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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Open Consent, Biobanking And Data Protection Law: Can Open Consent Be ‘Informed’ Under The Forthcoming Data Protection Regulation?, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald Jan 2015

Open Consent, Biobanking And Data Protection Law: Can Open Consent Be ‘Informed’ Under The Forthcoming Data Protection Regulation?, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

This article focuses on whether a certain form of consent used by biobanks – open consent – is compatible with the Proposed Data Protection Regulation. In an open consent procedure, the biobank requests consent once from the data subject for all future research uses of genetic material and data. However, as biobanks process personal data, they must comply with data protection law. Data protection law is currently undergoing reform. The Proposed Data Protection Regulation is the culmination of this reform and, if voted into law, will constitute a new legal framework for biobanking. The Regulation puts strict conditions on consent – in particular ...


Cloning And Expression Analysis Of Drosophila Extracellular Cu Zn Superoxide Dismutase, Michael J. Blackney, Rebecca Cox, David Shepherd, Joel D. Parker Dec 2014

Cloning And Expression Analysis Of Drosophila Extracellular Cu Zn Superoxide Dismutase, Michael J. Blackney, Rebecca Cox, David Shepherd, Joel D. Parker

Joel D Parker

In the present study, we cloned and sequenced the mRNAs of the Sod3 [extracellular Cu Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase)] gene in Drosophila and identified two mRNA products formed by alternative splicing. These products code for a long and short protein derived from the four transcripts found in global expression studies (Flybase numbers Dmel\CG9027, FBgn0033631). Both mRNA process variants contain an extracellular signalling sequence, a region of high homology to the Sod1 (cytoplasmic Cu Zn SOD) including a conserved AUG start, with the longer form also containing a hydrophobic tail. The two fully processed transcripts are homologous to Caenorhabditis elegans ...


The Empire Of Cancer: Gene Patents And Cancer Voices, Matthew Rimmer Dec 2013

The Empire Of Cancer: Gene Patents And Cancer Voices, Matthew Rimmer

Matthew Rimmer

In his book, The Emperor of All Maladies, Siddhartha Mukherjee writes a history of cancer — ‘It is a chronicle of an ancient disease — once a clandestine, “whispered-about” illness — that has metamorphosed into a lethal shape-shifting entity imbued with such penetrating metaphorical, medical, scientific, and political potency that cancer is often described as the defining plague of our generation’.Increasingly, an important theme in the history of cancer is the role of law, particularly in the field of intellectual property law. It is striking that a number of contemporary policy debates over intellectual property and public health have concerned cancer research ...


Zebrafish: An In Vivo Model For The Study Of Human Diseases, Bibhas Kar, Sivamani Subbiah Nov 2013

Zebrafish: An In Vivo Model For The Study Of Human Diseases, Bibhas Kar, Sivamani Subbiah

Emily Scott

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful model organism for the study of vertebrate biology, being well suited to both developmental and genetic analysis. More recently, the rapid progress of various zebrafish genomics infrastructure initiatives is facilitating the development of zebrafish models of human disease. Genome organization and the pathways involved into control of signal transduction appear to be highly conserved between zebrafish and humans and therefore zebrafish may be used for modeling of human diseases. This review will highlight and describe the utility of zebrafish in the study of human diseases.


Wild Bird’S-Eye View Of Influenza Virus A(H1n1), Larry Clark Jan 2009

Wild Bird’S-Eye View Of Influenza Virus A(H1n1), Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Wild bird fecal samples collected and characterized by the USDA as part of a national surveillance effort were sequenced to study the genetic relatedness of avian, swine, and human H1 and N1 subtypes. Our results find that the 2009 H1N1 human outbreak is closely related to swine virus, but falls into different clades in the H1 and N1 trees. Further, there is evidence of multiple viral genetic exchanges between birds and swine. Ongoing research across host species contributes to an understanding of the circulation of influenza viruses.


Short Telomeres In Short-Lived Males: What Are The Molecular And Evolutionary Causes?, Stephanie Jemielity, Masayuki Kimura, Karen M. Parker, Joel D. Parker, Xiaojian Cao, Abraham Aviv, Laurent Keller Apr 2007

Short Telomeres In Short-Lived Males: What Are The Molecular And Evolutionary Causes?, Stephanie Jemielity, Masayuki Kimura, Karen M. Parker, Joel D. Parker, Xiaojian Cao, Abraham Aviv, Laurent Keller

Joel D Parker

Telomere length regulation is an important aspect of cell maintenance in eukaryotes, since shortened telomeres can lead to a number of defects, including impaired cell division. Although telomere length is correlated with lifespan in some bird species, its possible role in aging and lifespan determination is still poorly understood. Here we investigate telomere dynamics (changes in telomere length and attrition rate) and telomerase activity in the ant Lasius niger, a species in which different groups of individuals have evolved extraordinarily different lifespans. We found that somatic tissues of the short-lived males had dramatically shorter telomeres than those of the much ...


Decreased Expression Of Cu–Zn Superoxide Dismutase 1 In Ants With Extreme Lifespan, Joel D. Parker, Karen M. Parker, Barbara H. Sohal, Rajindar S. Sohal, Laurent Keller Mar 2004

Decreased Expression Of Cu–Zn Superoxide Dismutase 1 In Ants With Extreme Lifespan, Joel D. Parker, Karen M. Parker, Barbara H. Sohal, Rajindar S. Sohal, Laurent Keller

Joel D Parker

Reactive oxygen species, the by-products of oxidative energy metabolism, are considered a main proximate cause of aging. Accordingly, overexpression of the enzyme Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) can lengthen lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster in the laboratory. However, the role of SOD1 as a main determinant of lifespan has been challenged on the grounds that overexpression might be effective only in compromised genetic backgrounds. Moreover, interspecific comparisons show lower levels of antioxidant activities in longer-lived species, suggesting that life-span extension may evolve through less reactive oxygen species generation from the mitochondria rather than higher expression of SOD1. The tremendous variation ...


Intracellular Coexpression Of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Her-2/Neu, And P21ras In Human Breast Cancers: Evidence For The Existence Of Distinctive Patterns Of Genetic Evolution That Are Common To Tumors From Different Patients, Stanley E. Shackney, Agnese A. Pollice, Charles A. Smith, Laura E. Janocko, Lillian Sweeney, Kathryn A. Brown, Sarita G. Singh, Lingping Gu, Robert Yakulis, Joseph F. Lucke Jan 1998

Intracellular Coexpression Of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Her-2/Neu, And P21ras In Human Breast Cancers: Evidence For The Existence Of Distinctive Patterns Of Genetic Evolution That Are Common To Tumors From Different Patients, Stanley E. Shackney, Agnese A. Pollice, Charles A. Smith, Laura E. Janocko, Lillian Sweeney, Kathryn A. Brown, Sarita G. Singh, Lingping Gu, Robert Yakulis, Joseph F. Lucke

Joseph Lucke

Multiparameter flow cytometry studies were performed on cells from the primary tumors of 94 patients with breast cancer. Correlated cellular measurements of cell DNA content, Her-2/neu, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and p21ras levels were performed on each of 5,000 to 100,000 cells from each tumor. When criteria for positivity were matched with those in common use for immunohistochemical studies, 28 of 94 (30\%) breast cancers were classified as positive for Her-2/neu overexpression. When similar criteria were applied to the EGFR measurements, 23 of 94 (24\%) cases were classified as positive for EGFR overexpression. Similarly, 23 ...


Evolutionary Genetics And Genetic Variation Of Haplodiploids And X-Linked Genes, Philip W. Hedrick, Joel D. Parker Nov 1997

Evolutionary Genetics And Genetic Variation Of Haplodiploids And X-Linked Genes, Philip W. Hedrick, Joel D. Parker

Joel D Parker

The evolutionary genetics of haplodiploids and X-linked genes share many features and are different from diploid (autosomal) genes in many respects. For example, the conditions for a stable polymorphism, the amount of genetic load, and the effective population size are all expected to be quite different between haplodiploids or X-linked genes and diploids. From experimental data, the genetic load for X-linked genes is much less than autosomal genes and appears less for haplodiploids than for diploids. The observed amount of molecular variation for haplodiploids is much less than that for diploids, even more so than predicted from the differences in ...


Assessing Sequential Oncogene Amplification In Human Breast Cancer, Laura E. Janocko, Joseph F. Lucke, David W. Groft, Kathryn A. Brown, Charles A. Smith, Agnese A. Pollice, Sarita G. Singh, Robert Yakulis, Robert J. Hartsock, Stanley E. Shackney Jan 1995

Assessing Sequential Oncogene Amplification In Human Breast Cancer, Laura E. Janocko, Joseph F. Lucke, David W. Groft, Kathryn A. Brown, Charles A. Smith, Agnese A. Pollice, Sarita G. Singh, Robert Yakulis, Robert J. Hartsock, Stanley E. Shackney

Joseph Lucke

Studies of amplification and/or overexpression of c-myc, HER-2/neu, and H-ras in breast cancer have shown that each is associated with a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility that there is a preferred sequence of amplification of these oncogenes in breast cancer. The frequencies of amplification and patterns of co-amplification of c-myc, HER-2/neu, and H-ras were studied in a group of 84 breast cancers. The data suggested a preferred sequence of amplification that consisted of c-myc amplification-HER-2/neu amplification-H-ras amplification. This model was supported by loglinear analysis. In addition, the levels of ...


Genetics Of Screwworm, New Genetic Markers And Preliminary Linkage Map., David B. Taylor Jan 1989

Genetics Of Screwworm, New Genetic Markers And Preliminary Linkage Map., David B. Taylor

David B Taylor

Eight new genetic markers for Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the screwworm, are characterized. The markers include three eye mutants, lemon-eye (le), cherry-eye (ch), and red-eye (re); one wing mutant, curly-wing (cw); and four allozyme markers, amylase (Amy-1), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gpd), phosphoglucomutase (Pgm), and octanol dehydrogenase (Odh). The markers are associated into four linkage groups. Radiation-induced translocations were used to correlate the linkage groups with their respective chromosomes. A preliminary genetic linkage map with these and three previously characterized loci is presented.