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Articles 1 - 30 of 390

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth Oct 2019

A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth

Amy Toth

Eusociality, a form of animal social organization involving sterile and reproductive castes, is a rare, but highly ecologically successful form of life. There are striking examples of eusocial species with populations that are ecologically dominant in their native ranges, as well as remarkably successful globally as invasive species; prominent examples include fire ants and yellowjacket wasps. At the same time, there have been startling population declines in other social insects, notably bumble bees. Here, we explore the possible role of phenotypic plasticity in invasion biology and declines of social insect species. This topic is of particular interest, because social insects ...


A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth Oct 2019

A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality, a form of animal social organization involving sterile and reproductive castes, is a rare, but highly ecologically successful form of life. There are striking examples of eusocial species with populations that are ecologically dominant in their native ranges, as well as remarkably successful globally as invasive species; prominent examples include fire ants and yellowjacket wasps. At the same time, there have been startling population declines in other social insects, notably bumble bees. Here, we explore the possible role of phenotypic plasticity in invasion biology and declines of social insect species. This topic is of particular interest, because social insects ...


First Records Of The Adventive Pseudoanthidium Nanum (Mocsáry) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) In Illinois And Minnesota, With Notes On Its Identification And Taxonomy, Zachary M. Portman, Skyler J. Burrows, Terry Griswold, Mike Arduser, Aaron J. Irber, Rebecca K. Tonietto, Daniel P. Cariveau Sep 2019

First Records Of The Adventive Pseudoanthidium Nanum (Mocsáry) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) In Illinois And Minnesota, With Notes On Its Identification And Taxonomy, Zachary M. Portman, Skyler J. Burrows, Terry Griswold, Mike Arduser, Aaron J. Irber, Rebecca K. Tonietto, Daniel P. Cariveau

The Great Lakes Entomologist

We report the first records of Pseudoanthidium nanum (Mocsáry) in Illinois and Minnesota in 2016 and 2018, respectively. This represents a relatively rapid expansion since P. nanum was first detected in New Jersey in 2008. In order to help monitor the spread of this bee, we provide information on how to identify P. nanum and provide images of the general habitus, diagnostic features, and male genitalia. Finally, we confirm the taxonomic identity of P. nanum in the United States and highlight potential impacts on native anthidiines.


An Evaluation Of The Registration And Use Prospects For Four Candidate Toxicants For Controlling Invasive Mongooses (Herpestes Javanicus Auropunctatus), Emily W. Ruell, Chris N. Niebuhr, Robert T. Sugihara, Shane R. Siers Jul 2019

An Evaluation Of The Registration And Use Prospects For Four Candidate Toxicants For Controlling Invasive Mongooses (Herpestes Javanicus Auropunctatus), Emily W. Ruell, Chris N. Niebuhr, Robert T. Sugihara, Shane R. Siers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The eradication or control of invasive small Indian mongooses from islands likely requires toxic baiting when removal by trapping proves insufficient. The one toxic bait currently registered for mongooses in the United States has relatively low palatability and efficacy for mongooses. Developing and registering a new pesticide can be very expensive, while funding for developing toxicants for mongooses is limited. Once registered, use of a toxic bait may be hindered by other factors, such as public opposition to an inhumane toxicant, poorer efficacy than expected, or if the toxic bait is difficult for applicators to apply or store. Therefore, we ...


Effects Of Amur Honeysuckle On Soil Co2 Emissions, Aidan Shumaker Apr 2019

Effects Of Amur Honeysuckle On Soil Co2 Emissions, Aidan Shumaker

Student Symposium

Lonicera maackii is an invasive woody species found in Ohio and throughout the deciduous forests of eastern United States, taking over habitats of native shrub species such as Lindera benzoin. L. maackii has unique traits compared to deciduous forest natives, showing earlier leaf-out and later leaf senescence, higher leaf nitrogen levels, and faster leaf decomposition. As a result, L. maackii may alter soil conditions through its extended root activity and impacts on microbial decomposition, possibly impacting soil CO2 emissions. As soil microorganisms metabolize organic matter, they release greenhouse gases like CO2 through respiration, which can impact global climate change. Previous ...


Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang Apr 2019

Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

The ability of invasive plant species to rapidly overtake native flora has become a growing problem in the Northeast US and elsewhere. A variety of mechanisms contribute to this ability, such as different strategies of resource allocation to fruit and flowers in native compared to invasive species. Life history theory suggests that fruit and flower size should be inversely related, since the plant has a finite number of resources. We hypothesize that there is a ratio of fruit to flower size that allow invasive species to quickly outcompete native species—a larger flower would allow for better pollination, but a ...


Successfulness Of Live Capture Eradication Efforts Of The Golden Eagle On The Channel, Rana Haboush Apr 2019

Successfulness Of Live Capture Eradication Efforts Of The Golden Eagle On The Channel, Rana Haboush

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

Study the eradication efforts of the Golden Eagle on the Channel Island Fox, and determine the successfulness of the eradication efforts implemented.


Density Of Hemigrapsus Sanguineus And Carcinus Maenas In Kettle Cove, Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Valerie Huston, Teresa Martel, Zimzim Mohamed Apr 2019

Density Of Hemigrapsus Sanguineus And Carcinus Maenas In Kettle Cove, Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Valerie Huston, Teresa Martel, Zimzim Mohamed

Thinking Matters Symposium

Our focus for this project is to determine how the population densities of Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Asian shore crab and Carcinus maenas, European green crabs have shifted over a brief period of time. We are comparing data collected on September 17, 2018, to data collected on October 22, 2018. The location where the two sets of data were collected from is Kettle Cove, Cape Elizabeth, Maine. The GPS coordinance was 43°.33.55N70°.13.40N. We discuss what affects the influences of environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, high intertidal versus low intertidal, and percent ascophyllum cover affect have on the ...


Linking Tree Growth Rate, Damage Repair, And Susceptibility To A Genus-Specific Pest Infestation, Kayla Boyes, Kathryn G. Hietala-Henschell, Alexander P. Barton, Andrew J. Storer, Jordan M. Marshall Mar 2019

Linking Tree Growth Rate, Damage Repair, And Susceptibility To A Genus-Specific Pest Infestation, Kayla Boyes, Kathryn G. Hietala-Henschell, Alexander P. Barton, Andrew J. Storer, Jordan M. Marshall

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Pest preference and subsequent susceptibility of a host individual is likely related to previous growth patterns in that host. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a pestiferous beetle introduced to North America from Asia. While all species of ash are susceptible to attack, some individual trees appear to survive infestation. We selected ash trees in southeastern Michigan, collected cores and categorized trees as high tolerance to emerald ash borer attack (high overall health, low crown dieback), low tolerance (low overall health, high crown dieback) and intermediate tolerance (in-between the other categories). We artificially wounded trees and measured wound closure ...


Assessing Public Support For Restrictions On Transport Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Meredith J. Grady, Erin E. Harper, Keith M. Carlisle, Karina H. Ernst, Stephanie A. Shwiff Feb 2019

Assessing Public Support For Restrictions On Transport Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Meredith J. Grady, Erin E. Harper, Keith M. Carlisle, Karina H. Ernst, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a non-native invasive species in the United States that cause significant economic loss, transmit disease, and inflict damage upon natural resources, agriculture, livestock, and property. Geographic distribution of wild pigs in the United States has nearly tripled since 1982, with anthropogenic influences playing a significant role in the expansion. In this regard, there is speculation that a driver of the expansion may be human-mediated movement of wild pigs to new areas for the purpose of sport hunting. In response, states have implemented a variety of wild pig control policies, including legal restrictions on their transport ...


Invasion Genetics Of The Mummichog (Fundulus Heteroclitus): Recent Anthropogenic Introduction In Iberia, Teofilo Morim, Grant R. Bigg, Pedro M. Madeira, Jorge Palma, David D. Duvernell, Enric Gisbert, Regina L. Cunha, Rita Castilho Feb 2019

Invasion Genetics Of The Mummichog (Fundulus Heteroclitus): Recent Anthropogenic Introduction In Iberia, Teofilo Morim, Grant R. Bigg, Pedro M. Madeira, Jorge Palma, David D. Duvernell, Enric Gisbert, Regina L. Cunha, Rita Castilho

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

Human activities such as trade and transport have increased considerably in the last decades, greatly facilitating the introduction and spread of non-native species at a global level. In the Iberian Peninsula, Fundulus heteroclitus, a small euryhaline coastal fish with short dispersal, was found for the first time in the mid-1970s. Since then, F. heteroclitus has undergone range expansions, colonizing the southern region of Portugal, southwestern coast of Spain and the Ebro Delta in the Mediterranean Sea. Cytochrome b sequences were used to elucidate the species invasion pathway in Iberia. Three Iberian locations (Faro, Cádiz and Ebro Delta) and 13 other ...


2010 - California Agricultural Vision - Strategies For Sustainability Jan 2019

2010 - California Agricultural Vision - Strategies For Sustainability

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

California is a major contributor to the global food supply and to the national security of the United States. To keep pace with growing demand for food, as the world’s population continues to expand, California agriculture must remain profitable and competitive in a global market by efficiently using resources and controlling production costs. California faces unprecedented challenges to its sustainability in the form of pressures on its profitability and productivity related to water, regulations, labor, invasive species, urbanization and many other factors.


Using A Case Study Approach To Teach Invasive Species And Climate Change, Amanda Hoover, Bradley Blaha, Jacob Englin, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matt L. Miller, P. Troy White Jan 2019

Using A Case Study Approach To Teach Invasive Species And Climate Change, Amanda Hoover, Bradley Blaha, Jacob Englin, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matt L. Miller, P. Troy White

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this teaching module, students will explore emerald ash borer (EAB), its impacts on the ash trees, and how warming temperatures could affect EAB populations. The emerald ash borer is a green buprestid or jewel beetle native to north-eastern Asia that causes devastating disease in ash trees.


Infestation Of Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonerica Japonica) Shows Variation In Soil Microbial Community Composition And Species Diversity In Wvu Core Arboretum, Jackie Mullins Jan 2019

Infestation Of Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonerica Japonica) Shows Variation In Soil Microbial Community Composition And Species Diversity In Wvu Core Arboretum, Jackie Mullins

Undergraduate Student Research

Invasive species are found to cause alteration of biodiversity, competition with native species, and other environment and ecological changes across the globe. Also, invasive species have economic implications. When specifically talking about invasive plant species, an important influence is soil microbes that can altered or are altered after growth of invasive plant species. One invasive plant, Lonerica japonica, is extensively spread across the globe but has had little research done, specifically in if it alters the microbes of the soil. Having L. japonica readily available in the West Virginia University Core Arboretum, soil samples were collected from sites of absent ...


The Palearctic Flea Beetle Epitrix Pubescens (Koch) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) Established In North America, Anthony M. Deczynski Jan 2019

The Palearctic Flea Beetle Epitrix Pubescens (Koch) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) Established In North America, Anthony M. Deczynski

Insecta Mundi

The Palearctic flea beetle Epitrix pubescens (Koch) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is reported as established in North America. It is recorded in the United States from Illinois, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin, and in Canada from the Provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec. The oldest records are from 1975. The species has been reported feeding on Solanum dulcamara L. (Solanaceae). Full distributional information and reference photos for identification are provided. Epitrix pubescens may have avoided detection for such a long time due to its size, difficulty of identification, and affinity for a weed rather than agricultural ...


European Starlings Fly Before They Fledge, Jeremiah L. Psiropoulos, Lisa A. Selner Jan 2019

European Starlings Fly Before They Fledge, Jeremiah L. Psiropoulos, Lisa A. Selner

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Aircraft bird strikes are increasing globally. Bird strikes constitute a major human health and safety risk and result in millions of dollars in economic impacts. Invasive avian species, such as the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris; starlings), have been implicated in bird strikes in North America. Because this species is highly adaptive and has been successful at establishing in new areas, such as airports, it is essential that managers better understand the potential risks and how to mitigate them. Herein we present a case study regarding a novel observation of unique starling nesting behavior that may pose a risk to airport ...


An Ecological Niche Model To Predict Range Expansion Of The Eastern Gray Squirrel In California, Carly M. Creley, Alan Muchlinski, Fraser Shilling Jan 2019

An Ecological Niche Model To Predict Range Expansion Of The Eastern Gray Squirrel In California, Carly M. Creley, Alan Muchlinski, Fraser Shilling

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

The eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis (EGS) has been introduced to California and has expanded its geographic range since initial introductions. In this study we projected the potential future geographic range of the EGS in California using Maxent to create an ecological niche model. Location data were obtained over the time period of 2004 - 2015 from museum specimens, wildlife rehabilitation centers, the California Department of Public Health, the California Roadkill Observation System, and non-iNaturalist citizen science observations. Research grade data from iNaturalist was obtained over the time period of 2004 - 2018. Range and habitat suitability maps were developed by mapping ...


Effects Of The Invasive Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus Sanguineus, On New England Trophic Cascade: Diet And Predation, Madison Bradley Jan 2019

Effects Of The Invasive Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus Sanguineus, On New England Trophic Cascade: Diet And Predation, Madison Bradley

Writing Across the Curriculum

Trophic cascades occur when the community structure is influenced by indirect effects of predation on the lower trophic levels. The trophic cascade can be disrupted when an invasive species is introduced. The Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus has invaded ecosystems in New England and we predict this invasion will negatively affect the classic New England trophic cascade. By the predation indirectly affecting lower trophic levels, H. sanguineus can influence the community structure and diversity at the lower levels. To understand the trophic cascade, we manipulated the food source and competitors in four different mini-ecosystems. By introducing H. sanguineus into an ...


Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. Mcalister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers Jan 2019

Feral Swine Harming Insular Sea Turtle Reproduction: The Origin, Impacts, Behavior And Elimination Of An Invasive Species, Richard M. Engeman, Robert W. Byrd, Jamie Dozier, Mark A. Mcalister, James O. Edens, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, Timothy J. Smyser, Noel Myers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine are among the world's most destructive invasive species wherever they are found, with translocations figuring prominently in their range expansions. In contrast, sea turtles are beloved species that are listed as threatened or endangered throughout the world and are the focus of intense conservation efforts. Nest predation by feral swine severely harms sea turtle reproduction in many locations around the world. Here we quantify and economically assess feral swine nest predation at North Island, South Carolina, an important loggerhead sea turtle nesting beach. Feral swine depredation of North Island sea turtle nests was first detected in 2005 ...


Accounting For Heterogeneous Invasion Rates Reveals Management Impacts On The Spatial Expansion Of An Invasive Species, Kim M. Pepin, David W. Wolfson, Ryan S. Miller, Michael A. Tabak, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Amy J. Davis Jan 2019

Accounting For Heterogeneous Invasion Rates Reveals Management Impacts On The Spatial Expansion Of An Invasive Species, Kim M. Pepin, David W. Wolfson, Ryan S. Miller, Michael A. Tabak, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Amy J. Davis

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Success of large-scale control programs for established invasive species is challenging to evaluate because of spatial variability in expansion rates, management techniques, and the strength of management intensity. For a well-established invasive species in the spreading phase of invasion, a useful metric of impact is the magnitude by which control slows the rate of spatial spread. The prevention of spatial spreading likely results in substantial benefits in terms of ecosystem or economic damage that is prevented by an expanding invasive species. To understand how local management actions could impact the spatial spread of an established invasive species, we analyzed distribution ...


Predation And Disease-Related Economic Impacts Of Wild Pigs On Livestock Producers In 13 States, Aaron M. Anderson, Chris Slootmaker, Erin Harper, Ryan S. Miller, Stephanie A. Shwiff Jan 2019

Predation And Disease-Related Economic Impacts Of Wild Pigs On Livestock Producers In 13 States, Aaron M. Anderson, Chris Slootmaker, Erin Harper, Ryan S. Miller, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We report the results of a survey on wild pigs (Sus scrofa) damage to livestock producers in 13 US states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas). The survey was distributed by the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service in the summer of 2017 to a sample of livestock producers in the 13-state region. Findings indicate that predation and disease-related damage can be substantial in certain states and for certain types of livestock. In particular, damage to cattle operations in Texas and Arkansas was substantially higher than damage in other states and types ...


Locating And Eliminating Feral Swine From A Large Area Of Fragmented Mixed Forest And Agriculture Habitats In North-Central Usa, Richard M. Engeman, Bradley E. Wilson, Scott F. Beckerman, Justin W. Fischer, Doug Dufford, James Bryan Cobban Jan 2019

Locating And Eliminating Feral Swine From A Large Area Of Fragmented Mixed Forest And Agriculture Habitats In North-Central Usa, Richard M. Engeman, Bradley E. Wilson, Scott F. Beckerman, Justin W. Fischer, Doug Dufford, James Bryan Cobban

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Illinois is one of the US states where elimination of feral swine (Sus scrofa) was determined practical, as only a few isolated populations were established. A particularly important step towards feral swine elimination from Illinois was to eliminate the population in Fulton County. We describe the approaches applied to systematically detect, locate, and eliminate feral swine in a successful county-wide elimination. Detecting and locating feral swine was facilitated by extensive outreach activities, aerial surveys to locate crop damage, and use of camera traps placed over bait in areas where reports, sign, or crop damage occurred. The population was eliminated after ...


Road Hogs: Implications From Gps Collared Feral Swine In Pastureland Habitat On The General Utility Of Road-Based Observation Techniques For Assessing Abundance, Raoul K. Boughton, Benjamin L. Allen, Eric A. Tillman, Samantha M. Wisely, Richard M. Engeman Jan 2019

Road Hogs: Implications From Gps Collared Feral Swine In Pastureland Habitat On The General Utility Of Road-Based Observation Techniques For Assessing Abundance, Raoul K. Boughton, Benjamin L. Allen, Eric A. Tillman, Samantha M. Wisely, Richard M. Engeman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine are among the world’s most destructive invasive species, and monitoring their populations is essential for research and management purposes. Observation stations located along primitive roads have been an efficient and effective means to intercept the daily activities of many animal species for collecting data from which abundance indices can be validly calculated. Feral swine are among the many species documented to use primitive (dirt), low-use roads as routes to easily traverse surrounding habitats and thus be well-monitored in various habitats globally by using road-based observation stations such as camera traps or tracking plots. However, there are relatively ...


A Potential New Tool For The Toolbox: Assessing Gene Drives For Eradicating Invasive Rodent Populations, K. J. Campbell, J.R. Saah, P.R. Brown, J. Godwin, G.R. Howald, A. Piaggio, P. Thomas, D.M. Tompkins, D. Threadgill, J. Delborne, D.M. Kanavy, T. Kuiken, H. Packard, M. Serr, A. Shiels Jan 2019

A Potential New Tool For The Toolbox: Assessing Gene Drives For Eradicating Invasive Rodent Populations, K. J. Campbell, J.R. Saah, P.R. Brown, J. Godwin, G.R. Howald, A. Piaggio, P. Thomas, D.M. Tompkins, D. Threadgill, J. Delborne, D.M. Kanavy, T. Kuiken, H. Packard, M. Serr, A. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive rodents have significant negative impacts on island biodiversity. All but the smallest of rodent eradications currently rely on island-wide rodenticide applications. Although significant advances have been made in mitigating unintended impacts, rodent eradication on inhabited islands remains extremely challenging. Current tools restrict eradication eff orts to fewer than 15% of islands with critically endangered or endangered species threatened by invasive rodents. The Genetic Biocontrol of Invasive Rodents partnership is an interdisciplinary collaboration to develop and evaluate gene drive technology for eradicating invasive rodent populations on islands. Technological approaches currently being investigated include the production of multiple strains of Mus ...


Metagenomic Sequencing Identifies Highly Diverse Assemblages Of Dinoflagellate Cysts In Sediments From Ships' Ballast Tanks, Lixia Shang, Zhangxi Hu, Yunyan Deng, Yuyang Liu, Xinyu Zhai, Zhaoyang Chai, Xiaohan Liu, Zifeng Zhan, Fred C. Dobbs, Ying Zhong Tang Jan 2019

Metagenomic Sequencing Identifies Highly Diverse Assemblages Of Dinoflagellate Cysts In Sediments From Ships' Ballast Tanks, Lixia Shang, Zhangxi Hu, Yunyan Deng, Yuyang Liu, Xinyu Zhai, Zhaoyang Chai, Xiaohan Liu, Zifeng Zhan, Fred C. Dobbs, Ying Zhong Tang

OEAS Faculty Publications

Ships' ballast tanks have long been known as vectors for the introduction of organisms. We applied next-generation sequencing to detect dinoflagellates (mainly as cysts) in 32 ballast tank sediments collected during 2001-2003 from ships entering the Great Lakes or Chesapeake Bay and subsequently archived. Seventy-three dinoflagellates were fully identified to species level by this metagenomic approach and single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing, including 19 toxic species, 36 harmful algal bloom (HAB) forming species, 22 previously unreported as producing cysts, and 55 reported from ballast tank sediments for the first time (including 13 freshwater species), plus 545 operational taxonomic ...


Mycorrhizal Colonization And Its Relationship With Plant Performance Differs Between Exotic And Native Grassland Plant Species, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, H. Wayne Polley, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Kirsten Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey Jan 2019

Mycorrhizal Colonization And Its Relationship With Plant Performance Differs Between Exotic And Native Grassland Plant Species, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, H. Wayne Polley, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Kirsten Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many grasslands have been transformed by exotic species with potentially novel ecological interactions. We hypothesized that exotic and native plant species differ, on average, in their percentage mycorrhizal colonization, and that mycorrhizal colonization is positively related to plant performance in the field. We compared colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi in perennial native and exotic species that were paired phylogenetically and by functional groups and grown under a common environment in field plots in Central Texas, USA. Roots were collected from plants in monoculture plots, stained, and percent colonization was assessed with a microscope. Aboveground biomass and dominance in mixture ...


Stoichiometric Homeostasis In Two Native And Two Invasive South Dakotan Grasses, Joshua Thonas Harvey Jan 2019

Stoichiometric Homeostasis In Two Native And Two Invasive South Dakotan Grasses, Joshua Thonas Harvey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Increased nutrient availability has been widely linked to the success of invasive plants, however a general mechanism explaining these observations is lacking. Stoichiometric homeostasis (H), which is the regulation of internal nutrient concentrations, has been used to explain changes in plant community diversity under alterations in nutrient availability. One hypothesis holds that plants with high regulation (larger H) decrease in abundance in nutrient enriched conditions but are stable in nutrient deficient and drought conditions, likely due to extensive root systems. Additionally, plants with low regulation (lower H) increase in abundance under nutrient enriched conditions but are sensitive to drought conditions ...


Indirect Food Web Interactions: Sea Otter Predation Linked To Invasion Success In A Marine Fouling Community, Maggie F. Jenkins, Maggie F. Jenkins Dec 2018

Indirect Food Web Interactions: Sea Otter Predation Linked To Invasion Success In A Marine Fouling Community, Maggie F. Jenkins, Maggie F. Jenkins

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Humans have caused grave ecological and economic damage worldwide through the introduction of invasive species. Understanding the factors that influence community susceptibility to invasion are important for controlling further spread of invasive species. Predators have been found to provide biotic resistance to invasion in both terrestrial and marine systems. However, predators can also have the opposite effect, and facilitate invasion. Therefore, recovery or expansion of native predators could facilitate the spread of invasive species. Needles et al. (2015) demonstrated that the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) facilitated the invasion of an exotic bryozoan, Watersipora subatra. However, the underlying ...


Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Captured On Purple Prism Traps Deployed For Detection Of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus Planipennis) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) In Minnesota, Daniela T. Pezzini, Mitch Haag, James Walker, Robert L. Koch Aug 2018

Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Captured On Purple Prism Traps Deployed For Detection Of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus Planipennis) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) In Minnesota, Daniela T. Pezzini, Mitch Haag, James Walker, Robert L. Koch

The Great Lakes Entomologist

The observation of bycatch from insect trapping programs, though often considered bothersome, may hold value for ecological and taxonomic studies. In Minnesota, a large trapping survey consisting of pheromone-baited purple prism traps, has been conducted for early detection of Agrilus planipennis, the emerald ash borer. Stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which are pests of increasing importance in the North Central U.S., were observed to be captured by these traps. The objective of this study was to use trap bycatch from the A. planipennis traps for further documentation of the abundance and diversity of Pentatomidae in Minnesota. In 2011 and 2012 ...


Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter Aug 2018

Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter

Entomology Faculty Publications

The eastern North American migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) is in serious decline. Habitat restoration, including adding millions of host plants to compensate for loss of milkweed in US cropland, is a key part of the international conservation strategy to return this iconic butterfly to sustainable status. We report here that Popillia japonica, a polyphagous, invasive beetle, aggregates and feeds on flowers of Asclepias syriaca, the monarch’s most important larval food plant, reducing fruiting and seed set by >90% and extensively damaging milkweed umbels in the field. The beetle’s ongoing incursion into the monarch’s key ...