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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang Apr 2019

Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

The ability of invasive plant species to rapidly overtake native flora has become a growing problem in the Northeast US and elsewhere. A variety of mechanisms contribute to this ability, such as different strategies of resource allocation to fruit and flowers in native compared to invasive species. Life history theory suggests that fruit and flower size should be inversely related, since the plant has a finite number of resources. We hypothesize that there is a ratio of fruit to flower size that allow invasive species to quickly outcompete native species—a larger flower would allow for better pollination, but a ...


Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter Aug 2018

Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter

Entomology Faculty Publications

The eastern North American migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) is in serious decline. Habitat restoration, including adding millions of host plants to compensate for loss of milkweed in US cropland, is a key part of the international conservation strategy to return this iconic butterfly to sustainable status. We report here that Popillia japonica, a polyphagous, invasive beetle, aggregates and feeds on flowers of Asclepias syriaca, the monarch’s most important larval food plant, reducing fruiting and seed set by >90% and extensively damaging milkweed umbels in the field. The beetle’s ongoing incursion into the monarch’s key ...


Comparative Study Of Photosynthesis Rates Between Native Red Maple And Invasive Norway Maple In The Eastern Deciduous Forest, Evan M. Bourtis, Lindsey R. Heckman Apr 2018

Comparative Study Of Photosynthesis Rates Between Native Red Maple And Invasive Norway Maple In The Eastern Deciduous Forest, Evan M. Bourtis, Lindsey R. Heckman

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Invasive species, such as the Norway Maple, are often able to outcompete native species, such as the Red Maple by performing more efficiently in the environment compared to the native species. In this study, we examined if the Norway maple was able to outcompete the Red Maple in the Eastern Deciduous Forest because the Norway Maple had a higher rate of photosynthesis. The study found that the Norway Maple leaves had a slightly higher rate of carbon dioxide consumption than Red Maple leaves and that the Red Maple leaves had a higher rate of oxygen production compared to the Norway ...


Salvinia Molesta: An Assessment Of The Effects And Methods Of Eradication, Arti Lal Dec 2016

Salvinia Molesta: An Assessment Of The Effects And Methods Of Eradication, Arti Lal

Master's Projects and Capstones

Salvinia molesta is an invasive aquatic fern. It is now the second worse aquatic invader in the world. Since the 1930s, it has invaded most tropical and some temperate countries. S. molesta plants grow vegetatively and can increase in size rapidly. S. molesta can form thick mats of up to 1-meter-thick. There are a number of ways these thick mats negatively affect the environment: 1) reduce light to benthic organisms, 2) reduce oxygen in the water column for other organisms, 3) accumulate as organic matter at the bottom of the water column, 4) decrease nutrients for other organisms, and 5 ...


Plant Community Responses To Invasive Shrub And Vine Removal In An Urban Park Woodland., Eric Richard Moore Dec 2015

Plant Community Responses To Invasive Shrub And Vine Removal In An Urban Park Woodland., Eric Richard Moore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Counter to what some people think, urban areas can be biodiversity hotspots. Maintaining this biodiversity can be challenging, since exotic shrubs and vines block sunlight and threaten native plant regeneration. Since 2007, the Louisville Olmsted Parks Conservancy (LOPC) has spent $2 million on invasive plant management in Cherokee Park. Before the project began, long-term transects were established by the LOPC to collect baseline presence/absence data on 11 invasive plant species. In 2014, I revisited these transects and documented presence/absence data on the entire plant community. I found that four species (garlic mustard, winter creeper, Japanese honeysuckle, and English ...


Alliaria Petiolata (M.Bieb.) Cavara & Grande [Brassicaceae], An Invasive Herb In The Southern Ozark Plateaus: A Comparison Of Species Composition And Richness, Soil Properties, And Earthworm Composition And Biomass In Invaded Versus Non-Invaded Sites, Jennifer D. Ogle Jul 2015

Alliaria Petiolata (M.Bieb.) Cavara & Grande [Brassicaceae], An Invasive Herb In The Southern Ozark Plateaus: A Comparison Of Species Composition And Richness, Soil Properties, And Earthworm Composition And Biomass In Invaded Versus Non-Invaded Sites, Jennifer D. Ogle

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species are widely recognized as organisms that severely alter ecosystem processes in the habitats to which they are introduced. Alliaria petiolata is one of the most important invasive plants in forests of the northern United States. This study examined the geographic distribution of the plant in the southern Ozarks, as well as the effect that it may be having on natural processes within forests of the region by comparing plant species richness, plant cover, and soil properties in invaded and non-invaded plots. It was found that A. petiolata is not significantly altering species richness, cover, or soil properties in ...


A Microhabitat Assessment Of Five Species Of Invasive Plants In The Ozarks And Appalachians, Eric Hearth May 2015

A Microhabitat Assessment Of Five Species Of Invasive Plants In The Ozarks And Appalachians, Eric Hearth

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species present a threat to native communities and their introduction and expansion can alter community structure and dynamics. Multiple approaches can be employed for invasive species management including prevention and detection. In this study, microhabitat assessments were conducted on colonies of five species of invasive plants, Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don, Lonicera japonica Thunb., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus, and Rosa multiflora Thunb. in the Ozark Plateau and Appalachians. Elevation, soil moisture, soil pH, light ratio, slope, aspect, distance to disturbance, as well as soil nutrient levels were recorded for each colony ...


Biology, Ecology, And Control Of Doveweed (Murdannia Nudiflora [L.] Brenan), Jeffrey Atkinson Aug 2014

Biology, Ecology, And Control Of Doveweed (Murdannia Nudiflora [L.] Brenan), Jeffrey Atkinson

All Dissertations

Doveweed (Murdannia nudiflora [L.] Brenan) is a summer annual in the Southeastern United States with an expanding geographic range. The light green color and texture of doveweed is problematic for turfgrass managers as it contrasts with the color and texture of desirable turfgrasses. Limited research is available concerning the biology, ecology, and herbicide control options for doveweed. Therefore, experiments were conducted to improve the understanding of how environmental conditions effect doveweed germination, how cultural practices and environmental resource availability effect doveweed growth and development, to identify pre- and postemergence herbicides with efficacy for doveweed control, and to improve the understanding ...


Differential Allocation To Photosynthetic And Non-Photosynthetic Nitrogen Fractions Among Native And Invasive Species, Jennifer L. Funk, Lori A. Glenwinkle, Lawren Sack Jan 2013

Differential Allocation To Photosynthetic And Non-Photosynthetic Nitrogen Fractions Among Native And Invasive Species, Jennifer L. Funk, Lori A. Glenwinkle, Lawren Sack

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Invasive species are expected to cluster on the “high-return” end of the leaf economic spectrum, displaying leaf traits consistent with higher carbon assimilation relative to native species. Intra-leaf nitrogen (N) allocation should support these physiological differences; however, N biochemistry has not been examined in more than a few invasive species. We measured 34 leaf traits including seven leaf N pools for five native and five invasive species from Hawaii under low irradiance to mimic the forest understory environment. We found several trait differences between native and invasive species. In particular, invasive species showed preferential N allocation to metabolism (amino acids ...


Challenges In Predicting The Future Distributions Of Invasive Plant Species, Chad C. Jones Nov 2012

Challenges In Predicting The Future Distributions Of Invasive Plant Species, Chad C. Jones

Botany Faculty Publications

Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to predict distributions of invasive species. If successful, these models can help managers target limited resources for monitoring and controlling invasive species to areas of high invasion risk. Model accuracy is usually determined using current species distributions, but because invasive species are not at equilibrium with the environment, high current accuracy may not indicate high future accuracy. I used 1982 species distribution data from Bolleswood Natural Area, Connecticut, USA, to create SDMs for two forest invaders, Celastrus orbiculatus and Rosa multiflora. I then used more recent data, from 1992 and 2002, as validation ...


Photosynthetic Advantage Of Invasive Species, Gabby Gurule-Small, Alis Sokolova, Patrick Stephens Oct 2012

Photosynthetic Advantage Of Invasive Species, Gabby Gurule-Small, Alis Sokolova, Patrick Stephens

Featured Research

Californians have greatly benefited from the introduction of plant and animal species necessary for food or other human pursuits; however, there are many other introduced species that can wreak havoc on the state’s environment and economy. Invasive species threaten the diversity and abundance of native species by both competing for resources and causing changes to the natural habitat. We hypothesize that invasive species will have higher photosynthetic and conductance rates which contribute to their success. Through their impacts on natural ecosystems, agricultural lands, and water delivery systems, invasive species may also negatively affect human health and possibly even the ...


Macrophyte Communities Of Lake Winnebago: Baseline Study Of Species Composition With Abundances And Water Quality Conditions, Mackenzie Kessenich May 2012

Macrophyte Communities Of Lake Winnebago: Baseline Study Of Species Composition With Abundances And Water Quality Conditions, Mackenzie Kessenich

Lawrence University Honors Projects

Historical records from Lake Winnebago show minimal macrophyte growth; however, reports from recent years claim that macrophyte growth in some areas of the lake has reached nuisance levels. This study aimed to investigate the species of macrophytes present and their abundances in four near-shore locations, as well as measurements of multiple water quality conditions. Rake sampling was used to identify species and quantify their abundances and distributions. In addition, data were collected on light penetration, Secchi depths, and suspended algae chlorophyll concentrations at each site. These data from shallow near-shore sites reveal trends in changing water clarity and light penetration ...


Heterogeneous Stress Response In A Clonal Invader (Imperata Cylindrica): Implications For Management, Sarah Grace Sanford Jan 2011

Heterogeneous Stress Response In A Clonal Invader (Imperata Cylindrica): Implications For Management, Sarah Grace Sanford

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Life history traits such as growth, survival, and clonality can vary within a population. When such variation exists in a population of an invasive species, it can affect population dynamics, and if any part of the variation has a genetic basis the population can evolve in response to control regimes. Evolutionary responses to control efforts may shift the population towards a few more resilient genotypes, or towards different types in different microenvironments, depending on the scale of gene flow with respect to the patchiness of the environment. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the application of stress ...


Current And Potential Distributions Of Three Non-Native Invasive Plants In The Contiguous Usa, Chad C. Jones, Sarah Reichard Jan 2009

Current And Potential Distributions Of Three Non-Native Invasive Plants In The Contiguous Usa, Chad C. Jones, Sarah Reichard

Botany Faculty Publications

Biological invasions pose a serious threat to biodiversity, but monitoring for invasive species is time consuming and costly. Understanding where species have the potential to invade enables land managers to focus monitoring efforts. In this paper, we compared two simple types of models to predict the potential distributions of three non-native invasive plants (Geranium robertianum, Hedera spp., and Ilex aquifolium) in the contiguous USA. We developed models based on the climatic requirements of the species as reported in the literature (literature-based) and simple climate envelope models based on the climate where the species already occur (observation-based). We then compared the ...


Competitive Abilities Of Native Grasses And Non-Native (Bothriochloa Spp.) Grasses, Cheryl D. Schmidt, Rob Channell, Karen R. Hickman, Keith Harmoney, William Stark Jan 2008

Competitive Abilities Of Native Grasses And Non-Native (Bothriochloa Spp.) Grasses, Cheryl D. Schmidt, Rob Channell, Karen R. Hickman, Keith Harmoney, William Stark

Biology Faculty Publications

Old World Bluestems (OWB), introduced from Europe and Asia in the 1920s, recently have begun to raise concerns in the Great Plains. Despite suggestion in the late 1950s that OWB were weedy and negatively impacted biological diversity, they were widely introduced throughout the Great Plains for agricultural purposes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that OWB exhibit invasive characteristics that promote competitive exclusion of native species. The objective of our study was to quantify the competitive abilities of two OWB species (Caucasian bluestem; Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S. T. Blake (= Bothriochloa caucasica (Trin.) C. E. Hubb.) and yellow bluestem; Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng) with ...


Bowen Ratio Estimates Of Evapotranspiration For Stands On The Virgin River In Southern Nevada, Dale A. Devitt, A. Sala, S. D. Smith, J. Cleverly, L. K. Shaulis, R. Hammett Jan 1998

Bowen Ratio Estimates Of Evapotranspiration For Stands On The Virgin River In Southern Nevada, Dale A. Devitt, A. Sala, S. D. Smith, J. Cleverly, L. K. Shaulis, R. Hammett

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

A Bowen ratio energy balance was conducted over a Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) stand growing in a riparian corridor along the Virgin River in southern Nevada. Measurements in two separate years were compared and contrasted on the basis of changes in growing conditions. In 1994, a drought year, record high temperatures, dry winds, and a falling water table caused partial wilt of outer smaller twigs in the canopy of many trees in the stand around the Bowen tower. Subsequently, evapotranspiration (ET) estimates declined dramatically over a 60‐day period (11 mm d−1 tod−1). In 1995, the Virgin River at ...


Evapotranspiration From A Saltcedar-Dominated Desert Floodplain: A Scaling Approach, S. D. Smith, A. M. Sala, Dale A. Devitt Jan 1996

Evapotranspiration From A Saltcedar-Dominated Desert Floodplain: A Scaling Approach, S. D. Smith, A. M. Sala, Dale A. Devitt

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study was to investigate evapotranspiration (ET) from a variety of scales (leaf to landscape) in saltcedar-dominated floodplain vegetation along the lower Virgin River of southern Nevada. Leaf-level gas exchange indicated that saltcedar exhibits similar stomatal conductance as the sympatric phreatophytes arrowweed, mesquite, and willow. However, sap flow in saltcedar was higher per unit sapwood area than the other species, suggesting that it maintains higher leaf area per unit sapwood area. At the stand level, saltcedar ET was found to exceed potential ET early in the summer when soils were moist and the water table was near ...