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Genetics

2009

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mir319a Targeting Of Tcp4 Is Critical For Petal Growth And Development In Arabidopsis, Anwesha Nag, Stacey King, Thomas Jack Dec 2009

Mir319a Targeting Of Tcp4 Is Critical For Petal Growth And Development In Arabidopsis, Anwesha Nag, Stacey King, Thomas Jack

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In a genetic screen in a drnl-2 background, we isolated a loss-of-function allele in miR319a (miR319a129). Previously, miR319a has been postulated to play a role in leaf development based on the dramatic curled-leaf phenotype of plants that ectopically express miR319a (jaw-D). miR319a129 mutants exhibit defects in petal and stamen development; petals are narrow and short, and stamens exhibit defects in anther development. The miR319a129 loss-of-function allele contains a single-base change in the middle of the encoded miRNA, which reduces the ability of miR319a to recognize targets. Analysis of the expression patterns of the three members of the ...


Consent To The Use Of Stored Dna For Genetics Research: A Survey Of Attitudes In The Jewish Population, Marc D. Schwartz, Karen H. Rothenberg, Linda Joseph, Judith Benkendorf, Caryn Lerman Dec 2009

Consent To The Use Of Stored Dna For Genetics Research: A Survey Of Attitudes In The Jewish Population, Marc D. Schwartz, Karen H. Rothenberg, Linda Joseph, Judith Benkendorf, Caryn Lerman

Karen H. Rothenberg

No abstract provided.


Judging Genes: Implications Of The Second Generation Of Genetic Tests In The Courtroom, Diane E. Hoffmann, Karen H. Rothenberg Dec 2009

Judging Genes: Implications Of The Second Generation Of Genetic Tests In The Courtroom, Diane E. Hoffmann, Karen H. Rothenberg

Karen H. Rothenberg

The use of DNA tests for identification has revolutionized court proceedings in criminal and paternity cases. Now, requests by litigants to admit or compel a second generation of genetic tests – tests to confirm or predict genetic diseases and conditions – threaten to affect judicial decision-making in many more contexts. Unlike DNA tests for identification, these second generation tests may provide highly personal health and behavioral information about individuals and their relatives and will pose new challenges for trial court judges. This article reports on an original empirical study of how judges analyze these requests and uses the study results to inform ...


Social Implications Of Genetic Testing, Karen H. Rothenberg Dec 2009

Social Implications Of Genetic Testing, Karen H. Rothenberg

Karen H. Rothenberg

This paper examines the social implications of predictive genetic testing and its impact on the insurance industry. Although the Human Genome Project has the potential to improve the health of our nation, it also may serve as a means of highlighting genetic differences among individuals and ethnic groups. Thus, if we are to reach the full promise of the Project, society must address the public's fears of genetic discrimination in insurance and employment context. Following an analysis of state and federal legislation on genetic privacy and discrimination, the paper concludes with a challenge to the insurance industry to work ...


Genetic Information And The Workplace: Legislative Approaches And Policy Challenges, Karen H. Rothenberg, Barbara Fuller, Mark Rothstein, Troy Duster, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, Rita Cunningham, Beth Fine, Kathy Hudson, Mary-Claire King, Patricia Murphy, Gary Swergold, Francis Collins Dec 2009

Genetic Information And The Workplace: Legislative Approaches And Policy Challenges, Karen H. Rothenberg, Barbara Fuller, Mark Rothstein, Troy Duster, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, Rita Cunningham, Beth Fine, Kathy Hudson, Mary-Claire King, Patricia Murphy, Gary Swergold, Francis Collins

Karen H. Rothenberg

No abstract provided.


The Scarlet Gene: Behavioral Genetics, Criminal Law, And Racial And Ethnic Stigma, Karen H. Rothenberg, Alice Wang Dec 2009

The Scarlet Gene: Behavioral Genetics, Criminal Law, And Racial And Ethnic Stigma, Karen H. Rothenberg, Alice Wang

Karen H. Rothenberg

Imagine that a scientist from the state university asks you and your family to participate in a study on a particular gene variant associated with alcoholism. The project focuses on your ethnic group, the Tracy Islanders, who have a higher incidence of alcoholism, as well as a higher incidence of the gene variant, than the general population. You will not be informed whether you have the gene variant, but your participation in the study might help scientists develop drugs to help individuals control their addiction to alcohol. You have a family history of alcoholism, and you are concerned that your ...


When Should Judges Admit Or Compel Genetic Tests?, Diane E. Hoffmann, Karen H. Rothenberg Dec 2009

When Should Judges Admit Or Compel Genetic Tests?, Diane E. Hoffmann, Karen H. Rothenberg

Karen H. Rothenberg

No abstract provided.


Cancer Genetic Susceptibility Testing: Ethical And Policy Implications For Future Research And Clinical Practice, Benjamin S. Wilfond, Karen H. Rothenberg, Elizabeth J. Thomson, Caryn Lerman Dec 2009

Cancer Genetic Susceptibility Testing: Ethical And Policy Implications For Future Research And Clinical Practice, Benjamin S. Wilfond, Karen H. Rothenberg, Elizabeth J. Thomson, Caryn Lerman

Karen H. Rothenberg

No abstract provided.


Toward A Framework Of Mutualism: The Jewish Community In Genetics Research, Karen H. Rothenberg, Amy B. Rutkin Dec 2009

Toward A Framework Of Mutualism: The Jewish Community In Genetics Research, Karen H. Rothenberg, Amy B. Rutkin

Karen H. Rothenberg

No abstract provided.


Light-Related Photosynthetic Gene Expression And Enzyme Activity In The Heterokont Alga Vaucheria Litorea And Its Symbiotic Partner The Sacoglossan Mollusc Elysia Chlorotica, Kara M. Soule Dec 2009

Light-Related Photosynthetic Gene Expression And Enzyme Activity In The Heterokont Alga Vaucheria Litorea And Its Symbiotic Partner The Sacoglossan Mollusc Elysia Chlorotica, Kara M. Soule

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photosynthesis is comprised of tightly coupled reactions and therefore requires strict matrices of regulation, particularly involving alterations in gene expression and enzyme activity within the nucleus and plastid. Extensive research has been carried out on these light-regulated mechanisms in plants and green algae, however, much less is known in the red algal lineage, including heterokonts. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of light on photosynthetic gene expression and select enzyme activity in the heterokont alga Vaucheria litorea and its symbiotic partner Elysia chlorotica, a photosynthetic sacoglossan mollusc (sea slug). Elysia chlorotica harbors V. litorea plastids intracellularly ...


Ceramide Kinase Regulates Phospholipase C And Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, Bisphosphate In Phototransduction, Ujjaini Dasgupta, Takeshi Bamba, Salvatore Chiantia, Pusha Karim, Ahmad N. Abou Tayoun Nov 2009

Ceramide Kinase Regulates Phospholipase C And Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, Bisphosphate In Phototransduction, Ujjaini Dasgupta, Takeshi Bamba, Salvatore Chiantia, Pusha Karim, Ahmad N. Abou Tayoun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is a central effector for many biological responses regulated by G-protein-coupled receptors including Drosophila phototransduction where light sensitive channels are activated downstream of NORPA, a PLCbeta homolog. Here we show that the sphingolipid biosynthetic enzyme, ceramide kinase, is a novel regulator of PLC signaling and photoreceptor homeostasis. A mutation in ceramide kinase specifically leads to proteolysis of NORPA, consequent loss of PLC activity, and failure in light signal transduction. The mutant photoreceptors also undergo activity-dependent degeneration. Furthermore, we show that a significant increase in ceramide, resulting from lack of ceramide kinase, perturbs the membrane microenvironment of ...


Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold Nov 2009

Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In addition to providing the molecular machinery for transcription and translation, recombinant microbial expression hosts maintain the critical genotype-phenotype link that is essential for high throughput screening and recovery of proteins encoded by plasmid libraries. It is known that Escherichia coli cells can be simultaneously transformed with multiple unique plasmids and thusly complicate recombinant library screening experiments. As a result of their potential to yield misleading results, bacterial multiple vector transformants have been thoroughly characterized in previous model studies. In contrast to bacterial systems, there is little quantitative information available regarding multiple vector transformants in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ...


Decreased Replication Origin Activity In Temporal Transition Regions, Zeqiang Guan, Christina M. Hughes, Settapong Kosiyatrakul, Paolo Norio, Ranjan Sen, Steven Fiering Nov 2009

Decreased Replication Origin Activity In Temporal Transition Regions, Zeqiang Guan, Christina M. Hughes, Settapong Kosiyatrakul, Paolo Norio, Ranjan Sen, Steven Fiering

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In the mammalian genome, early- and late-replicating domains are often separated by temporal transition regions (TTRs) with novel properties and unknown functions. We identified a TTR in the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus, which contains replication origins that are silent in embryonic stem cells but activated during B cell development. To investigate which factors contribute to origin activation during B cell development, we systematically modified the genetic and epigenetic status of the endogenous Igh TTR and used a single-molecule approach to analyze DNA replication. Introduction of a transcription unit into the Igh TTR, activation of gene transcription, and enhancement ...


Wnt Pathway Reprogramming During Human Embryonal Carcinoma Differentiation And Potential For Therapeutic Targeting, Grace E. Snow, Allison C. Kasper, Alexander M. Busch, Elisabeth Schwarz, Katherine E. Ewings, Thomas Bee, Michael J. Spinella, Ethan Dmitrovsky, Sarah J. Freemantle Oct 2009

Wnt Pathway Reprogramming During Human Embryonal Carcinoma Differentiation And Potential For Therapeutic Targeting, Grace E. Snow, Allison C. Kasper, Alexander M. Busch, Elisabeth Schwarz, Katherine E. Ewings, Thomas Bee, Michael J. Spinella, Ethan Dmitrovsky, Sarah J. Freemantle

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as seminonas or non-seminomas of which a major subset is embryonal carcinoma (EC) that can differentiate into diverse tissues. The pluripotent nature of human ECs resembles that of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Many Wnt signalling species are regulated during differentiation of TGCT-derived EC cells. This study comprehensively investigated expression profiles of Wnt signalling components regulated during induced differentiation of EC cells and explored the role of key components in maintaining pluripotency.


Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole Oct 2009

Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking Apq12, a nuclear envelope (NE)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integral membrane protein, are defective in assembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), possibly because of defects in regulating membrane fluidity. We identified BRR6, which encodes an essential integral membrane protein of the NE-ER, as a dosage suppressor of apq12 Delta. Cells carrying the temperature-sensitive brr6-1 allele have been shown to have defects in nucleoporin localization, mRNA metabolism and nuclear transport. Electron microscopy revealed that brr6-1 cells have gross NE abnormalities and proliferation of the ER. brr6-1 cells were hypersensitive to compounds that affect membrane biophysical properties and ...


The Unblazed Trail: Bioinformatics And The Protection Of Genetic Knowledge, Lawrence M. Sung Sep 2009

The Unblazed Trail: Bioinformatics And The Protection Of Genetic Knowledge, Lawrence M. Sung

Lawrence M. Sung

No abstract provided.


Genetic Population Structure Analysis In New Hampshire Reveals Eastern European Ancestry, Chantel D. Sloan, Angeline D. Andrew, Eric J. Duell, Scott M. Williams, Margaret R. Karagas, Jason H. Moore Sep 2009

Genetic Population Structure Analysis In New Hampshire Reveals Eastern European Ancestry, Chantel D. Sloan, Angeline D. Andrew, Eric J. Duell, Scott M. Williams, Margaret R. Karagas, Jason H. Moore

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Genetic structure due to ancestry has been well documented among many divergent human populations. However, the ability to associate ancestry with genetic substructure without using supervised clustering has not been explored in more presumably homogeneous and admixed US populations. The goal of this study was to determine if genetic structure could be detected in a United States population from a single state where the individuals have mixed European ancestry. Using Bayesian clustering with a set of 960 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) we found evidence of population stratification in 864 individuals from New Hampshire that can be used to differentiate the ...


Microbial Nad Metabolism: Lessons From Comparative Genomics, Francesca Gazzaniga, Rebecca Stebbins, Sheila Z. Chang, Mark A. Mcpeek, Charles Brenner Sep 2009

Microbial Nad Metabolism: Lessons From Comparative Genomics, Francesca Gazzaniga, Rebecca Stebbins, Sheila Z. Chang, Mark A. Mcpeek, Charles Brenner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

NAD is a coenzyme for redox reactions and a substrate of NAD-consuming enzymes, including ADP-ribose transferases, Sir2-related protein lysine deacetylases, and bacterial DNA ligases. Microorganisms that synthesize NAD from as few as one to as many as five of the six identified biosynthetic precursors have been identified. De novo NAD synthesis from aspartate or tryptophan is neither universal nor strictly aerobic. Salvage NAD synthesis from nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide riboside, and nicotinic acid riboside occurs via modules of different genes. Nicotinamide salvage genes nadV and pncA, found in distinct bacteria, appear to have spread throughout the tree of life via ...


Characterization Of Two Outer Membrane Proteins, Flgo And Flgp, That Influence Vibrio Cholerae Motility, Raquel M. Martinez, Madushini N. Dharmasena, Thomas J. Kirn, Ronald K. Taylor Sep 2009

Characterization Of Two Outer Membrane Proteins, Flgo And Flgp, That Influence Vibrio Cholerae Motility, Raquel M. Martinez, Madushini N. Dharmasena, Thomas J. Kirn, Ronald K. Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Vibrio cholerae is highly motile by the action of a single polar flagellum. The loss of motility reduces the infectivity of V. cholerae, demonstrating that motility is an important virulence factor. FlrC is the sigma-54-dependent positive regulator of flagellar genes. Recently, the genes VC2206 (flgP) and VC2207 (flgO) were identified as being regulated by FlrC via a microarray analysis of an flrC mutant (D. C. Morris, F. Peng, J. R. Barker, and K. E. Klose, J. Bacteriol. 190:231-239, 2008). FlgP is reported to be an outer membrane lipoprotein required for motility that functions as a colonization factor. The study ...


A Decomposition Of The Pure Parsimony Problem, Allen Holder, Thomas M. Langley Aug 2009

A Decomposition Of The Pure Parsimony Problem, Allen Holder, Thomas M. Langley

Mathematical Sciences Technical Reports (MSTR)

We partially order a collection of genotypes so that we can represent the problem of inferring the least number of haplotypes in terms of substructures we call g-lattices. This representation allows us to prove that if the genotypes partition into chains with certain structure, then the NP-Hard problem can be solved efficiently. Even without the specified structure, the decomposition shows how to separate the underlying integer programming model into smaller models.


Insulin Stimulates The Phosphorylation Of The Exocyst Protein Sec8 In Adipocytes, Patrick D. Lyons, Grantley R. Peck, Arminja N. Kettenbach, Scott A. Gerber, Liya Roudaia, Gustav E. Lienhard Aug 2009

Insulin Stimulates The Phosphorylation Of The Exocyst Protein Sec8 In Adipocytes, Patrick D. Lyons, Grantley R. Peck, Arminja N. Kettenbach, Scott A. Gerber, Liya Roudaia, Gustav E. Lienhard

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The signal transduction pathway leading from the insulin receptor to stimulate the fusion of vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4 with the plasma membrane in adipocytes and muscle cells is not completely understood. Current evidence suggests that in addition to the Rab GTPase-activating protein AS160, at least one other substrate of Akt (also called protein kinase B), which is as yet unidentified, is required. Sec8 is a component of the exocyst complex that has been previously implicated in GLUT4 trafficking. In the present study, we report that insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of Sec8 on Ser-32 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. On the ...


Rapid Fixation Of Non-Native Alleles Revealed By Genome-Wide Snp Analysis Of Hybrid Tiger Salamanders, Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick, Jarrett R. Johnson, D. Kevin Kump, H. Bradley Shaffer, Jeramiah J. Smith, S. Randal Voss Jul 2009

Rapid Fixation Of Non-Native Alleles Revealed By Genome-Wide Snp Analysis Of Hybrid Tiger Salamanders, Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick, Jarrett R. Johnson, D. Kevin Kump, H. Bradley Shaffer, Jeramiah J. Smith, S. Randal Voss

Biology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Hybrid zones represent valuable opportunities to observe evolution in systems that are unusually dynamic and where the potential for the origin of novelty and rapid adaptation co-occur with the potential for dysfunction. Recently initiated hybrid zones are particularly exciting evolutionary experiments because ongoing natural selection on novel genetic combinations can be studied in ecological time. Moreover, when hybrid zones involve native and introduced species, complex genetic patterns present important challenges for conservation policy. To assess variation of admixture dynamics, we scored a large panel of markers in five wild hybrid populations formed when Barred Tiger Salamanders were introduced into ...


Trio Logic Regression - Detection Of Snp - Snp Interactions In Case-Parent Trios, Qing Li, Thomas A. Louis, M. Daniele Fallin, Ingo Ruczinski Jul 2009

Trio Logic Regression - Detection Of Snp - Snp Interactions In Case-Parent Trios, Qing Li, Thomas A. Louis, M. Daniele Fallin, Ingo Ruczinski

Johns Hopkins University, Dept. of Biostatistics Working Papers

Statistical approaches to evaluate higher order SNP-SNP and SNP-environment interactions are critical in genetic association studies, as susceptibility to complex disease is likely to be related to the interaction of multiple SNPs and environmental factors. Logic regression (Kooperberg et al., 2001; Ruczinski et al., 2003) is one such approach, where interactions between SNPs and environmental variables are assessed in a regression framework, and interactions become part of the model search space. In this manuscript we extend the logic regression methodology, originally developed for cohort and case-control studies, for studies of trios with affected probands. Trio logic regression accounts for the ...


Bub2 Regulation Of Cytokinesis And Septation In Budding Yeast, Su Young Park, Addie E. Cable, Jessica Blair, Katherine E. Stockstill, Katie Shannon Jun 2009

Bub2 Regulation Of Cytokinesis And Septation In Budding Yeast, Su Young Park, Addie E. Cable, Jessica Blair, Katherine E. Stockstill, Katie Shannon

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

Background: The mitotic exit network (MEN) is required for events at the end of mitosis such as degradation of mitotic cyclins and cytokinesis. Bub2 and its binding partner Bfa1 act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) to negatively regulate the MEN GTPase Tem1. The Bub2/Bfa1 checkpoint pathway is required to delay the cell cycle in response to mispositioned spindles. In addition to its role in mitotic exit, Tem1 is required for actomyosin ring contraction.

Results: To test the hypothesis that the Bub2 pathway prevents premature actin ring assembly, we compared the timing of actin ring formation in wild type ...


Disruption Of Osysl15 Leads To Iron Inefficiency In Rice Plants, Sichul Lee, Jeff C. Chiecko, Sun A. Kim, Elsbeth L. Walker, Youngsook Lee, Mary Lou Guerinot, Gyhheung An Jun 2009

Disruption Of Osysl15 Leads To Iron Inefficiency In Rice Plants, Sichul Lee, Jeff C. Chiecko, Sun A. Kim, Elsbeth L. Walker, Youngsook Lee, Mary Lou Guerinot, Gyhheung An

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Uptake and translocation of metal nutrients are essential processes for plant growth. Graminaceous species release phytosiderophores that bind to Fe3+; these complexes are then transported across the plasma membrane. We have characterized OsYSL15, one of the rice (Oryza sativa) YS1-like (YSL) genes that are strongly induced by iron (Fe) deficiency. The OsYSL15 promoter fusion to β-glucuronidase showed that it was expressed in all root tissues when Fe was limited. In low-Fe leaves, the promoter became active in all tissues except epidermal cells. This activity was also detected in flowers and seeds. The OsYSL15:green fluorescent protein fusion was localized ...


Correcting The Site Frequency Spectrum For Divergence-Based Ascertainment, Andrew D. Kern Apr 2009

Correcting The Site Frequency Spectrum For Divergence-Based Ascertainment, Andrew D. Kern

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Comparative genomics based on sequenced referenced genomes is essential to hypothesis generation and testing within population genetics. However, selection of candidate regions for further study on the basis of elevated or depressed divergence between species leads to a divergence-based ascertainment bias in the site frequency spectrum within selected candidate loci. Here, a method to correct this problem is developed that obtains maximum-likelihood estimates of the unascertained allele frequency distribution using numerical optimization. I show how divergence-based ascertainment may mimic the effects of natural selection and offer correction formulae for performing proper estimation into the strength of selection in candidate regions ...


Fitting Ace Structural Equation Models To Case-Control Family Data, Kristin N. Javaras, James I. Hudson, Nan M. Laird Mar 2009

Fitting Ace Structural Equation Models To Case-Control Family Data, Kristin N. Javaras, James I. Hudson, Nan M. Laird

COBRA Preprint Series

Investigators interested in whether a disease aggregates in families often collect case-control family data, which consist of disease status and covariate information for families selected via case or control probands. Here, we focus on the use of case-control family data to investigate the relative contributions to the disease of additive genetic effects (A), shared family environment (C), and unique environment (E). To this end, we describe a ACE model for binary family data and then introduce an approach to fitting the model to case-control family data. The structural equation model, which has been described previously, combines a general-family extension of ...


Lapd Is A Bis-(3′,5′)-Cyclic Dimeric Gmp-Binding Protein That Regulates Surface Attachment By Pseudomonas Fluorescens Pf0–1, Peter D. Newell, Russell D. Monds, George A. O'Toole Mar 2009

Lapd Is A Bis-(3′,5′)-Cyclic Dimeric Gmp-Binding Protein That Regulates Surface Attachment By Pseudomonas Fluorescens Pf0–1, Peter D. Newell, Russell D. Monds, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates surface attachment and biofilm formation by many bacteria. For Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1, c-di-GMP impacts the secretion and localization of the adhesin LapA, which is absolutely required for stable surface attachment and biofilm formation by this bacterium. In this study we characterize LapD, a unique c-di-GMP effector protein that controls biofilm formation by communicating intracellular c-di-GMP levels to the membrane-localized attachment machinery via its periplasmic domain. LapD contains degenerate and enzymatically inactive diguanylate cyclase and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase (EAL) domains and binds to c-di-GMP through a degenerate EAL domain. We present evidence that LapD ...


Ab Initio Exon Definition Using An Information Theory-Based Approach, Peter K. Rogan Mar 2009

Ab Initio Exon Definition Using An Information Theory-Based Approach, Peter K. Rogan

Biochemistry Publications

Transcribed exons in genes are joined together at donor and acceptor splice sites precisely and efficiently to generate mRNAs capa ble of being translated into proteins. The sequence variability in individual splice sites can be modeled using Shannon information theory. In the laboratory, the degree of individual splice site use is inferred from the structures of mRNAs and their relative abundance. These structures can be predicted using a bipartite information theory framework that is guided by current knowledge of biological mechanisms for exon recognition. We present the results of this analysis for the complete dataset of all expressed human exons.


Accumulation Of Rhodopsin In Late Endosomes Triggers Photoreceptor Cell Degeneration, Yashodhan Chinchore, Amitavo Mitra, Patrick J. Dolph, Norbert Perrimon Feb 2009

Accumulation Of Rhodopsin In Late Endosomes Triggers Photoreceptor Cell Degeneration, Yashodhan Chinchore, Amitavo Mitra, Patrick J. Dolph, Norbert Perrimon

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Progressive retinal degeneration is the underlying feature of many human retinal dystrophies. Previous work using Drosophila as a model system and analysis of specific mutations in human rhodopsin have uncovered a connection between rhodopsin endocytosis and retinal degeneration. In these mutants, rhodopsin and its regulatory protein arrestin form stable complexes, and endocytosis of these complexes causes photoreceptor cell death. In this study we show that the internalized rhodopsin is not degraded in the lysosome but instead accumulates in the late endosomes. Using mutants that are defective in late endosome to lysosome trafficking, we were able to show that rhodopsin accumulates ...