne M. Martin, Andrew D. Kaul Mar 2018

Phenology Differences Between Native And Novel Exotic‐Dominated Grasslands Rival The Effects Of Climate Change, Brian J. Wilsey, Leanne M. Martin, Andrew D. Kaul

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

1. Novel ecosystems can differ from the native systems they replaced. We used phenology measures to compare ecosystem functioning between novel exotic-dominated and native-dominated grasslands in the central U.S.

2. Phenology, or timing of biological events, is affected by climate and land use changes. We assessed how phenology shifts are being altered by exotic species dominance by comparing remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index within growing seasons at exotic- and native-dominated sites along a latitudinal gradient. Exotic species were dominated by the C3 species functional group in the north and the C4 species functional group in the south.

3 ...


European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz Sep 2017

European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, Figure 1) are an invasive species in the United States. The first recorded release of the birds was in 1890 in New York City’s Central Park. Because starlings easily adapt to a variety of habitats, nest sites and food sources, the birds spread quickly across the country. Today, there are about 150 million starlings in North America. Conflicts between people and starlings occur mostly in agricultural settings. Conflicts can occur during winter in urban and suburban environments, especially in business districts.

Starlings damage apples, blueberries, cherries, figs, grapes, peaches, and strawberries. Besides causing direct losses ...


A Spiny Water Flea Invasion And Effects On The Zooplankton Community In Southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Casey Ann Merkle May 2017

A Spiny Water Flea Invasion And Effects On The Zooplankton Community In Southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Casey Ann Merkle

Lawrence University Honors Projects

The spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus) is an invertebrate aquatic invasive species (AIS) in the Great Lakes that competes with native fish species for zooplankton, perhaps contributing to a decline of fish populations or changes in zooplankton communities in Lake Michigan. Bythotrephes produce two types of eggs, immediately hatching versus resting eggs which are tolerant to harsh conditions and allow for rapid dispersal. We determined Bythotrephes population density and population dynamics in Green Bay during the summer months of 2015 and 2016. Population dynamics were similar at both sites in Green Bay in each year, with peak population abundances in ...


Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham May 2017

Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species are a global problem and their effects on recipient ecosystems may be mediated by disturbance and intraspecific variation. Crayfish can substantially influence stream structure and function, and invasive crayfish often have differential impacts than native crayfish in aquatic ecosystems. Since species traits often vary across a distribution, it is possible that invasive crayfish from different source populations may have distinct impacts on recipient ecosystem structure and function. In the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri, USA, invasive O. neglectus (the Ringed Crayfish) may be leading to the displacement of native O. eupunctus (the Coldwater Crayfish). The objective of ...


Influence Of Stream Permanence, Predation, And Invasive Species On Crayfish In The Ozark Highlands With An Emphasis On Species Of Greatest Conservation Need (Orconectes Marchandi, Orconectes Eupunctus And Cambarus Hubbsi), Allyson Noelle Yarra May 2017

Influence Of Stream Permanence, Predation, And Invasive Species On Crayfish In The Ozark Highlands With An Emphasis On Species Of Greatest Conservation Need (Orconectes Marchandi, Orconectes Eupunctus And Cambarus Hubbsi), Allyson Noelle Yarra

Theses and Dissertations

Due to the ecological importance of crayfish and the increasing vulnerability of freshwater systems due to habitat loss, invasive species, and hydrologic alteration, understanding crayfish-environment relationships is crucial in the context of aquatic species conservation. I sought to examine the influence of hydrologic variation among intermittent and permanent streams on crayfish occupancy, abundance, predation risk, and potential vulnerability to invasive species effects. I conducted crayfish and environmental data sampling during two consecutive summers across 20 Ozark streams of differing permanence levels (10 intermittent, 10 permanent). In these same streams, I conducted fish and scat surveys over the course of four ...


Mechanical Harvesting Effectively Controls Young Typha Spp. Invasion And Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data Enhances Post-Treatment Monitoring, Shane Lishawa, Brendan D. Carson, Jodi S. Brandt, Jason M. Tallant, Nicholas J. Reo, Dennis A. Albert, Andrew M. Monks, Joseph M. Lautenbach Apr 2017

Mechanical Harvesting Effectively Controls Young Typha Spp. Invasion And Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data Enhances Post-Treatment Monitoring, Shane Lishawa, Brendan D. Carson, Jodi S. Brandt, Jason M. Tallant, Nicholas J. Reo, Dennis A. Albert, Andrew M. Monks, Joseph M. Lautenbach

Institute of Environmental Sustainability: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The ecological impacts of invasive plants increase dramatically with time since invasion. Targeting young populations for treatment is therefore an economically and ecologically effective management approach, especially when linked to post-treatment monitoring to evaluate the efficacy of management. However, collecting detailed field-based post-treatment data is prohibitively expensive, typically resulting in inadequate documentation of the ecological effects of invasive plant management. Alternative approaches, such as remote detection with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), provide an opportunity to advance the science and practice of restoration ecology. In this study, we sought to determine the plant community response to different mechanical removal treatments to ...


Invasive Species In An Urban Flora: History And Current Status In Indianapolis, Indiana, Rebecca W. Dolan Dec 2016

Invasive Species In An Urban Flora: History And Current Status In Indianapolis, Indiana, Rebecca W. Dolan

Rebecca W. Dolan

Invasive plant species are widely appreciated to cause significant ecologic and economic damage in agricultural fields and in natural areas. The presence and impact of invasives in cities is less well documented. This paper characterizes invasive plants in Indianapolis, Indiana. Based on historical records and contemporary accounts, 69 of the 120 species on the official Indiana state list are reported for the city. Most of these plants are native to Asia or Eurasia, with escape from cultivation as the most common mode of introduction. Most have been in the flora of Indianapolis for some time. Eighty percent of Indianapolis’ invasive ...


The Influence Of The Invasive Chinese Tallow (Triadica Sebifera) Leaf Litter On Aquatic Chemistry And Microbial Community Composition, Raymond D. Montez Dec 2016

The Influence Of The Invasive Chinese Tallow (Triadica Sebifera) Leaf Litter On Aquatic Chemistry And Microbial Community Composition, Raymond D. Montez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global climate change and anthropogenic activity have facilitated the movement and invasive potential of nonnative plants in native environments. These invasions can have negative effects on ecosystem diversity and function. The nonnative and invasive plant, Chinese Tallow (Triadica sebifera), has already invaded much of the south eastern US where it is outcompeting native tree species and changing ecosystem diversity in a variety of habitats. Leaf litter from the Chinese tallow has been shown cause changes in dissolved oxygen and pH in the aquatic environment. Turbidity is also affected when Chinese tallow litter is present in water. A series of experiments ...


Salvinia Molesta: An Assessment Of The Effects And Methods Of Eradication, Arti Lal Dec 2016

Salvinia Molesta: An Assessment Of The Effects And Methods Of Eradication, Arti Lal

Master's Projects and Capstones

Salvinia molesta is an invasive aquatic fern. It is now the second worse aquatic invader in the world. Since the 1930s, it has invaded most tropical and some temperate countries. S. molesta plants grow vegetatively and can increase in size rapidly. S. molesta can form thick mats of up to 1-meter-thick. There are a number of ways these thick mats negatively affect the environment: 1) reduce light to benthic organisms, 2) reduce oxygen in the water column for other organisms, 3) accumulate as organic matter at the bottom of the water column, 4) decrease nutrients for other organisms, and 5 ...


Monk Parakeets, Michael L. Avery, James R. Lindsay Nov 2016

Monk Parakeets, Michael L. Avery, James R. Lindsay

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Since their introduction to the United States in the 1960s, monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) have thrived (Figure 1). Until recently, annual Christmas Bird Count data have shown the population to be increasing exponentially. In the U.S., monk parakeets are an urban and suburban species with few natural predators, diseases or other factors limiting their population growth. They exploit backyard bird feeders and non-native ornamental plants for food. Monk parakeets often construct nests on man-made structures, such as electric utility facilities and cell phone towers. Because the birds build and maintain nests throughout the year, management of parakeet populations has ...


Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava Aug 2016

Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava

Biology Theses

Invasive species threaten global biodiversity via mechanisms that include altering the dynamics and structure of native food webs. Whereas much research has focused on how exotic species respond to native predators, less is known about how native predators are affected by invasive prey. Here I investigate the response of a rare and threatened native predator—the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) to a high-profile invasive crayfish species, Orconectes rusticus. Hellbenders have declined throughout much of their range, and although the potential for exotic predators (i.e. sport fish) to negatively impact C. alleganiensis has been addressed, effects of exotic prey on ...


Woody Plant Communities Of Three Urban Wetlands And The Success Of An Invasive Shrub (Lonicera Maackii) Over Natural And Experimental Flooding Gradients., Meghan Rhea Langley May 2016

Woody Plant Communities Of Three Urban Wetlands And The Success Of An Invasive Shrub (Lonicera Maackii) Over Natural And Experimental Flooding Gradients., Meghan Rhea Langley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Globally, wetlands are known for providing important ecosystem services that enhance the quality of human life and regulating global biogeochemical cycles. Despite the wide recognition of their value, temperate forested wetlands are the least protected type of ecosystem world-wide, and are threatened by human activities such as logging and development. The ecology of forested wetlands remaining in urbanized areas is impacted by a multitude of anthropogenic threats, including fragmentation (which decreases the amount of interior habitat and increases edge habitat), hydrologic modification (ditching and draining of wetlands) and the incursion of invasive species (which are frequently introduced by human activities ...


Emergence Phenology And Nematode Associates Of The Woodwasp, S