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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala Dec 2012

Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cancer cells evade senescence, apoptosis, and other constraints on proliferation, often via mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53). Normal human lung fibroblasts have been shown to enter premature senescence upon exposure to beryllium. In these cells, BeSO4 stabilizes p53 protein, increases p21 gene expression, induces senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and causes cell proliferation arrest. In the present study, we have investigated whether BeSO4 is able to induce similar effects in cancer cells that have wildtype p53. We have demonstrated that beryllium salt at low concentration can induce molecular changes in the p53 signaling pathway leading to cell ...


Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller Dec 2012

Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Minimotifs are short contiguous segments of proteins that have a known biological function. The hundreds of thousands of minimotifs discovered thus far are an important part of the theoretical understanding of the specificity of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, and signal transduction that occur in cells. However, a longstanding problem is that the different abstractions of the sequence definitions do not accurately capture the specificity, despite decades of effort by many labs. We present evidence that structure is an essential component of minimotif specificity, yet is not used in minimotif definitions. Our analysis of several known minimotifs as case studies, analysis ...


Achieving High Accuracy Prediction Of Minimotifs, Tian Mi, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Michael R. Gryk, Martin Schiller Sep 2012

Achieving High Accuracy Prediction Of Minimotifs, Tian Mi, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Michael R. Gryk, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

The low complexity of minimotif patterns results in a high false-positive prediction rate, hampering protein function prediction. A multi-filter algorithm, trained and tested on a linear regression model, support vector machine model, and neural network model, using a large dataset of verified minimotifs, vastly improves minimotif prediction accuracy while generating few false positives. An optimal threshold for the best accuracy reaches an overall accuracy above 90%, while a stringent threshold for the best specificity generates less than 1% false positives or even no false positives and still produces more than 90% true positives for the linear regression and neural network ...


Reducing False-Positive Prediction Of Minimotifs With A Genetic Interaction Filter, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Tian Mi, Martin Schiller Mar 2012

Reducing False-Positive Prediction Of Minimotifs With A Genetic Interaction Filter, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Tian Mi, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Minimotifs are short contiguous peptide sequences in proteins that have known functions. At its simplest level, the minimotif sequence is present in a source protein and has an activity relationship with a target, most of which are proteins. While many scientists routinely investigate new minimotif functions in proteins, the major web-based discovery tools have a high rate of false-positive prediction. Any new approach that reduces false-positives will be of great help to biologists.

Methods and Findings

We have built three filters that use genetic interactions to reduce false-positive minimotif predictions. The basic filter identifies those minimotifs where the source ...


A Critical Role For Kalirin In Ngf Signaling Through Trka, Kausik Chakrabarti, Rong Lin, Noraisha I. Schiller, Yanping Wang, David Koubi, Ying-Xin Fan, Brian B. Rudkin, Gibbes R. Johnson, Martin R. Schiller Jun 2005

A Critical Role For Kalirin In Ngf Signaling Through Trka, Kausik Chakrabarti, Rong Lin, Noraisha I. Schiller, Yanping Wang, David Koubi, Ying-Xin Fan, Brian B. Rudkin, Gibbes R. Johnson, Martin R. Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Kalirin is a multidomain guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rho proteins, inducing cytoskeletal rearrangement in neurons. Although much is known about the effects of Kalirin on Rho GTPases and neuronal morphology, little is known about the association of Kalirin with the receptor/signaling systems that affect neuronal morphology. Our experiments demonstrate that Kalirin binds to and colocalizes with the TrkA neurotrophin receptor in neurons. In PC12 cells, inhibition of Kalirin expression using antisense RNA decreased nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced TrkA autophosphorylation and process extension. Kalirin overexpression potentiated neurotrophin-stimulated TrkA autophosphorylation and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells at ...