Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

From Mendelian Inheritance To Molecular Genomics: A Brief Appreciation Of Genetics, Tim Nguyen Jan 2020

From Mendelian Inheritance To Molecular Genomics: A Brief Appreciation Of Genetics, Tim Nguyen

Synthesis: A Digital Journal of Student Science Communication

Biology is one of many sciences advancing society and the human conquest for knowledge. Its transition from speculation to lifestyle has been a turbulent ride for centuries, but nevertheless, implications for health improvement has only allowed the field to be advocated by more and more people beyond the professions. Revolutionary findings in genetics increased rapidly for either the advancement of knowledge or its promise for medicine, and while its celebration is heard in academia and achievements like Nobel Prizes, many of the details and reasons for these celebrations are not fully understood. In this mini retrospect, I reflect on a ...


The Search For A Hero Gene: Fact Or Fiction?, Olivia Efthimiou Jul 2018

The Search For A Hero Gene: Fact Or Fiction?, Olivia Efthimiou

Heroism Science

The radical entry of heroism research into scientific inquiry presents interesting challenges and possibilities for the study of heroism and the human condition more broadly. This ‘final frontier’ of the enduring phenomenon of heroism stands to offer remarkable, unprecedented, and controversial advances in our understanding of heroic and human behaviour. Is a genetic basis for heroism a real possibility? If so, what would its impacts be? Advances in genomics and increased interest in the fields of epigenetics and neuroplasticity might hold the key to its discovery. This article considers some of the leading emerging research in global health genomics and ...


Life In The Underworld: Anchialine Cave Biology In The Era Of Speleogenomics, Jorge L. Pérez-Moreno, Thomas M. Iliffe, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom May 2016

Life In The Underworld: Anchialine Cave Biology In The Era Of Speleogenomics, Jorge L. Pérez-Moreno, Thomas M. Iliffe, Heather D. Bracken-Grissom

International Journal of Speleology

Anchialine caves contain haline bodies of water with underground connections to the ocean and limited exposure to open air. Despite being found on islands and peninsular coastlines around the world, the isolation of anchialine systems has facilitated the evolution of high levels of endemism among their inhabitants. The unique characteristics of anchialine caves and of their predominantly crustacean biodiversity nominate them as particularly interesting study subjects for evolutionary biology. However, there is presently a distinct scarcity of modern molecular methods being employed in the study of anchialine cave ecosystems. The use of current and emerging molecular techniques, e.g., next-generation ...


Breeding Objectives Indicate Value Of Genomics For Beef Cattle, M. D. Macneil Jan 2016

Breeding Objectives Indicate Value Of Genomics For Beef Cattle, M. D. Macneil

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Genomics may have much to offer in the implementation of breeding objectives. Advantages of genomic prediction include increased accuracy of expected progeny differences (EPDs) for traits that have been components of routine genetic evaluations. Perhaps more importantly, genomic prediction makes it possible to include traits that are too costly or too difficult to measure, and traits that are measured too late in life or are sex-limited such that candidates for selection cannot have EBV with high accuracy at the time when selection decisions are made. Genomically enhanced EPDs may also allow for a marked reduction in generation interval, thus accelerating ...


Genetic Improvement Made Through Dna Testing And Artificial Insemination To High- Growth, High Carcass Value Angus Sires, L C. Grimes, L. R. Corah, T. Brink, M. R. Gardiner, A. K. Sexten Jan 2015

Genetic Improvement Made Through Dna Testing And Artificial Insemination To High- Growth, High Carcass Value Angus Sires, L C. Grimes, L. R. Corah, T. Brink, M. R. Gardiner, A. K. Sexten

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The beef industry has improved the recording of pedigrees and performance data through the use of breed associations and herd health databases. Constant evaluation of genetics and performance has allowed producers to make more informed breeding decisions that help improve herd productivity. As a result of recent droughts and elevated feed and grain prices, however, the American beef cowherd is at a record-low 29 million head. For the United States to continue to be the leading producer of beef in the world, the industry must adopt technologies that improve efficiency of the cowherd and the quality of beef being produced ...


The Complete Plastid Genome Sequence Of Iris Gatesii (Section Oncocyclus), A Bearded Species From Southeastern Turkey, Carol A. Wilson Jan 2014

The Complete Plastid Genome Sequence Of Iris Gatesii (Section Oncocyclus), A Bearded Species From Southeastern Turkey, Carol A. Wilson

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Iris gatesii is a rare bearded species in subgenus Iris section Oncocyclus that occurs in steppe communities of southeastern Turkey. This species is not commonly cultivated, but related species in section Iris are economically important horticultural plants. The complete plastid genome is reported for I. gatesii based on data generated using the Illumina HiSeq platform and is compared to genomes of 16 species selected from across the monocotyledons. This Iris genome is the only known plastid genome available for order Asparagales that is not from Orchidaceae. The I. gatesii plastid genome, unlike orchid genomes, has little gene loss and rearrangement ...


Chromosome Evolution In Cyperales, Eric H. Roalson, Andrew G. Mccubbin, Richard Whitkus Dec 2007

Chromosome Evolution In Cyperales, Eric H. Roalson, Andrew G. Mccubbin, Richard Whitkus

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Karyotypic evolution is a prominent feature in the diversification of many plants and animals, yet the role that chromosomal changes play in the process of diversification is still debated. At the diploid level, chromosome fission and/or fusion are necessary components of chromosomal structural change associated with diversification. Yet the genomic features required for these events remain unknown. Here we present an overview of what is known about genomic structure in Cyperales, with particular focus on the current level of understanding of chromosome number and genome size and their impact in a phylogenetic context. We outline ongoing projects exploring genomic ...


Phylogeny, Genome Size, And Chromosome Evolution Of Asparagales, J. Chris Pires, Ivan J. Maureira, Thomas J. Givnish, Kenneth J. Systma, Ole Seberg, Gitte Peterson, Jerrold I. Davis, Dennis W. Stevenson, Paula J. Rudall, Michael F. Fay, Mark W. Chase Jan 2006

Phylogeny, Genome Size, And Chromosome Evolution Of Asparagales, J. Chris Pires, Ivan J. Maureira, Thomas J. Givnish, Kenneth J. Systma, Ole Seberg, Gitte Peterson, Jerrold I. Davis, Dennis W. Stevenson, Paula J. Rudall, Michael F. Fay, Mark W. Chase

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Asparagales are a diverse monophyletic order that has numerous species (ca. 50% of monocots) including important crop plants such as Allium, Asparagus, and Vanilla, and a host of ornamentals such as irises, hyacinths, and orchids. Historically, Asparagales have been of interest partly because of their fascinating chromosomal evolution. We examine the evolutionary dynamics of Asparagales genomes in an updated phylogenetic framework that combines analyses of seven gene regions (atp1, atpB, matK, ndhF, rbcL, trnL intron, and trnL-F intergenic spacer) for 79 taxa of Asparagales and outgroups. Asparagales genomes are evolutionarily labile for many ...