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A Longitudinal Cline Characterizes The Genetic Structure Of Human Populations In The Tibetan Plateau, Choongwon Jeong, Benjamin M. Peter, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Geoff Childs, Sienna Craig, John Novembre, Anna Di Rienzo Apr 2017

A Longitudinal Cline Characterizes The Genetic Structure Of Human Populations In The Tibetan Plateau, Choongwon Jeong, Benjamin M. Peter, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Geoff Childs, Sienna Craig, John Novembre, Anna Di Rienzo

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Indigenous populations of the Tibetan plateau have attracted much attention for their good performance at extreme high altitude. Most genetic studies of Tibetan adaptations have used genetic variation data at the genome scale, while genetic inferences about their de- mography and population structure are largely based on uniparental markers. To provide genome-wide information on population structure, we analyzed new and published data of 338 individuals from indigenous populations across the plateau in conjunction with world- wide genetic variation data. We found a clear signal of genetic stratification across the east- west axis within Tibetan samples. Samples from more eastern locations ...


Winner's Curse Correction And Variable Thresholding Improve Performance Of Polygenic Risk Modeling Based On Genome-Wide Association Study Summary-Level Data, Jianxin Shi, Ju-Hyun Park, Jubao Duan, Sonja T. Berndt, Winton Moy, Kai Yu, Lei Song, William Wheeler, Xing Hua, Debra Silverman, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Jonine D. Figueroa, Victoria K. Cortessis, Nuria Malats, Margaret R. Karagas Dec 2016

Winner's Curse Correction And Variable Thresholding Improve Performance Of Polygenic Risk Modeling Based On Genome-Wide Association Study Summary-Level Data, Jianxin Shi, Ju-Hyun Park, Jubao Duan, Sonja T. Berndt, Winton Moy, Kai Yu, Lei Song, William Wheeler, Xing Hua, Debra Silverman, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Jonine D. Figueroa, Victoria K. Cortessis, Nuria Malats, Margaret R. Karagas

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Recent heritability analyses have indicated that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have the potential to improve genetic risk prediction for complex diseases based on polygenic risk score (PRS), a simple modelling technique that can be implemented using summary-level data from the discovery samples. We herein propose modifications to improve the performance of PRS. We introduce threshold-dependent winner’s-curse adjustments for marginal association coefficients that are used to weight the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PRS. Further, as a way to incorporate external functional/annotation knowledge that could identify subsets of SNPs highly enriched for associations, we propose variable thresholds for SNPs selection ...


Analysis Of Lung Microbiota In Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush And Sputum Samples From Subjects With Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease, Deborah A. Hogan, Sven D. Willger, Emily L. Dolben, Thomas H. Hampton, Bruce A. Stanton, Hilary G. Morrison, Mitchell L. Sogin, Julianna Czum, Alix Ashare, Michael Tunney Mar 2016

Analysis Of Lung Microbiota In Bronchoalveolar Lavage, Protected Brush And Sputum Samples From Subjects With Mild-To-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease, Deborah A. Hogan, Sven D. Willger, Emily L. Dolben, Thomas H. Hampton, Bruce A. Stanton, Hilary G. Morrison, Mitchell L. Sogin, Julianna Czum, Alix Ashare, Michael Tunney

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often acquire chronic lung infections that lead to irrevers- ible damage. We sought to examine regional variation in the microbial communities in the lungs of individuals with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease, to examine the relationship between the local microbiota and local damage, and to determine the relationships between microbiota in samples taken directly from the lung and the microbiota in spontaneously expectorated sputum. In this initial study, nine stable, adult CF patients with an FEV1>50% underwent regional sampling of different lobes of the right lung by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected brush (PB) sampling ...


Yeast Integral Membrane Proteins Apq12, Brl1, And Brr6 Form A Complex Important For Regulation Of Membrane Homeostasis And Nuclear Pore Complex Biogenesis, Museer A. Lone, Aaron E. Atkinson, Christine A. Hodge, Stéphanie Cottier, Fernando Martínez-Montañés, Shelley Maithel, Laurent Mène-Saffrané, Cole Cole, Roger Schneiter Oct 2015

Yeast Integral Membrane Proteins Apq12, Brl1, And Brr6 Form A Complex Important For Regulation Of Membrane Homeostasis And Nuclear Pore Complex Biogenesis, Museer A. Lone, Aaron E. Atkinson, Christine A. Hodge, Stéphanie Cottier, Fernando Martínez-Montañés, Shelley Maithel, Laurent Mène-Saffrané, Cole Cole, Roger Schneiter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Proper functioning of intracellular membranes is critical for many cellular processes. A key feature of membranes is their ability to adapt to changes in environmental conditions by adjusting their composition so as to maintain constant biophysical proper- ties, including fluidity and flexibility. Similar changes in the biophysical properties of membranes likely occur when intracellular processes, such as vesicle formation and fusion, require dramatic changes in membrane curvature. Similar modifications must also be made when nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are constructed within the existing nuclear membrane, as occurs during in- terphase in all eukaryotes. Here we report on the role of ...


Bypassing Iron Storage In Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues The Iron Mobilization Defect In The Natural Resistance Associated-Macrophage Protein3natural Resistance Associated-Macrophage Protein4 Double Mutant, Viviane Mary, Magali Schnell Ramos, Cynthia Gillet, Amanda L. Socha, Jerome Giraudat, Astrid Agorio, Sylvain Merlot, Colin Clairet, Sun A. Kim, Tracy Punshon, Mary Lou Guerinot, Sebastien Thomine Sep 2015

Bypassing Iron Storage In Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues The Iron Mobilization Defect In The Natural Resistance Associated-Macrophage Protein3natural Resistance Associated-Macrophage Protein4 Double Mutant, Viviane Mary, Magali Schnell Ramos, Cynthia Gillet, Amanda L. Socha, Jerome Giraudat, Astrid Agorio, Sylvain Merlot, Colin Clairet, Sun A. Kim, Tracy Punshon, Mary Lou Guerinot, Sebastien Thomine

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

To improve seed iron (Fe) content and bioavailability, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms that control Fe storage during seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, most Fe is concentrated in insoluble precipitates, with phytate in the vacuoles of cells surrounding the vasculature of the embryo. NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED-MACROPHAGE PROTEIN3 (AtNRAMP3) and AtNRAMP4 function redundantly in Fe retrieval from vacuoles during germination. When germinated under Fe-deficient conditions, development of the nramp3nramp4 double mutant is arrested as a consequence of impaired Fe mobilization. To identify novel genes involved in seed Fe homeostasis, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population of ...


Development Of The Crispr/Cas9 System For Targeted Gene Disruption In Aspergillus Fumigatus, Kevin Fuller, Shan Chen, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap Aug 2015

Development Of The Crispr/Cas9 System For Targeted Gene Disruption In Aspergillus Fumigatus, Kevin Fuller, Shan Chen, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Low rates of homologous recombination have broadly encumbered genetic studies in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The CRISPR/Cas9 system of bacteria has recently been developed for targeted mutagenesis of eukaryotic genomes with high effi- ciency and, importantly, through a mechanism independent of homologous repair machinery. As this new technology has not been developed for use in A. fumigatus, we sought to test its feasibility for targeted gene disruption in this organism. As a proof of principle, we first demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 can indeed be used for high-efficiency (25 to 53%) targeting of the A. fu- migatus polyketide synthase ...


Role Of The Dna Sensor Sting In Protection From Lethal Infection Following Corneal And Intracerebral Challenge With Herpes Simplex Virus 1, Zachary M. Parker, Aisling A. Murphy, David. A. Leib Aug 2015

Role Of The Dna Sensor Sting In Protection From Lethal Infection Following Corneal And Intracerebral Challenge With Herpes Simplex Virus 1, Zachary M. Parker, Aisling A. Murphy, David. A. Leib

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

STING is a protein in the cytosolic DNA and cyclic dinucleotide sensor pathway that is critical for the initiation of innate responses to infection by various pathogens. Consistent with this, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes invariable and rapid lethality in STING-deficient (STING(-/-)) mice following intravenous (i.v.) infection. In this study, using real-time bioluminescence imaging and virological assays, as expected, we demonstrated that STING(-/-) mice support greater replication and spread in ocular tissues and the nervous system. In contrast, they did not succumb to challenge via the corneal route even with high titers of a virus that was routinely ...


Polyq-Dependent Rna–Protein Assemblies Control Symmetry Breaking, Changhwan Lee, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter Jul 2015

Polyq-Dependent Rna–Protein Assemblies Control Symmetry Breaking, Changhwan Lee, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Dendritic growth in fungi and neurons requires that multiple axes of polarity are established and maintained within the same cytoplasm. We have discovered that transcripts encoding key polarity factors including a formin, Bni1, and a polarisome scaffold, Spa2, are nonrandomly clustered in the cytosol to initiate and maintain sites of polarized growth in the fungus Ashbya gossypii. This asymmetric distribution requires the mRNAs to interact with a polyQ-containing protein, Whi3, and a Pumilio protein with a low-complexity sequence, Puf2. Cells lacking Whi3 or Puf2 had severe defects in establishing new sites of polarity and failed to localize Bni1 protein. Interaction ...


Selective Involvement Of The Checkpoint Regulator Vista In Suppression Of B-Cell, But Not T-Cell, Responsiveness By Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells From Mice Infected With An Immunodeficiency-Causing Retrovirus, Kathy A. Green, Li Wang, Randolph J. Noelle, William R. Green Jul 2015

Selective Involvement Of The Checkpoint Regulator Vista In Suppression Of B-Cell, But Not T-Cell, Responsiveness By Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells From Mice Infected With An Immunodeficiency-Causing Retrovirus, Kathy A. Green, Li Wang, Randolph J. Noelle, William R. Green

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Inhibition of T-cell responses in tumor microenvironments by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is widely accepted. We demonstrated augmentation of monocytic MDSCs whose suppression of not only T-cell, but also B-cell, responsiveness paralleled the immunodeficiency during LP-BM5 retrovirus infection. MDSCs inhibited T cells by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), but uniquely, inhibition of B cells was ~50% dependent each on iNOS/NO and the MDSC-expressed negative-checkpoint regulator VISTA. Blockade with a combination of iNOS/NO and VISTA caused additive or synergistic abrogation of MDSC-mediated suppression of B-cell responsiveness.


Deletion Of Nfnab In Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum And Its Effect On Metabolism, Jonathan Lo, Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G. Olson, Natalie Ruppertsberger, Shital Tripathi, Adam Guss, Lee Lynd Jun 2015

Deletion Of Nfnab In Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum And Its Effect On Metabolism, Jonathan Lo, Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G. Olson, Natalie Ruppertsberger, Shital Tripathi, Adam Guss, Lee Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

NfnAB catalyzes the reversible transfer of electrons from reduced ferredoxin and NADH to 2 NADP+. The NfnAB complex has been hypothesized to be the main enzyme for ferredoxin oxidization in strains of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum engineered for increased ethanol production. NfnAB complex activity was detectable in crude cell extracts of T. saccharolyticum. Activity was also detected using activity staining of native PAGE gels. The nfnAB gene was deleted in different strains of T. saccharolyticum to determine its effect on end product formation. In wild-type T. saccharolyticum, deletion of nfnAB resulted in a 46% increase in H2 formation but otherwise little ...


Cofactor Specificity Of The Bifunctional Alcohol And Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (Adhe) In Wild-Type And Mutant Clostridium Thermocellum And Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum, Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G. Olson, Liang Tian, Yannick J. Bomble, Michael Himmel, Jonathan Lo, Shuen Hon, A. Joe Shaw, Johannes P. Van Dijken, Lee Lynd May 2015

Cofactor Specificity Of The Bifunctional Alcohol And Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (Adhe) In Wild-Type And Mutant Clostridium Thermocellum And Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum, Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G. Olson, Liang Tian, Yannick J. Bomble, Michael Himmel, Jonathan Lo, Shuen Hon, A. Joe Shaw, Johannes P. Van Dijken, Lee Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum are thermophilic bacteria that have been engineered to produce ethanol from the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of biomass, respectively. Although engineered strains of T. saccharolyticum produce ethanol with a yield of 90% of the theoretical maximum, engineered strains of C. thermocellum produce ethanol at lower yields (∼50% of the theoretical maximum). In the course of engineering these strains, a number of mutations have been discovered in their adhE genes, which encode both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. To understand the effects of these mutations, the adhE genes from six strains of C ...


Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros May 2015

Biological Significance Of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: Vivid Photocycle Governs The Dynamic Vivid-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-Adaptation And Response To Changes In Light Intensity, Arko Dasgupta, Chen-Hui Chen, Changhwan Lee, Amy S. Gladfelter, Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD) is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability ...


An Approach For Determining And Measuring Network Hierarchy Applied To Comparing The Phosphorylome And The Regulome, Chao Cheng, Erik Andrews, Koon-Kiu Yan, Matthew Ung, Daifeng Wang, Mark Gerstein Mar 2015

An Approach For Determining And Measuring Network Hierarchy Applied To Comparing The Phosphorylome And The Regulome, Chao Cheng, Erik Andrews, Koon-Kiu Yan, Matthew Ung, Daifeng Wang, Mark Gerstein

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Many biological networks naturally form a hierarchy with a preponderance of downward information flow. In this study, we define a score to quantify the degree of hierarchy in a network and develop a simulated-annealing algorithm to maximize the hierarchical score globally over a network. We apply our algorithm to determine the hierarchical structure of the phosphorylome in detail and investigate the correlation between its hierarchy and kinase properties. We also compare it to the regulatory network, finding that the phosphorylome is more hierarchical than the regulome.


Spectral Gene Set Enrichment (Sgse), H Robert Frost, Zhigang Li, Jason H. Moore Mar 2015

Spectral Gene Set Enrichment (Sgse), H Robert Frost, Zhigang Li, Jason H. Moore

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Gene set testing is typically performed in a supervised context to quantify the association between groups of genes and a clinical phenotype. In many cases, however, a gene set-based interpretation of genomic data is desired in the absence of a phenotype variable. Although methods exist for unsupervised gene set testing, they predominantly compute enrichment relative to clusters of the genomic variables with performance strongly dependent on the clustering algorithm and number of clusters. We propose a novel method, spectral gene set enrichment (SGSE), for unsupervised competitive testing of the association between gene sets and empirical data sources. SGSE first computes ...


Highly Constrained Intergenic Drosophila Ultraconserved Elements Are Candidate Ncrnas, Andrew D. Kern, Daniel A. Barbash, Joshua Chang Mell, Daniel Hupalo, Amanda Jensen Jan 2015

Highly Constrained Intergenic Drosophila Ultraconserved Elements Are Candidate Ncrnas, Andrew D. Kern, Daniel A. Barbash, Joshua Chang Mell, Daniel Hupalo, Amanda Jensen

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Eukaryotes contain short (∼80–200 bp) regions that have few or no substitutions among species that represent hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary divergence. These ultraconserved elements (UCEs) are candidates for containing essential functions, but their biological roles remain largely unknown. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of UCEs from 12 sequenced Drosophilaspecies. We identified 98 elements ≥80 bp long with very high conservation across the Drosophila phylogeny. Population genetic analyses reveal that these UCEs are not present in mutational cold spots. Instead we infer that they experience a level of selective constraint almost 10-fold higher compared ...


Systems Level Analysis Of Systemic Sclerosis Shows A Network Of Immune And Profibrotic Pathways Connected With Genetic Polymorphisms, J. Matthew Mahoney, Jaclyn Taroni, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. A. Wood, Casey S. Greene, Patricia A. Pioli, Monique E. Hinchcliff, Michael L. Whitfield Jan 2015

Systems Level Analysis Of Systemic Sclerosis Shows A Network Of Immune And Profibrotic Pathways Connected With Genetic Polymorphisms, J. Matthew Mahoney, Jaclyn Taroni, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. A. Wood, Casey S. Greene, Patricia A. Pioli, Monique E. Hinchcliff, Michael L. Whitfield

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare systemic autoimmune disease characterized by skin and organ fibrosis. The pathogenesis of SSc and its progression are poorly understood. The SSc intrinsic gene expression subsets (inflammatory, fibroproliferative, normal-like, and limited) are observed in multiple clinical cohorts of patients with SSc. Analysis of longitudinal skin biopsies suggests that a patient's subset assignment is stable over 6-12 months. Genetically, SSc is multi-factorial with many genetic risk loci for SSc generally and for specific clinical manifestations. Here we identify the genes consistently associated with the intrinsic subsets across three independent cohorts, show the relationship between these ...


Mcl1 Enhances The Survival Of Cd8+ Memory T Cells After Viral Infection, Jingang Gui, Zhuting Hu, Ching-Yi Tsai, Tian Ma, Yan Song, Amanda Morales, Li-Hao Huang, Ethan Dmitrovsky, Ruth Craig, Edward Usherwood Jan 2015

Mcl1 Enhances The Survival Of Cd8+ Memory T Cells After Viral Infection, Jingang Gui, Zhuting Hu, Ching-Yi Tsai, Tian Ma, Yan Song, Amanda Morales, Li-Hao Huang, Ethan Dmitrovsky, Ruth Craig, Edward Usherwood

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Viral infection results in the generation of massive numbers of activated effector CD8+ T cells that recognize viral components. Most of these are short-lived effector T cells (SLECs) that die after clearance of the virus. However, a small proportion of this population survives and forms antigen-specific memory precursor effector cells (MPECs), which ultimately develop into memory cells. These can participate in a recall response upon reexposure to antigen even at protracted times postinfection. Here, antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1) was found to prolong survival upon T cell stimulation, and mice expressing human MCL1 as a transgene exhibited a skewing ...


Functional And Developmental Identification Of A Molecular Subtype Of Brain Serotonergic Neuron Specialized To Regulate Breathing Dynamics, Rachael D. Brust, Andrea E. Corcoran, George B. Richerson, Eugene Nattie, Susan M. Dymecki Dec 2014

Functional And Developmental Identification Of A Molecular Subtype Of Brain Serotonergic Neuron Specialized To Regulate Breathing Dynamics, Rachael D. Brust, Andrea E. Corcoran, George B. Richerson, Eugene Nattie, Susan M. Dymecki

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Serotonergic neurons modulate behavioral and physiological responses from aggression and anxiety to breathing and thermoregulation. Disorders involving serotonin (5HT) dysregulation are commensurately heterogeneous and numerous. We hypothesized that this breadth in functionality derives in part from a developmentally determined substructure of distinct subtypes of 5HT neurons each specialized to modulate specific behaviors. By manipulating developmentally defined subgroups one by one chemogenetically, we find that the Egr2-Pet1 subgroup is specialized to drive increased ventilation in response to carbon dioxide elevation and acidosis. Furthermore, this subtype exhibits intrinsic chemosensitivity and modality-specific projections-increasing firing during hypercapnic acidosis and selectively projecting to respiratory chemosensory ...


Natural Selection On Thermal Performance In A Novel Thermal Environment, Michael L. Logan, Robert M. Cox, Ryan Calsbeek Sep 2014

Natural Selection On Thermal Performance In A Novel Thermal Environment, Michael L. Logan, Robert M. Cox, Ryan Calsbeek

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because they are adapted to relatively stable temperature regimes, such that even small increases in environmental temperature may lead to large decreases in physiological performance. One way in which tropical organisms may mitigate the detrimental effects of warming is through evolutionary change in thermal physiology. The speed and magnitude of this response depend, in part, on the strength of climate-driven selection. However, many ectotherms use behavioral adjustments to maintain preferred body temperatures in the face of environmental variation. These behaviors may shelter individuals from natural selection, preventing evolutionary adaptation ...


Phenotypic Robustness And The Assortativity Signature Of Human Transcription Factor Networks, Dov A. Pechenick, Joshua L. Payne, Jason H. Moore Aug 2014

Phenotypic Robustness And The Assortativity Signature Of Human Transcription Factor Networks, Dov A. Pechenick, Joshua L. Payne, Jason H. Moore

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Many developmental, physiological, and behavioral processes depend on the precise expression of genes in space and time. Such spatiotemporal gene expression phenotypes arise from the binding of sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) to DNA, and from the regulation of nearby genes that such binding causes. These nearby genes may themselves encode TFs, giving rise to a transcription factor network (TFN), wherein nodes represent TFs and directed edges denote regulatory interactions between TFs. Computational studies have linked several topological properties of TFNs - such as their degree distribution - with the robustness of a TFN's gene expression phenotype to genetic and environmental perturbation ...


A Classification And Characterization Of Two-Locus, Pure, Strict, Epistatic Models For Simulation And Detection, Ryan J. Urbanowicz, Ambrose L. S. Granizo-Mackenzie, Jeff Kiralis, Jason H Moore Jun 2014

A Classification And Characterization Of Two-Locus, Pure, Strict, Epistatic Models For Simulation And Detection, Ryan J. Urbanowicz, Ambrose L. S. Granizo-Mackenzie, Jeff Kiralis, Jason H Moore

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

BackgroundThe statistical genetics phenomenon of epistasis is widely acknowledged to confound disease etiology. In order to evaluate strategies for detecting these complex multi-locus disease associations, simulation studies are required. The development of the GAMETES software for the generation of complex genetic models, has provided the means to randomly generate an architecturally diverse population of epistatic models that are both pure and strict, i.e. all n loci, but no fewer, are predictive of phenotype. Previous theoretical work characterizing complex genetic models has yet to examine pure, strict, epistasis which should be the most challenging to detect. This study addresses three ...


Host Species Restriction Of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Through Its Receptor, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4, Neeltje Van Doremalen, Kerri L. Miazgowicz, Shauna Milne-Price, Trenton Bushmaker, Shelly Robertson, Dana Scott, Joerg Kinne, Jason S. Mclellan Jun 2014

Host Species Restriction Of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Through Its Receptor, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4, Neeltje Van Doremalen, Kerri L. Miazgowicz, Shauna Milne-Price, Trenton Bushmaker, Shelly Robertson, Dana Scott, Joerg Kinne, Jason S. Mclellan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012. Recently, the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) was identified and the specific interaction of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of MERS-CoV spike protein and DPP4 was determined by crystallography. Animal studies identified rhesus macaques but not hamsters, ferrets, or mice to be susceptible for MERS-CoV. Here, we investigated the role of DPP4 in this observed species tropism. Cell lines of human and nonhuman primate origin were permissive of MERS-CoV, whereas hamster, ferret, or mouse cell lines were not, despite the presence of DPP4. Expression of human DPP4 in nonsusceptible BHK and ...


Structural Features Of The Pseudomonas Fluorescens Biofilm Adhesin Lapa Required For Lapg-Dependent Cleavage, Biofilm Formation, And Cell Surface Localization, Chelsea D. Boyd, T. Jarrod Smith, Sofiane El-Kirat-Chatel, Peter D. Newell, Yves F. Dufrêne, George A. O'Toole May 2014

Structural Features Of The Pseudomonas Fluorescens Biofilm Adhesin Lapa Required For Lapg-Dependent Cleavage, Biofilm Formation, And Cell Surface Localization, Chelsea D. Boyd, T. Jarrod Smith, Sofiane El-Kirat-Chatel, Peter D. Newell, Yves F. Dufrêne, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The localization of the LapA protein to the cell surface is a key step required by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to irreversibly attach to a surface and form a biofilm. LapA is a member of a diverse family of predicted bacterial adhesins, and although lacking a high degree of sequence similarity, family members do share common predicted domains. Here, using mutational analysis, we determine the significance of each domain feature of LapA in relation to its export and localization to the cell surface and function in biofilm formation. Our previous work showed that the N terminus of LapA is required for ...


Methylation Of Leukocyte Dna And Ovarian Cancer: Relationships With Disease Status And Outcome, Brooke L. Fridley, Sebastian M. Armasu, Mine S. Cicek, Melissa C. Larson, Chen Wang, Stacey J. Winham, Kimberly R. Kalli, Devin C. Koestler Apr 2014

Methylation Of Leukocyte Dna And Ovarian Cancer: Relationships With Disease Status And Outcome, Brooke L. Fridley, Sebastian M. Armasu, Mine S. Cicek, Melissa C. Larson, Chen Wang, Stacey J. Winham, Kimberly R. Kalli, Devin C. Koestler

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Genome-wide interrogation of DNA methylation (DNAm) in blood-derived leukocytes has become feasible with the advent of CpG genotyping arrays. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), one report found substantial DNAm differences between cases and controls; however, many of these disease-associated CpGs were attributed to differences in white blood cell type distributions. We examined blood-based DNAm in 336 EOC cases and 398 controls; we included only high-quality CpG loci that did not show evidence of association with white blood cell type distributions to evaluate association with case status and overall survival.


Deletion Mutant Library For Investigation Of Functional Outputs Of Cyclic Diguanylate Metabolism In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14, Dae-Gon Ha, Megan E. Richman, George A. O'Toole Mar 2014

Deletion Mutant Library For Investigation Of Functional Outputs Of Cyclic Diguanylate Metabolism In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14, Dae-Gon Ha, Megan E. Richman, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We constructed a library of in-frame deletion mutants targeting each gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 predicted to participate in cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) metabolism (biosynthesis or degradation) to provide a toolkit to assist investigators studying c-di-GMP-mediated regulation by this microbe. We present phenotypic assessments of each mutant, including biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, swimming motility, swarming motility, and twitch motility, as a means to initially characterize these mutants and to demonstrate the potential utility of this library.


How To Get The Most From Microarray Data: Advice From Reverse Genomics, Ivan P. Gorlov, Ji-Yeon Yang, Jinyoung Byun, Christopher Logothetis, Olga Y. Gorlova, Kim-Anh Do, Christopher Amos Mar 2014

How To Get The Most From Microarray Data: Advice From Reverse Genomics, Ivan P. Gorlov, Ji-Yeon Yang, Jinyoung Byun, Christopher Logothetis, Olga Y. Gorlova, Kim-Anh Do, Christopher Amos

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Whole-genome profiling of gene expression is a powerful tool for identifying cancer-associated genes. Genes differentially expressed between normal and tumorous tissues are usually considered to be cancer associated. We recently demonstrated that the analysis of interindividual variation in gene expression can be useful for identifying cancer associated genes. The goal of this study was to identify the best microarray data–derived predictor of known cancer associated genes. We found that the traditional approach of identifying cancer genes—identifying differentially expressed genes—is not very efficient. The analysis of interindividual variation of gene expression in tumor samples identifies cancer-associated genes more ...


Genome Wide Association Mapping Of Grain Arsenic, Copper, Molybdenum And Zinc In Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Grown At Four International Field Sites, Gareth J. Norton, Alex Douglas, Brett Lahner, Elena Yakubova, Mary Lou Guerinot, Shannon R.M Pinson, Lee Tarpley, George C. Eizenga, Steve P. Mcgrath, Fang-Jie Zhao Feb 2014

Genome Wide Association Mapping Of Grain Arsenic, Copper, Molybdenum And Zinc In Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Grown At Four International Field Sites, Gareth J. Norton, Alex Douglas, Brett Lahner, Elena Yakubova, Mary Lou Guerinot, Shannon R.M Pinson, Lee Tarpley, George C. Eizenga, Steve P. Mcgrath, Fang-Jie Zhao

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for individuals who consume a cereal subsistence diet. A number of elements, such as zinc, are required within the diet, while some elements are toxic to humans, for example arsenic. In this study we carry out genome-wide association (GWA) mapping of grain concentrations of arsenic, copper, molybdenum and zinc in brown rice using an established rice diversity panel of ~300 accessions and 36.9 k single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study was performed across five environments: one field site in Bangladesh, one in China and two in the US ...


Gene And Protein Sequence Optimization For High-Level Production Of Fully Active And Aglycosylated Lysostaphin In Pichia Pastoris, Hongliang Zhao, Kristina Blazanovic, Yoonjoo Choi, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Karl E. Griswold Feb 2014

Gene And Protein Sequence Optimization For High-Level Production Of Fully Active And Aglycosylated Lysostaphin In Pichia Pastoris, Hongliang Zhao, Kristina Blazanovic, Yoonjoo Choi, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Karl E. Griswold

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Lysostaphin represents a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of staphylococcal infections, in particular those of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, conventional expression systems for the enzyme suffer from various limitations, and there remains a need for an efficient and cost-effective production process to facilitate clinical translation and the development of nonmedical applications. While Pichia pastoris is widely used for high-level production of recombinant proteins, there are two major barriers to the production of lysostaphin in this industrially relevant host: lack of expression from the wild-type lysostaphin gene and aberrant glycosylation of the wild-type protein sequence. The first barrier can ...


Trip/Nopo E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Promotes Ubiquitylation Of Dna Polymerase Η, Heather A. Wallace, Julie A. Merkle, Michael C. Yu, Taloa G. Berg, Ethan Lee, Giovanni Bosco, Laura A. Lee Jan 2014

Trip/Nopo E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Promotes Ubiquitylation Of Dna Polymerase Η, Heather A. Wallace, Julie A. Merkle, Michael C. Yu, Taloa G. Berg, Ethan Lee, Giovanni Bosco, Laura A. Lee

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We previously identified a Drosophila maternal effect-lethal mutant named ‘no poles’ (nopo). Embryos from nopo females undergo mitotic arrest with barrel-shaped, acentrosomal spindles during the rapid cycles of syncytial embryogenesis because of activation of a Chk2-mediated DNA checkpoint. NOPO is the Drosophila homolog of human TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein (TRIP), which has been implicated in TNF signaling. NOPO and TRIP contain RING domains closely resembling those of known E3 ubiquitin ligases. We herein sought to elucidate the mechanism by which TRIP/NOPO promotes genomic stability by performing a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify potential substrates/interactors. We ...


Divergent Antibody Subclass And Specificity Profiles But Not Protective Hla-B Alleles Are Associated With Variable Antibody Effector Function Among Hiv-1 Controllers, Jennifer I. Lai, Anna F. Licht, Anne-Sophie Dugast, Todd Suscovich, Ickwon Choi, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Galit Alter, Margaret E. Ackerman Dec 2013

Divergent Antibody Subclass And Specificity Profiles But Not Protective Hla-B Alleles Are Associated With Variable Antibody Effector Function Among Hiv-1 Controllers, Jennifer I. Lai, Anna F. Licht, Anne-Sophie Dugast, Todd Suscovich, Ickwon Choi, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Galit Alter, Margaret E. Ackerman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Understanding the coordination between humoral and cellular immune responses may be the key to developing protective vaccines, and because genetic studies of long-term HIV-1 nonprogressors have associated specific HLA-B alleles with spontaneous control of viral replication, this subject group presents an opportunity to investigate relationships between arms of the adaptive immune system. Given evidence suggesting that cellular immunity may play a role in viral suppression, we sought to determine whether and how the humoral immune response might vary among controllers. Significantly, Fc-mediated antibody effector functions have likewise been associated with durable viral control. In this study, we compared the effector ...