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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Origins Of An Unmarked Georgia Cemetery Using Ancient Dna Analysis, Andrew T. Ozga, Raul Y. Tito, Brian M. Kemp, Hugh Matternes, Alexandra J. Obregon-Tito, Leslie Neal, Cecil M. Lewis Jr. Aug 2019

Origins Of An Unmarked Georgia Cemetery Using Ancient Dna Analysis, Andrew T. Ozga, Raul Y. Tito, Brian M. Kemp, Hugh Matternes, Alexandra J. Obregon-Tito, Leslie Neal, Cecil M. Lewis Jr.

Andrew Ozga

Determining the origins of those buried within undocumented cemeteries is of incredible importance to historical archaeologists and, in many cases, the nearby communities. In the case of Avondale Burial Place, a cemetery in Bibb County, Georgia, in use from 1820 to 1950, all written documentation of those interred within it has been lost. Osteological and archaeological evidence alone could not describe, with confidence, the ancestral origins of the 101 individuals buried there. In the present study, we used ancient DNA extraction methods in well-preserved skeletal fragments from 20 individuals buried in Avondale Burial Place to investigate the origins of the ...


Hierarchical Modeling And Differential Expression Analysis For Rna-Seq Experiments With Inbred And Hybrid Genotypes, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton Jul 2019

Hierarchical Modeling And Differential Expression Analysis For Rna-Seq Experiments With Inbred And Hybrid Genotypes, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton

Dan Nettleton

The performance of inbred and hybrid genotypes is of interest in plant breeding and genetics. High-throughput sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) has proven to be a useful tool in the study of the molecular genetic responses of inbreds and hybrids to environmental stresses. Commonly used experimental designs and sequencing methods lead to complex data structures that require careful attention in data analysis. We demonstrate an analysis of RNA-seq data from a split-plot design involving drought stress applied to two inbred genotypes and two hybrids formed by crosses between the inbreds. Our generalized linear modeling strategy incorporates random effects for whole-plot experimental ...


Saccharomyces Genome Database & Uniprot Bioinformatics Analysis, Ray A. Enke Dec 2018

Saccharomyces Genome Database & Uniprot Bioinformatics Analysis, Ray A. Enke

Ray Enke Ph.D.

This in class activity introduces basic bioinformatics analysis using the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) and the UniProt Database. The yeast URA3 gene is studied in this activity, however, any other yeast gene can be substituted. This activity is designed for novice instructors and students for implementation into core biology lecture or lab courses.


Assessment Of A Metaviromic Dataset Generated From Nearshore Lake Michigan, Siobhan C. Watkins, Neil Kuehnle, C Anthony Ruggeri, Kema Malki, Katherine Bruder, Jinan Elayyan, Kristina Damisch, Naushin Vahora, Paul O'Malley, Brianne Ruggles-Sage, Zachary Romer, Catherine Putonti Sep 2017

Assessment Of A Metaviromic Dataset Generated From Nearshore Lake Michigan, Siobhan C. Watkins, Neil Kuehnle, C Anthony Ruggeri, Kema Malki, Katherine Bruder, Jinan Elayyan, Kristina Damisch, Naushin Vahora, Paul O'Malley, Brianne Ruggles-Sage, Zachary Romer, Catherine Putonti

Catherine Putonti

Bacteriophages are powerful ecosystem engineers. They drive bacterial mortality rates and genetic diversity, and affect microbially mediated biogeochemical processes on a global scale. This has been demonstrated in marine environments; however, phage communities have been less studied in freshwaters, despite representing a potentially more diverse environment. Lake Michigan is one of the largest bodies of freshwater on the planet, yet to date the diversity of its phages has yet to be examined. Here, we present a composite survey of viral ecology in the nearshore waters of Lake Michigan. Sequence analysis was performed using a web server previously used to analyse ...


Does Baylisascaris Procyonis Phylogeny Correlate With That Of The Raccoon (Procyon Lotor), Matthew E. Ingle, Stephen G. Dunbar, Jaynee L. Bartsch, Kyle J. Culbertson, Taylor A. Fulton, Katherine R. Guffey, Aubrey J. Juris, Ashlie N. Nolan, Daniel P. Nordquist, Carrie E. Rowlands, Joshua A. Sitler Aug 2017

Does Baylisascaris Procyonis Phylogeny Correlate With That Of The Raccoon (Procyon Lotor), Matthew E. Ingle, Stephen G. Dunbar, Jaynee L. Bartsch, Kyle J. Culbertson, Taylor A. Fulton, Katherine R. Guffey, Aubrey J. Juris, Ashlie N. Nolan, Daniel P. Nordquist, Carrie E. Rowlands, Joshua A. Sitler

Stephen Dunbar, PhD

Baylisacaris procyonis, commonly known as the raccoon roundworm, is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine of the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor). Although humans do not typically become the definitive host, humans can become infected through handling soil containing eggs. B. procyonis can induce serious health complications in cases of human infection, including degenerative retinal and behavioral changes, coma, and even death. High prevalence of B. procyonis in a raccoon population increases the probability of transference to human hosts. In our study, we analyzed the genetic structure of B. procyonis harvested from raccoons of southwestern Ohio, and compared this ...


Does Baylisascaris Procyonis Impact Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Genetics?, Matthew E. Ingle, Stephen G. Dunbar, Jaynee L. Bartsch, Kyle J. Culbertson, Taylor A. Fulton, Katherine R. Guffey, Aubrey J. Juris, Ashlie N. Nolan, Daniel P. Nordquist, Carrie E. Rowlands, Joshua A. Sitler Aug 2017

Does Baylisascaris Procyonis Impact Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Genetics?, Matthew E. Ingle, Stephen G. Dunbar, Jaynee L. Bartsch, Kyle J. Culbertson, Taylor A. Fulton, Katherine R. Guffey, Aubrey J. Juris, Ashlie N. Nolan, Daniel P. Nordquist, Carrie E. Rowlands, Joshua A. Sitler

Stephen Dunbar, PhD

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are the final host for raccoon roundworms (Baylisascaris procyonis). Raccoon roundworm is the leading cause of a dangerous neurological disease, known as larva migrans encephalopathy. Phylogenetic trees illustrate co-evolutionary events between species living in a symbiotic relationship with each other. Throughout the coevolution of host and parasite, many aspects of a population affect the way the members interact with one another and with symbiotic species. In order to evaluate the relationship between host and parasite in regards to diet, we isolated DNA from intestinal wall tissue, amplified a portion of exon 2 from MHC II, and sent ...


The Analysis Of Global Gene Expression Related To Starch, Lipid And Protein Composition , Ling Li Aug 2017

The Analysis Of Global Gene Expression Related To Starch, Lipid And Protein Composition , Ling Li

Ling Li

This dissertation provides a greater understanding of starch metabolism and its regulation by using mutants altered in starch accumulation, together with a combination of approaches such as global gene profiling, promoter::GUS/GFP analyses, and genetics;Starch debranching enzymes are critical for starch accumulation. The temporal and spatial co-expression of ISA1 and ISA2 is consistent with previous evidence that they co-function as a protein complex (ISA1/ISA2) for starch synthesis. The extensive temporal and spatial co-expression of ISA2 and ISA3 suggests they might also form a protein complex, taking part in starch metabolism. ISA3 protein is localized in leaf chloroplast ...


Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson May 2017

Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson

David Grünwald

The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been repurposed for genome engineering, transcription modulation, and chromosome imaging in eukaryotic cells. However, the nuclear dynamics of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) guide RNAs and target interrogation are not well defined in living cells. Here, we deployed a dual-color CRISPR system to directly measure the stability of both Cas9 and guide RNA. We found that Cas9 is essential for guide RNA stability and that the nuclear Cas9-guide RNA complex levels limit the targeting efficiency. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed that single mismatches in the guide RNA seed ...


Monkey-Based Research On Human Disease: The Implications Of Genetic Differences, Jarrod Bailey Sep 2016

Monkey-Based Research On Human Disease: The Implications Of Genetic Differences, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Assertions that the use of monkeys to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 90–93% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of monkey studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for monkeys to constitute good models for research, and that monkey data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Salient examples include the failure of new drugs in clinical trials, the highly different infectivity and pathology of SIV/HIV, and poor extrapolation of research on Alzheimer ...


Lessons From Chimpanzee-Based Research On Human Disease: The Implications Of Genetic Differences, Jarrod Bailey Sep 2016

Lessons From Chimpanzee-Based Research On Human Disease: The Implications Of Genetic Differences, Jarrod Bailey

Jarrod Bailey, PhD

Assertions that the use of chimpanzees to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 98–99% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of chimpanzee studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for the chimpanzee to constitute a good model for research, and furthermore, that chimpanzee data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Leading examples include the minimal citations of chimpanzee research that is relevant to human medicine, the highly different pathology of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis ...


Nona-Arginine Facilitates Delivery Of Quantum Dots Into Cells Via Multiple Pathways, Yi Xu, Betty Revon Liu, Han Jung Lee, Katie Shannon, Jeffrey G. Winiarz, Tien-Chun Wang, Huey-Jenn Chiang, Yue-Wern Huang Aug 2016

Nona-Arginine Facilitates Delivery Of Quantum Dots Into Cells Via Multiple Pathways, Yi Xu, Betty Revon Liu, Han Jung Lee, Katie Shannon, Jeffrey G. Winiarz, Tien-Chun Wang, Huey-Jenn Chiang, Yue-Wern Huang

Jeffrey G. Winiarz

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have recently been used to deliver and monitor biomolecules, such as drugs and proteins. However, QDs alone have a low efficiency of transport across the plasma membrane. In order to increase the efficiency, we used synthetic nona-arginine (SR9), a cell-penetrating peptide, to facilitate uptake. We found that SR9 increased the cellular uptake of QDs in a noncovalent binding manner between QDs and SR9. Further, we investigated mechanisms of QD/SR9 cellular internalization. Low temperature and metabolic inhibitors markedly inhibited the uptake of QD/SR9, indicating that internalization is an energy-dependent process. Results from both the pathway ...


Nona-Arginine Facilitates Delivery Of Quantum Dots Into Cells Via Multiple Pathways, Yi Xu, Betty Revon Liu, Han Jung Lee, Katie Shannon, Jeffrey G. Winiarz, Tien-Chun Wang, Huey-Jenn Chiang, Yue-Wern Huang Jul 2016

Nona-Arginine Facilitates Delivery Of Quantum Dots Into Cells Via Multiple Pathways, Yi Xu, Betty Revon Liu, Han Jung Lee, Katie Shannon, Jeffrey G. Winiarz, Tien-Chun Wang, Huey-Jenn Chiang, Yue-Wern Huang

Katie Shannon

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have recently been used to deliver and monitor biomolecules, such as drugs and proteins. However, QDs alone have a low efficiency of transport across the plasma membrane. In order to increase the efficiency, we used synthetic nona-arginine (SR9), a cell-penetrating peptide, to facilitate uptake. We found that SR9 increased the cellular uptake of QDs in a noncovalent binding manner between QDs and SR9. Further, we investigated mechanisms of QD/SR9 cellular internalization. Low temperature and metabolic inhibitors markedly inhibited the uptake of QD/SR9, indicating that internalization is an energy-dependent process. Results from both the pathway ...


Mad2 And Bubr1 Function In A Single Checkpoint Pathway That Responds To A Loss Of Tension, Katie Shannon, Julie C. Canman, Edward D. Salmon Jul 2016

Mad2 And Bubr1 Function In A Single Checkpoint Pathway That Responds To A Loss Of Tension, Katie Shannon, Julie C. Canman, Edward D. Salmon

Katie Shannon

The spindle checkpoint monitors microtubule attachment and tension at kinetochores to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Previously, PtK1 cells in hypothermic conditions (23°C) were shown to have a pronounced mitotic delay, despite having normal numbers of kinetochore microtubules. At 23°C, we found that PtK1 cells remained in metaphase for an average of 101 min, compared with 21 min for cells at 37°C. The metaphase delay at 23°C was abrogated by injection of Mad2 inhibitors, showing that Mad2 and the spindle checkpoint were responsible for the prolonged metaphase. Live cell imaging showed that kinetochore Mad2 became undetectable soon ...


Bub2 Regulation Of Cytokinesis And Septation In Budding Yeast, Su Young Park, Addie E. Cable, Jessica Blair, Katherine E. Stockstill, Katie Shannon Jul 2016

Bub2 Regulation Of Cytokinesis And Septation In Budding Yeast, Su Young Park, Addie E. Cable, Jessica Blair, Katherine E. Stockstill, Katie Shannon

Katie Shannon

Background: The mitotic exit network (MEN) is required for events at the end of mitosis such as degradation of mitotic cyclins and cytokinesis. Bub2 and its binding partner Bfa1 act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) to negatively regulate the MEN GTPase Tem1. The Bub2/Bfa1 checkpoint pathway is required to delay the cell cycle in response to mispositioned spindles. In addition to its role in mitotic exit, Tem1 is required for actomyosin ring contraction.

Results: To test the hypothesis that the Bub2 pathway prevents premature actin ring assembly, we compared the timing of actin ring formation in wild type ...


Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton Jul 2016

Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton

Jose V. Lopez

Montastraea annularis, M. franksi and M. faveolata are a complex of recently distinguished coral species whose status remains controversial due to the lack of fixed differences. Here we report on two types of genetic analyses for these taxa: 1) DNA sequences of two nuclear genes [internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS-1, ITS-2) and a ɮ-tubulin intron] and 2) a preliminary screening of the entire nuclear genome using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). There was very little variation within or among the three species in DNA sequences. Onlly 3 of 300 nucleotide positions in ITS-1, 3 of the 350 positions in ...


Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton Jul 2016

Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton

Jose V. Lopez

Montastraea annularis, M. franksi and M. faveolata are a complex of recently distinguished coral species whose status remains controversial due to the lack of fixed differences. Here we report on two types of genetic analyses for these taxa: 1) DNA sequences of two nuclear genes [internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS-1, ITS-2) and a ɮ-tubulin intron] and 2) a preliminary screening of the entire nuclear genome using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). There was very little variation within or among the three species in DNA sequences. Onlly 3 of 300 nucleotide positions in ITS-1, 3 of the 350 positions in ...


Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton Jul 2016

Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton

Jose V. Lopez

Montastraea annularis, M. franksi and M. faveolata are a complex of recently distinguished coral species whose status remains controversial due to the lack of fixed differences. Here we report on two types of genetic analyses for these taxa: 1) DNA sequences of two nuclear genes [internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS-1, ITS-2) and a ɮ-tubulin intron] and 2) a preliminary screening of the entire nuclear genome using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). There was very little variation within or among the three species in DNA sequences. Onlly 3 of 300 nucleotide positions in ITS-1, 3 of the 350 positions in ...


Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton Jul 2016

Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton

Jose V. Lopez

Montastraea annularis, M. franksi and M. faveolata are a complex of recently distinguished coral species whose status remains controversial due to the lack of fixed differences. Here we report on two types of genetic analyses for these taxa: 1) DNA sequences of two nuclear genes [internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS-1, ITS-2) and a ɮ-tubulin intron] and 2) a preliminary screening of the entire nuclear genome using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). There was very little variation within or among the three species in DNA sequences. Onlly 3 of 300 nucleotide positions in ITS-1, 3 of the 350 positions in ...


Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton Jul 2016

Discrimination Of Species In The Montastrea Annularis Complex Using Multiple Genetic Loci, Jose V. Lopez, Nancy Knowlton

Jose V. Lopez

Montastraea annularis, M. franksi and M. faveolata are a complex of recently distinguished coral species whose status remains controversial due to the lack of fixed differences. Here we report on two types of genetic analyses for these taxa: 1) DNA sequences of two nuclear genes [internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS-1, ITS-2) and a ɮ-tubulin intron] and 2) a preliminary screening of the entire nuclear genome using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). There was very little variation within or among the three species in DNA sequences. Onlly 3 of 300 nucleotide positions in ITS-1, 3 of the 350 positions in ...


Heritability Of Expression Of The 70kd Heat-Shock Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster And Its Relevance To The Evolution Of Thermotolerance, Robert A. Krebs, Martin E. Feder, Jeehyun Lee Aug 2015

Heritability Of Expression Of The 70kd Heat-Shock Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster And Its Relevance To The Evolution Of Thermotolerance, Robert A. Krebs, Martin E. Feder, Jeehyun Lee

Robert A. Krebs

The principle inducible heat-shock protein of Drosophila melanogasrer, Hsp70, contributes to thermotolerance throughout the entire life cycle of the species but may also reduce fitness in some life stages. In principle, selection might maximize the benefits of Hsp70 expression relative to its costs by adjusting the magnitude of Hsp70 expression for each life-cycle stage independently. Therefore we examined whether the magnitude of Hsp70 ex pre sion varied during the life cycle and the relationship of this variation to several life-history traits. For 28 isofemale lines derived from a single natural population, estimates of heritable variation in Hsp70 expression ranged between ...


Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Nmda Receptor Insertion Depends On Fyn But Not Src Kinase Pathway In Prefrontal Cortical Neurons, Jian-Li Hu, Gang Liu, Yan-Chun Li, Wen-Jun Gao, Yueqiao Huang Jun 2015

Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Nmda Receptor Insertion Depends On Fyn But Not Src Kinase Pathway In Prefrontal Cortical Neurons, Jian-Li Hu, Gang Liu, Yan-Chun Li, Wen-Jun Gao, Yueqiao Huang

Yue-Qiao (George) Huang

Background. Interactions between dopamine and glutamate in the prefrontal cortex are essential for cognitive functions such as working memory. Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor functions by dopamine D1 receptor is believed to play a critical role in these functions. The aim of the work reported here is to explore the signaling pathway underlying D1 receptor-mediated trafficking of NMDA receptors in cultured rat prefrontal cortical neurons. Results. Activation of D1 receptor by selective agonist SKF-81297 significantly increased the expression of NR2B subunits. This effect was completely blocked by small interfering RNA knockdown of Fyn, but not Src. Under control conditions ...


Regulatory Paradigms For Modern Breeding, Drew L. Kershen, Wayne A. Parrott Apr 2015

Regulatory Paradigms For Modern Breeding, Drew L. Kershen, Wayne A. Parrott

Drew L. Kershen

Modern breeding, based upon molecular biology using genetic information, has made rapid advances. Breeders using rDNA techniques properly can think of this technique as traditional biotechnology. Within the past ten years, breeders have begun to use newer techniques [site-directed nuclease techniques (SDNs), RNAi, and synthetic biology] to create and to develop plants and animals with desired genetic traits. In this chapter printed in the NABC 26 Report (May 2015), the authors address the question: What is the appropriate regulatory paradigm for modern breeding?


Making Teeth To Order: Conserved Genes Reveal An Ancient Molecular Pattern In Paddlefish (Actinopterygii), Moya M. Smith, Zerina Johanson, Thomas Butts, Rolf Ericsson, Melinda Modrell, Frank J. Tulenko, Marcus C. Davis, Gareth J. Fraser Feb 2015

Making Teeth To Order: Conserved Genes Reveal An Ancient Molecular Pattern In Paddlefish (Actinopterygii), Moya M. Smith, Zerina Johanson, Thomas Butts, Rolf Ericsson, Melinda Modrell, Frank J. Tulenko, Marcus C. Davis, Gareth J. Fraser

Marcus C Davis

Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) are the dominant vertebrate group today (+30 000 species, predominantly teleosts), with great morphological diversity, including their dentitions. How dental morphological variation evolved is best addressed by considering a range of taxa across actinopterygian phylogeny; here we examine the dentition of Polyodon spathula (American paddlefish), assigned to the basal group Acipenseriformes. Although teeth are present and functional in young individuals of Polyodon, they are completely absent in adults. Our current understanding of developmental genes operating in the dentition is primarily restricted to teleosts; we show that shh and bmp4, as highly conserved epithelial and mesenchymal genes for ...


Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn May 2014

Probiotics: Finding The Right Regulatory Balance, Diane E. Hoffmann, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Frank B. Palumbo, Jacques Ravel, Karen H. Rothenberg, Virginia Rowthorn

Karen H. Rothenberg

Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated.


Separate Sex-Influenced And Genetic Components In Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Hypertension, Monte E. Turner, Mark L. Johnson, Daniel Ely Apr 2014

Separate Sex-Influenced And Genetic Components In Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Hypertension, Monte E. Turner, Mark L. Johnson, Daniel Ely

Monte E. Turner

Previous results from our laboratory indicated two major genetic components of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) hypertension, an autosomal component and a Y chromosome component. Two new substrains, SHR/a and SHR/y, were developed using a series of backcrosses to isolate each of these components. The SHR/a substrain has the autosomal loci and X chromosome from the SHR strain and the Y chromosome from the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain. The SHR/y substrain has only the Y chromosome from the SHR and autosomal loci and X chromosome from the WKY strain. Throughout these breeding programs parents were chosen at ...


Genetic-Divergence Between The Wistar-Kyoto Rat And The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat, Mark L. Johnson, Daniel Ely, Monte E. Turner Apr 2014

Genetic-Divergence Between The Wistar-Kyoto Rat And The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat, Mark L. Johnson, Daniel Ely, Monte E. Turner

Monte E. Turner

A method of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to estimate the amount of genetic divergence between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain and the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) strain. DNA from each strain was digested with eight restriction endonucleases and hybridized with six single copy gene sequences. The number of hybridization bands in each digestion was used to estimate the total number of bases analyzed and RFLPs were scored as single mutations. Divergence was then estimated by dividing the number of mutations by the number of bases analyzed. In a total of 808 bases analyzed in WKY rats, a ...


Testosterone Effects On Renal Norepinephrine Content And Release In Rats With Different Y Chromosomes, Thomas J. Jones, Gail Dunphy, Amy Milsted, Daniel Ely Apr 2014

Testosterone Effects On Renal Norepinephrine Content And Release In Rats With Different Y Chromosomes, Thomas J. Jones, Gail Dunphy, Amy Milsted, Daniel Ely

Amy Milsted

The Y chromosome in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and stroke-prone rats has been shown to contain a locus that contributes to the hypertensive effect; both the sympathetic nervous system and testosterone may be involved. The objective of this study was to look at the effects of testosterone on renal norepinephrine (NE) release and content in the isolated perfused kidney in different Y chromosome backgrounds. The study involved male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), and 2 consomic strains with different Y chromosomes (n=5 to 8 per group). Adult animals were castrated, and implants containing testosterone propionate were placed at the base ...


Encyclopedia Of Animal Behavior, A. Payne, P. Starks, Aviva Liebert Jun 2013

Encyclopedia Of Animal Behavior, A. Payne, P. Starks, Aviva Liebert

Aviva E Liebert

The Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior has engaged-with great success-the efforts of many of the best behavioral biologists of the 21st century. Section editors drawn from the most accomplished behavioral scientists of their generation have enrolled an international cast of highly respected thinkers and writers-all of whom have taken great care and joy in illuminating every imaginable corner of animal behavior. This comprehensive work covers not only the usual topics such as communication, learning, sexual selection, navigation, and the history of the field, but also emerging topics in cognition, animal welfare, conservation, and applications of animal behavior. The large section on ...


Taming Of The Skew: Transactional Models Fail To Predict Reproductive Partitioning In The Paper Wasp Polistes Dominulus, Aviva Liebert, Philip Starks Feb 2013

Taming Of The Skew: Transactional Models Fail To Predict Reproductive Partitioning In The Paper Wasp Polistes Dominulus, Aviva Liebert, Philip Starks

Aviva E Liebert

Female Polistes paper wasps can initiate colonies either solitarily or in cooperative groups. Reproduction is often distributed unequally in groups, even to the point of complete monopolization of breeding by the dominant group member. Transactional models of reproductive skew predict the degree of reproductive partitioning, assuming that the dominant controls group membership and will yield a proportion of reproduction to a subordinate as an incentive to stay peacefully in the group. Using a combination of demographic, genetic and morphological data from a population of P. dominulus, we test predictions of 'classical' two-person skew models as well as more complex 'N ...


Sexual Interactions And Nestmate Recognition In Invasive Populations Of Polistes Dominulus Wasps, Aviva Liebert, N Wilson-Rich, C Johnson, Philip Starks Feb 2013

Sexual Interactions And Nestmate Recognition In Invasive Populations Of Polistes Dominulus Wasps, Aviva Liebert, N Wilson-Rich, C Johnson, Philip Starks

Aviva E Liebert

Many social insect species have mating systems or recognition abilities that minimize the chance of inbreeding. In haplodiploid systems, inbreeding is especially costly due to the production of sterile offspring such as diploid males. Diploid males (and their triploid offspring) have been identified in invasive populations of the paper wasp, Polistes dominulus, but to date have not been reported in its native populations. Due to the degree of genetic diversity in the invasive populations, it is unlikely that the production of these genetic ‘misfits’ is the result of a genetic bottleneck alone, but rather that errors in nestmate recognition may ...