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Articles 1 - 30 of 1164

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cellular Senescence In Progenitor Cells Contributes To Diminished Remyelination Potential In Progressive Multiple Sclerosis., Alexandra M Nicaise, Laura J Wagstaff, Cory M Willis, Carolyn Paisie, Harshpreet Chandok, Paul Robson, Valentina Fossati, Anna Williams, Stephen J Crocker Apr 2019

Cellular Senescence In Progenitor Cells Contributes To Diminished Remyelination Potential In Progressive Multiple Sclerosis., Alexandra M Nicaise, Laura J Wagstaff, Cory M Willis, Carolyn Paisie, Harshpreet Chandok, Paul Robson, Valentina Fossati, Anna Williams, Stephen J Crocker

Faculty Research 2019

Cellular senescence is a form of adaptive cellular physiology associated with aging. Cellular senescence causes a proinflammatory cellular phenotype that impairs tissue regeneration, has been linked to stress, and is implicated in several human neurodegenerative diseases. We had previously determined that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) failed to promote oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation, whereas NPCs from age-matched control cell lines did so efficiently. Herein, we report that expression of hallmarks of cellular senescence were identified in SOX2+ progenitor cells within white matter lesions of ...


Resistant Starch Type 4-Enriched Diet Lowered Blood Cholesterols And Improved Body Composition In A Double Blind Controlled Cross-Over Intervention, Sailendra N Nichenametla, Lee A. Weidauer, Howard Wey, Tianna Beare, Bonny Specker, Moul Dey Mar 2019

Resistant Starch Type 4-Enriched Diet Lowered Blood Cholesterols And Improved Body Composition In A Double Blind Controlled Cross-Over Intervention, Sailendra N Nichenametla, Lee A. Weidauer, Howard Wey, Tianna Beare, Bonny Specker, Moul Dey

Lee Weidauer

A metabolic health crisis is evident as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4), a prebiotic fiber, in comprehensive management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. This study examined the effects of a blinded exchange of RS4-enriched flour (30% v/v) with regular/control flour (CF) diet on multiple MetS comorbidities. In a double blind (participants-investigators), placebo-controlled, cluster cross-over intervention (n = 86, age≥18, 2-12 week interventions, 2-week washout) in the United States, individuals were classified as having MetS (With-MetS) or not (No-MetS) following International Diabetes Federation ...


Rural Vs. Non-Rural Differences And Longitudinal Bone Changes By Dxa And Pqct In Men Aged 20-66 Years: A Population-Based Study, Bonny L. Specker, Howard E. Wey, Teresa L. Binkley, Tianna Beare, Maggie Minett, Lee A. Weidauer Mar 2019

Rural Vs. Non-Rural Differences And Longitudinal Bone Changes By Dxa And Pqct In Men Aged 20-66 Years: A Population-Based Study, Bonny L. Specker, Howard E. Wey, Teresa L. Binkley, Tianna Beare, Maggie Minett, Lee A. Weidauer

Lee Weidauer

The purpose of this research was to determine whether there were differences in estimated means and rates of change in BMC, bone area, BMD and measures of bone geometry among men (n=544) from three distinct populations (Hutterite [rural], rural non-Hutterite, non-rural), and whether activity levels or calcium intake explain these population differences. Men were enrolled in the South Dakota Rural Bone Health Study and followed for 7.5 years to estimate means and rates of change in bone mass, density, size and geometry. Femoral neck (FN) and spine measurements were obtained every 18 months by DXA and distal radius ...


Voices For Food: Methodologies For Implementing A Multi-State Community-Based Intervention In Rural, High Poverty Communities., Suzanne Stluka, Lindsay Moore, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Daniel Remley, Lacey Mccormack Mar 2019

Voices For Food: Methodologies For Implementing A Multi-State Community-Based Intervention In Rural, High Poverty Communities., Suzanne Stluka, Lindsay Moore, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Daniel Remley, Lacey Mccormack

Suzanne Stluka

BACKGROUND: Rural communities experience unique barriers to food access when compared to urban areas and food security is a public health issue in rural, high poverty communities. A multi-leveled socio-ecological intervention to develop food policy councils (FPCs), and improve food security in rural communities was created. Methods to carry out such an intervention were developed and are described.
METHODS: A longitudinal, matched treatment and comparison study was conducted in 24 rural, high poverty counties in South Dakota, Indiana, Missouri, Michigan, Nebraska and Ohio. Counties were assigned to a treatment (n = 12) or comparison (n = 12) group. Intervention activities focus on ...


Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews Feb 2019

Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

A nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase assay has been employed to identify the bengamides, previously known for their anti-tumor activity, as a new class of immune modulators. A unique element of this study was that the bengamide analogs were isolated from two disparate sources, Myxococcus virescens (bacterium) and Jaspis coriacea (sponge). Comparative LC-MS/ELSD and NMR analysis facilitated the isolation of M. viriscens derived samples of bengamide E (8) and two congeners, bengamide E' (13) and F' (14) each isolated as an insperable mixture of diastereomers. Additional compounds drawn from the UC, Santa Cruz repository allowed expansion of the structure activity ...


The Marine Sponge Metabolite Mycothiazole: A Novel Prototype Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitor., J Brian Morgan, Fakhri Mahdi, Yang Liu, Veena Coothankandaswamy, Mika B Jekabsons, Tyler A. Johnson, Koneni V Sashidhara, Phillip Crews, Dale G Nagle, Yu-Dong Zhou Feb 2019

The Marine Sponge Metabolite Mycothiazole: A Novel Prototype Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitor., J Brian Morgan, Fakhri Mahdi, Yang Liu, Veena Coothankandaswamy, Mika B Jekabsons, Tyler A. Johnson, Koneni V Sashidhara, Phillip Crews, Dale G Nagle, Yu-Dong Zhou

Tyler Johnson

A natural product chemistry-based approach was applied to discover small-molecule inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). A Petrosaspongia mycofijiensis marine sponge extract yielded mycothiazole (1), a solid tumor selective compound with no known mechanism for its cell line-dependent cytotoxic activity. Compound 1 inhibited hypoxic HIF-1 signaling in tumor cells (IC(50) 1nM) that correlated with the suppression of hypoxia-stimulated tumor angiogenesis in vitro. However, 1 exhibited pronounced neurotoxicity in vitro. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 selectively suppresses mitochondrial respiration at complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Unlike rotenone, MPP(+), annonaceous acetogenins, piericidin A, and other complex I inhibitors, mycothiazole is a mixed polyketide ...


Chemically Diverse Microtubule Stabilizing Agents Initiate Distinct Mitotic Defects And Dysregulated Expression Of Key Mitotic Kinases., Cristina C Rohena, Jiangnan Peng, Tyler A. Johnson, Phillip Crews, Susan L Mooberry Feb 2019

Chemically Diverse Microtubule Stabilizing Agents Initiate Distinct Mitotic Defects And Dysregulated Expression Of Key Mitotic Kinases., Cristina C Rohena, Jiangnan Peng, Tyler A. Johnson, Phillip Crews, Susan L Mooberry

Tyler Johnson

Microtubule stabilizers are some of the most successful drugs used in the treatment of adult solid tumors and yet the molecular events responsible for their antimitotic actions are not well defined. The mitotic events initiated by three structurally and biologically diverse microtubule stabilizers; taccalonolide AJ, laulimalide/fijianolide B and paclitaxel were studied. These microtubule stabilizers cause the formation of aberrant, but structurally distinct mitotic spindles leading to the hypothesis that they differentially affect mitotic signaling. Each microtubule stabilizer initiated different patterns of expression of key mitotic signaling proteins. Taccalonolide AJ causes centrosome separation and disjunction failure to a much greater ...


Discovery Of Platelet-Type 12-Human Lipoxygenase Selective Inhibitors By High-Throughput Screening Of Structurally Diverse Libraries., Joshua D. Deschamps, Jeffrey T. Gautschi, Stephanie Whitman, Tyler A. Johnson, Nadine C. Gassner, Phillip Crews, Theodore R. Holman Feb 2019

Discovery Of Platelet-Type 12-Human Lipoxygenase Selective Inhibitors By High-Throughput Screening Of Structurally Diverse Libraries., Joshua D. Deschamps, Jeffrey T. Gautschi, Stephanie Whitman, Tyler A. Johnson, Nadine C. Gassner, Phillip Crews, Theodore R. Holman

Tyler Johnson

Human lipoxygenases (hLO) have been implicated in a variety of diseases and cancers and each hLO isozyme appears to have distinct roles in cellular biology. This fact emphasizes the need for discovering selective hLO inhibitors for both understanding the role of specific lipoxygenases in the cell and developing pharmaceutical therapeutics. To this end, we have modified a known lipoxygenase assay for high-throughput (HTP) screening of both the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the UC Santa Cruz marine extract library (UCSC-MEL) in search of platelet-type 12-hLO (12-hLO) selective inhibitors. The HTP screen led to the characterization of five novel 12-hLO inhibitors ...


Large-Scale Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Suggests Shared Genetic Architecture For Different Diagnosis Criteria, Felix Day, Tugce Karaderi, Michelle R. Jones, Cindy Meun, Chunyan He, Alex Drong, Peter Kraft, Nan Lin, Hongyan Huang, Linda Broer, Reedik Magi, Richa Saxena, Triin Laisk, Margrit Urbanek, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Juan Fernandez-Tajes, Anubha Mahajan, Benjamin H. Mullin, Bronwyn G. A. Stuckey, Timothy D. Spector, Scott G. Wilson, Mark O. Goodarzi, Lea Davis, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, André G. Uitterlinden, Verneri Anttila, Benjamin M. Neale, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Bart Fauser Dec 2018

Large-Scale Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Suggests Shared Genetic Architecture For Different Diagnosis Criteria, Felix Day, Tugce Karaderi, Michelle R. Jones, Cindy Meun, Chunyan He, Alex Drong, Peter Kraft, Nan Lin, Hongyan Huang, Linda Broer, Reedik Magi, Richa Saxena, Triin Laisk, Margrit Urbanek, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Juan Fernandez-Tajes, Anubha Mahajan, Benjamin H. Mullin, Bronwyn G. A. Stuckey, Timothy D. Spector, Scott G. Wilson, Mark O. Goodarzi, Lea Davis, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, André G. Uitterlinden, Verneri Anttila, Benjamin M. Neale, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Bart Fauser

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology. Affected women frequently have metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. PCOS is diagnosed with two different sets of diagnostic criteria, resulting in a phenotypic spectrum of PCOS cases. The genetic similarities between cases diagnosed based on the two criteria have been largely unknown. Previous studies in Chinese and European subjects have identified 16 loci associated with risk of PCOS. We report a fixed-effect, inverse-weighted-variance meta-analysis from 10,074 PCOS cases and 103,164 controls of European ancestry and characterisation of ...


Als Mutations Of Fus Suppress Protein Translation And Disrupt The Regulation Of Nonsense-Mediated Decay, Marisa Kamelgarn, Jing Chen, Lisha Kuang, Huan Jin, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu Dec 2018

Als Mutations Of Fus Suppress Protein Translation And Disrupt The Regulation Of Nonsense-Mediated Decay, Marisa Kamelgarn, Jing Chen, Lisha Kuang, Huan Jin, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by preferential motor neuron death. Approximately 15% of ALS cases are familial, and mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene contribute to a subset of familial ALS cases. FUS is a multifunctional protein participating in many RNA metabolism pathways. ALS-linked mutations cause a liquid–liquid phase separation of FUS protein in vitro, inducing the formation of cytoplasmic granules and inclusions. However, it remains elusive what other proteins are sequestered into the inclusions and how such a process leads to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. In this study, we developed a ...


Association Between Spatial Access To Food Outlets, Frequency Of Grocery Shopping, And Objectively-Assessed And Self-Reported Fruit And Vegetable Consumption, Jared T. Mcguirt, Stephanie B. Jilcott Pitts, Alison Gustafson Dec 2018

Association Between Spatial Access To Food Outlets, Frequency Of Grocery Shopping, And Objectively-Assessed And Self-Reported Fruit And Vegetable Consumption, Jared T. Mcguirt, Stephanie B. Jilcott Pitts, Alison Gustafson

Dietetics and Human Nutrition Faculty Publications

Because supermarkets are a critical part of the community food environment, the purpose of this paper is to examine the association between accessibility to the supermarket where participants were surveyed, frequency of shopping at the supermarket, and self-reported and objectively-assessed fruit and vegetable consumption. Accessibility was assessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) measured distance and multiple versions of the modified Retail Food Environment Index (mRFEI), including a localized road network buffer version. Frequency of shopping was assessed using self-report. The National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable screener was used to calculate daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Skin carotenoids were ...


Targeting The Brd4/Foxo3a/Cdk6 Axis Sensitizes Akt Inhibition In Luminal Breast Cancer, Jingyi Liu, Weijie Guo, Zhibing Duan, Lei Zeng, Yadi Wu, Yule Chen, Fang Tai, Yifan Wang, Yiwei Lin, Qiang Zhang, Yanling He, Jiong Deng, Rachel L. Stewart, Chi Wang, Pengnian Charles Lin, Saghi Ghaffari, B. Mark Evers, Suling Liu, Ming-Ming Zhou, Binhua P. Zhou, Jian Shi Dec 2018

Targeting The Brd4/Foxo3a/Cdk6 Axis Sensitizes Akt Inhibition In Luminal Breast Cancer, Jingyi Liu, Weijie Guo, Zhibing Duan, Lei Zeng, Yadi Wu, Yule Chen, Fang Tai, Yifan Wang, Yiwei Lin, Qiang Zhang, Yanling He, Jiong Deng, Rachel L. Stewart, Chi Wang, Pengnian Charles Lin, Saghi Ghaffari, B. Mark Evers, Suling Liu, Ming-Ming Zhou, Binhua P. Zhou, Jian Shi

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

BRD4 assembles transcriptional machinery at gene super-enhancer regions and governs the expression of genes that are critical for cancer progression. However, it remains unclear whether BRD4-mediated gene transcription is required for tumor cells to develop drug resistance. Our data show that prolonged treatment of luminal breast cancer cells with AKT inhibitors induces FOXO3a dephosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and disrupts its association with SirT6, eventually leading to FOXO3a acetylation as well as BRD4 recognition. Acetylated FOXO3a recognizes the BD2 domain of BRD4, recruits the BRD4/RNAPII complex to the CDK6 gene promoter, and induces its transcription. Pharmacological inhibition of either BRD4/FOXO3a ...


Development And Validation Of A Simple Convenience Store Shelf Audit., Tanya M. Horacek, Elif Dede Yildirim, Erin Kelly, Adrienne A. White, Karla P. Shelnutt, Kristin Riggsbee, Melissa D. Olfert, Jesse Morrell, Anne E. Matthews, Terezie T Mosby, Tandalayo Kidd, Kendra Kattelmann, Geoffrey Greene, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah E. Colby, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Onikia Brown Nov 2018

Development And Validation Of A Simple Convenience Store Shelf Audit., Tanya M. Horacek, Elif Dede Yildirim, Erin Kelly, Adrienne A. White, Karla P. Shelnutt, Kristin Riggsbee, Melissa D. Olfert, Jesse Morrell, Anne E. Matthews, Terezie T Mosby, Tandalayo Kidd, Kendra Kattelmann, Geoffrey Greene, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah E. Colby, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Onikia Brown

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

ackground This paper describes the development, reliability, and convergent validity of a practical tool-the Convenience StoreSupportive Healthy Environment for Life-Promoting Food (SHELF) Audit. Methods Audit items included: a variety of fresh, processed, and frozen fruits and vegetables; low-fat dairy products; healthy staples and frozen meals; healthy food incentive programs; items sold in check-out areas; portion/cup sizes; and pricing. Each audit item was scored using a five-point semantic-differential scale (1 = provides little or no support for healthful foods to 5 = provides high support for healthful foods). Convergent validity was examined by comparing the SHELF audit to Ghirardelli et al. and ...


Macrophage-Derived Netrin-1 Promotes Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation By Activating Mmp3 In Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Tarik Hadi, Ludovic Boytard, Michele Silvestro, Dornazsadat Alebrahim, Samson Jacob, Jordyn Feinstein, Krista Barone, Wes Spiro, Susan Hutchison, Russell Simon, Debra L. Rateri, Florence Pinet, David Fenyo, Mark Adelman, Kathryn J. Moore, Holger K. Eltzschig, Alan Daugherty, Bhama Ramkhelawon Nov 2018

Macrophage-Derived Netrin-1 Promotes Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation By Activating Mmp3 In Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Tarik Hadi, Ludovic Boytard, Michele Silvestro, Dornazsadat Alebrahim, Samson Jacob, Jordyn Feinstein, Krista Barone, Wes Spiro, Susan Hutchison, Russell Simon, Debra L. Rateri, Florence Pinet, David Fenyo, Mark Adelman, Kathryn J. Moore, Holger K. Eltzschig, Alan Daugherty, Bhama Ramkhelawon

Physiology Faculty Publications

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) fragmentation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms by which these events are coupled thereby fueling focal vascular damage are undefined. Here we report through single-cell RNA-sequencing of diseased aorta that the neuronal guidance cue netrin-1 can act at the interface of macrophage-driven injury and ECM degradation. Netrin-1 expression peaks in human and murine aneurysmal macrophages. Targeted deletion of netrin-1 in macrophages protects mice from developing AAA. Through its receptor neogenin-1, netrin-1 induces a robust intracellular calcium flux necessary for the transcriptional regulation and persistent catalytic activation of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3 ...


Rationale, Design And Methods Of "Set The Rules": A Tailored Peer-To-Peer Health Information Intervention, Jennifer R. Warren, Brandi M. White Oct 2018

Rationale, Design And Methods Of "Set The Rules": A Tailored Peer-To-Peer Health Information Intervention, Jennifer R. Warren, Brandi M. White

Clinical Sciences Faculty Publications

Ensuring equitable access to health information is one strategy to promote health equity for underserved communities, especially for low-income African Americans (AAs). Childcare centers are one viable site to deliver health information to address this disparity. This paper describes the methods used in a community-based participatory research project with a childcare facility that aimed to reduce environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among low-income AA children. Through collaboration and multiple data collection methods, partners identified communication strategies to overcome informational barriers. These initial findings indicated a peer-to-peer health information intervention, entitled “Set the Rules”, as the best strategy to increase awareness ...


Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase 1 Is Essential For Hif-1Α Stabilization And Tnbc Chemoresistance, Gaofeng Xiong, Rachel L. Stewart, Jie Chen, Tianyan Gao, Timothy L. Scott, Luis M. Samayoa, Kathleen L. O'Connor, Andrew N. Lane, Ren Xu Oct 2018

Collagen Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase 1 Is Essential For Hif-1Α Stabilization And Tnbc Chemoresistance, Gaofeng Xiong, Rachel L. Stewart, Jie Chen, Tianyan Gao, Timothy L. Scott, Luis M. Samayoa, Kathleen L. O'Connor, Andrew N. Lane, Ren Xu

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) expression and collagen hydroxylation in cancer cells are necessary for breast cancer progression. Here, we show that P4H alpha 1 subunit (P4HA1) protein expression is induced in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and HER2 positive breast cancer. By modulating alpha ketoglutarate (α-KG) and succinate levels P4HA1 expression reduces proline hydroxylation on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α, enhancing its stability in cancer cells. Activation of the P4HA/HIF-1 axis enhances cancer cell stemness, accompanied by decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Inhibition of P4HA1 sensitizes TNBC to the chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel and doxorubicin in xenografts and ...


Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling Of Students' Dietary Intentions/Behaviors, Bmi, And The Healthfulness Of Convenience Stores., Tanya M. Horacek, Elif Dede Yildirim, Kendra Kattelmann, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Onikia Brown, Sarah E. Colby, Geoffrey Greene, Sharon Hoerr, Tandalayo Kidd, Mallory Koenings, Jesse Morrell, Melissa D. Olfert, Beatrice Phillips, Karla P. Shelnutt, Adrienne A. White Oct 2018

Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling Of Students' Dietary Intentions/Behaviors, Bmi, And The Healthfulness Of Convenience Stores., Tanya M. Horacek, Elif Dede Yildirim, Kendra Kattelmann, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Onikia Brown, Sarah E. Colby, Geoffrey Greene, Sharon Hoerr, Tandalayo Kidd, Mallory Koenings, Jesse Morrell, Melissa D. Olfert, Beatrice Phillips, Karla P. Shelnutt, Adrienne A. White

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: When dietary behaviors are habitual, intentions are low, and environmental cues, such as the consumer food environment, might guide behavior. How might intentions to eat healthily and ultimately actual dietary behaviors, be influenced by the consumer food environment (including the availability and affordability of healthy foods) in convenience stores? This study will determine pathways between the healthfulness of convenience stores and college students' dietary intentions/behaviors, and body mass index (BMI).
METHODS: Through multilevel structural equation modeling, a comparison was made of students' healthful meal intentions (HMI); intake (fruits/vegetables, %kcal/fat, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and whole-grains); and measured ...


Systemic Immunosuppression And Risk Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Harpal S. Sandhu, Joshua Lambert, Yan Xu, Henry J. Kaplan Sep 2018

Systemic Immunosuppression And Risk Of Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Harpal S. Sandhu, Joshua Lambert, Yan Xu, Henry J. Kaplan

Applied Statistics Laboratory Faculty Publications

A local immune response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but it is unclear if systemic immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) protects against the onset and/or progression of AMD. We performed a retrospective cohort study using a Cox proportional hazards model of two cohorts. Cohort 1 included patients with stage V chronic kidney disease (CKD) status post kidney transplantation, on at least one IMT agent, and older than 50. Cohort 2 included patients with stage IV or V CKD who had not undergone kidney transplantation, were not on IMT, and were older than 50. The ...


Voices For Food: Methodologies For Implementing A Multi-State Community-Based Intervention In Rural, High Poverty Communities., Suzanne Stluka, Lindsay Moore, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Daniel Remley, Lacey Mccormack Aug 2018

Voices For Food: Methodologies For Implementing A Multi-State Community-Based Intervention In Rural, High Poverty Communities., Suzanne Stluka, Lindsay Moore, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Daniel Remley, Lacey Mccormack

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Rural communities experience unique barriers to food access when compared to urban areas and food security is a public health issue in rural, high poverty communities. A multi-leveled socio-ecological intervention to develop food policy councils (FPCs), and improve food security in rural communities was created. Methods to carry out such an intervention were developed and are described.
METHODS: A longitudinal, matched treatment and comparison study was conducted in 24 rural, high poverty counties in South Dakota, Indiana, Missouri, Michigan, Nebraska and Ohio. Counties were assigned to a treatment (n = 12) or comparison (n = 12) group. Intervention activities focus on ...


Identification Of Susceptibility Pathways For The Role Of Chromosome 15q25.1 In Modifying Lung Cancer Risk, Xuemei Ji, Yohan Bossé, Maria Teresa Landi, Jiang Gui, Xiangjun Xiao, David Qian, Philippe Joubert Joubert, Maxime Lamontagne, Yafang Li, Ivan Gorlov, Mariella De Biasi, Younghun Han, Olga Gorlova, Rayjean J. Hung, Xifeng Wu, James Mckay, Xuchen Zong, Robert Carreras-Torres, David C. Christiani, Neil Caporaso, Mattias Johansson, Geoffrey Liu, Stig E. Bojesen, Loic Le Marchand, Demetrios Albanes, Heike Bickeböller, Melinda C. Aldrich, William S. Bush, Adonina Tardon, Gad Rennert, Susanne M. Arnold Aug 2018

Identification Of Susceptibility Pathways For The Role Of Chromosome 15q25.1 In Modifying Lung Cancer Risk, Xuemei Ji, Yohan Bossé, Maria Teresa Landi, Jiang Gui, Xiangjun Xiao, David Qian, Philippe Joubert Joubert, Maxime Lamontagne, Yafang Li, Ivan Gorlov, Mariella De Biasi, Younghun Han, Olga Gorlova, Rayjean J. Hung, Xifeng Wu, James Mckay, Xuchen Zong, Robert Carreras-Torres, David C. Christiani, Neil Caporaso, Mattias Johansson, Geoffrey Liu, Stig E. Bojesen, Loic Le Marchand, Demetrios Albanes, Heike Bickeböller, Melinda C. Aldrich, William S. Bush, Adonina Tardon, Gad Rennert, Susanne M. Arnold

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to ...


Structure Of The Mouse Trpc4 Ion Channel, Jingjing Duan, Jian Li, Bo Zeng, Gui-Lan Chen, Xiaogang Peng, Yixing Zhang, Jianbin Wang, David E. Clapham, Zongli Li, Jin Zhang Aug 2018

Structure Of The Mouse Trpc4 Ion Channel, Jingjing Duan, Jian Li, Bo Zeng, Gui-Lan Chen, Xiaogang Peng, Yixing Zhang, Jianbin Wang, David E. Clapham, Zongli Li, Jin Zhang

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels conduct cations into cells. They mediate functions ranging from neuronally mediated hot and cold sensation to intracellular organellar and primary ciliary signaling. Here we report a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of TRPC4 in its unliganded (apo) state to an overall resolution of 3.3 Å. The structure reveals a unique architecture with a long pore loop stabilized by a disulfide bond. Beyond the shared tetrameric six-transmembrane fold, the TRPC4 structure deviates from other TRP channels with a unique cytosolic domain. This unique cytosolic N-terminal domain forms extensive aromatic contacts with the ...


Development Of Igrow: A Curriculum For Youth/Adult Dyads To Increase Gardening Skills, Culinary Competence, And Family Meal Time For Youths And Their Adult Caregivers, Jade A White, Rebecca L Hagedorn, Nicole L. Waterland, Makenzie L. Barr, Oluremi A Famodu, Amy E. Root, Adrienne A. White, Sarah E. Colby, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Kendra Kattelmann, Melissa D. Olfert Jul 2018

Development Of Igrow: A Curriculum For Youth/Adult Dyads To Increase Gardening Skills, Culinary Competence, And Family Meal Time For Youths And Their Adult Caregivers, Jade A White, Rebecca L Hagedorn, Nicole L. Waterland, Makenzie L. Barr, Oluremi A Famodu, Amy E. Root, Adrienne A. White, Sarah E. Colby, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Kendra Kattelmann, Melissa D. Olfert

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

This manuscript describes the development of a “learn by actively participating” curriculum for youth and their adult caregivers (dyad pair) to increase gardening skills, culinary competence, and family meal time. The curriculum was developed by integrating “iCook 4-H” and Junior Masters Gardener “Health and Nutrition from the Garden”, and “Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development” curriculums with additional resources for gardening activities from the USDA’s My Plate and garden-based recipes. Expert reviewers (n = 11) provided feedback on the curriculum content, session structure, dosage, age appropriateness, and balance of the three focused areas. Seven family dyads (n = 14) participated in ...


Incidence Of Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients Treated With Piperacillin-Tazobactam Or Meropenem In Combination With Vancomycin, Wilbur Cliff Rutter, David S. Burgess Jul 2018

Incidence Of Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients Treated With Piperacillin-Tazobactam Or Meropenem In Combination With Vancomycin, Wilbur Cliff Rutter, David S. Burgess

Pharmacy Practice and Science Faculty Publications

Acute kidney injury (AKI) increases during empirical antimicrobial therapy with the combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) and vancomycin (VAN) compared to the number of incidences with monotherapy or the combination of cefepime and VAN. Limited data regarding the impact of meropenem (MEM) combined with VAN exist. This study examined the AKI incidence among patients treated with MEM plus VAN (MEM+VAN) or TZP+VAN. Data were collected from the University of Kentucky Center for Clinical and Translational Science Enterprise Data Trust from September 2007 through October 2015. Adults without previous renal disease who received MEM+VAN or TZP+VAN for at ...


Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo Jun 2018

Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Virus particles protect genomes from hostile environments within and outside the host, eventually delivering these genomes to target tissues to initiate infection. Complex processes requiring significant energy and time are necessary to assemble these virus particles, but only a small portion of released virus will successfully infect new target cells (Fig 1A). While the science of virology has developed based on the isolation and purification of viral particles, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cell-to-cell transmission of viruses and/or viral components is also highly relevant [1,2].

Direct cell-to-cell spread of infections has several advantages. The first is ...


Age Adjusted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Comorbidity Index Predicts Survival In A T-Cell Depleted Cohort, Hayder Saeed, Swati Yalamanchi, Meng Liu, Emily Van Meter, Zartash Gul, Gregory Monohan, Dianna Howard, Gerhard C. Hildebrandt, Roger Herzig Jun 2018

Age Adjusted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Comorbidity Index Predicts Survival In A T-Cell Depleted Cohort, Hayder Saeed, Swati Yalamanchi, Meng Liu, Emily Van Meter, Zartash Gul, Gregory Monohan, Dianna Howard, Gerhard C. Hildebrandt, Roger Herzig

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Objectives: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) continues to evolve with the treatment in higher risk patient population. This practice mandates stringent update and validation of risk stratification prior to undergoing such a complex and potentially fatal procedure. We examined the adoption of the new comorbidity index (HCT-CI/Age) proposed by the Seattle group after the addition of age variable and compared it to the pre-transplant assessment of mortality (PAM) that already incorporates age as part of its evaluation criteria.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of adult patients who underwent HCT at our institution from January 2010 through August 2014 was ...


In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian May 2018

In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Background

The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate. Drug combinations, when properly made, are ideal for treating infectious diseases. Although there are some clinical trials using drug combinations against STNs, little quantitative and systemic work has been performed to define ...


Analysis Of The Immunological Biomarker Profile During Acute Zika Virus Infection Reveals The Overexpression Of Cxcl10, A Chemokine Linked To Neuronal Damage., Felipe Gomes Naveca, Gemilson Soares Pontes, Aileen Yu-Hen Chang, George Allan Villarouco Da Silva, Valdinete Alves Do Nascimento, Dana Cristina Da Silva Monteiro, +Several Additional Authors May 2018

Analysis Of The Immunological Biomarker Profile During Acute Zika Virus Infection Reveals The Overexpression Of Cxcl10, A Chemokine Linked To Neuronal Damage., Felipe Gomes Naveca, Gemilson Soares Pontes, Aileen Yu-Hen Chang, George Allan Villarouco Da Silva, Valdinete Alves Do Nascimento, Dana Cristina Da Silva Monteiro, +Several Additional Authors

Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) manifests in a broad spectrum of disease ranging from mild illness to severe neurological complications and little is known about Zika immunopathogenesis.

OBJECTIVES: To define the immunologic biomarkers that correlate with acute ZIKV infection.

METHODS: We characterized the levels of circulating cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in 54 infected patients of both genders at five different time points after symptom onset using microbeads multiplex immunoassay; comparison to 100 age-matched controls was performed for statistical analysis and data mining.

FINDINGS: ZIKV-infected patients present a striking systemic inflammatory response with high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Despite ...


Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis Of Circulating Odd-Numbered Chain Saturated Fatty Acids: Results From The Charge Consortium, Marcia C. De Oliveira Otto, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Qi Sun, Irena B. King, Jason H. Y. Wu, Ani Manichaikul, Stephen S. Rich, Michael Y. Tsai, Y. D. Chen, Myriam Fornage, Guan Weihua, Stella Aslibekyan, Marguerite R. Irvin, Edmond K. Kabagambe, Donna K. Arnett, Majken K. Jensen, Barbara Mcknight, Bruce M. Psaty, Lyn M. Steffen, Caren E. Smith, Ulf Risérus, Lars Lind, Frank B. Hu, Eric B. Rimm, David S. Siscovick, Dariush Mozaffarian May 2018

Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis Of Circulating Odd-Numbered Chain Saturated Fatty Acids: Results From The Charge Consortium, Marcia C. De Oliveira Otto, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Qi Sun, Irena B. King, Jason H. Y. Wu, Ani Manichaikul, Stephen S. Rich, Michael Y. Tsai, Y. D. Chen, Myriam Fornage, Guan Weihua, Stella Aslibekyan, Marguerite R. Irvin, Edmond K. Kabagambe, Donna K. Arnett, Majken K. Jensen, Barbara Mcknight, Bruce M. Psaty, Lyn M. Steffen, Caren E. Smith, Ulf Risérus, Lars Lind, Frank B. Hu, Eric B. Rimm, David S. Siscovick, Dariush Mozaffarian

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Background

Odd-numbered chain saturated fatty acids (OCSFA) have been associated with potential health benefits. Although some OCSFA (e.g., C15:0 and C17:0) are found in meats and dairy products, sources and metabolism of C19:0 and C23:0 are relatively unknown, and the influence of non-dietary determinants, including genetic factors, on circulating levels of OCSFA is not established.

Objective

To elucidate the biological processes that influence circulating levels of OCSFA by investigating associations between genetic variation and OCSFA.

Design

We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of C15:0, C17:0 ...


Teens Implementing A Childhood Obesity Prevention Program In The Community: Feasibility And Perceptions Of A Partnership With Hsta And Icook 4-H., Rebecca L. Hagedorn, Jade A. White, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah E. Colby, Kendra Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White, Melissa D. Olfert May 2018

Teens Implementing A Childhood Obesity Prevention Program In The Community: Feasibility And Perceptions Of A Partnership With Hsta And Icook 4-H., Rebecca L. Hagedorn, Jade A. White, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah E. Colby, Kendra Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White, Melissa D. Olfert

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

High school student researchers and teen leaders from the Health Science Technology Academy (HSTA), under the supervision of HSTA teachers, led a childhood obesity prevention (COP) program (iCook 4-H). The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and perceptions of having teen leaders implement a COP program for dyads of youth (9⁻10 years old) and their primary adult food preparer. Behavior change and perceptions were assessed through surveys and open-ended interviews. Across eight HSTA organizations, 43 teen leaders participated in teaching the iCook 4-H program to 24 dyads. Increased frequency of culinary skills, physical activity and mealtime behavior were reported ...


Tat Controls Transcriptional Persistence Of Unintegrated Hiv Genome In Primary Human Macrophages., Beatrix Meltzer, Deemah Dabbagh, Jia Guo, Fatah Kashanchi, Mudit Tyagi, Yuntao Wu May 2018

Tat Controls Transcriptional Persistence Of Unintegrated Hiv Genome In Primary Human Macrophages., Beatrix Meltzer, Deemah Dabbagh, Jia Guo, Fatah Kashanchi, Mudit Tyagi, Yuntao Wu

Medicine Faculty Publications

In HIV infected macrophages, a large population of viral genomes persists as the unintegrated form (uDNA) that is transcriptionally active. However, how this transcriptional activity is controlled remains unclear. In this report, we investigated whether Tat, the viral transactivator of transcription, is involved in uDNA transcription. We demonstrate that de novo Tat activity is generated from uDNA, and this uDNA-derived Tat (uTat) transactivates the uDNA LTR. In addition, uTat is required for the transcriptional persistence of uDNA that is assembled into repressive episomal minichromatin. In the absence of uTat, uDNA minichromatin is gradually silenced, but remains highly inducible by HDAC ...