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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Genome-Wide Multi-Layered Architecture Of Chromosome Pairing In Early Drosophila Embryos, Jelena Erceg, Jumana Alhaj Abed, Anton Goloborodko, Bryan R. Lajoie, Geoffrey Fudenberg, Nezar Abdennur, Maxim Imakaev, Ruth B. Mccole, Son C. Nguyen, Wren Saylor, Eric F. Joyce, T. Niroshini Senaratne, Mohammed A. Hannan, Guy Nir, Job Dekker, Leonid A. Mirny, C-Ting Wu Oct 2019

The Genome-Wide Multi-Layered Architecture Of Chromosome Pairing In Early Drosophila Embryos, Jelena Erceg, Jumana Alhaj Abed, Anton Goloborodko, Bryan R. Lajoie, Geoffrey Fudenberg, Nezar Abdennur, Maxim Imakaev, Ruth B. Mccole, Son C. Nguyen, Wren Saylor, Eric F. Joyce, T. Niroshini Senaratne, Mohammed A. Hannan, Guy Nir, Job Dekker, Leonid A. Mirny, C-Ting Wu

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

Genome organization involves cis and trans chromosomal interactions, both implicated in gene regulation, development, and disease. Here, we focus on trans interactions in Drosophila, where homologous chromosomes are paired in somatic cells from embryogenesis through adulthood. We first address long-standing questions regarding the structure of embryonic homolog pairing and, to this end, develop a haplotype-resolved Hi-C approach to minimize homolog misassignment and thus robustly distinguish trans-homolog from cis contacts. This computational approach, which we call Ohm, reveals pairing to be surprisingly structured genome-wide, with trans-homolog domains, compartments, and interaction peaks, many coinciding with analogous cis features. We also find a ...


9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston Apr 2019

X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston

Thinking Matters Symposium

To prevent abnormal development caused by expressing both X chromosomes, female mammals inactivate one of their X chromosomes using an epigenetic process called dosage compensation. This literature review examines how X chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs during the formation and development of an embryo. This condensation of DNA is marked by histone tail modifications, DNA methylation, and the arrival of structural proteins resulting in extraordinarily stable heterochromatin. X-inactivation is regulated in cis by the X-inactivation center (Xic) that contains the Xist gene and its antisense gene, Tsix. On one X chromosome, Xist RNA is expressed and coats the center of the ...


Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch Feb 2019

Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch

Open Access Articles

Odontochondrodysplasia (ODCD) is an unresolved genetic disorder of skeletal and dental development. Here, we show that ODCD is caused by hypomorphic TRIP11 mutations, and we identify ODCD as the nonlethal counterpart to achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A), the known null phenotype in humans. TRIP11 encodes Golgi-associated microtubule-binding protein 210 (GMAP-210), an essential tether protein of the Golgi apparatus that physically interacts with intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20), a component of the ciliary intraflagellar transport complex B. This association and extraskeletal disease manifestations in ODCD point to a cilium-dependent pathogenesis. However, our functional studies in patient-derived primary cells clearly support a Golgi-based disease mechanism ...


Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah May 2018

Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. It acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. The PI3-kinase pathway has been shown to play integral roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and cell migration in many cell types. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. In this present study, we investigated possible roles of ...


Egfr Polymorphisms In Drosophila Melanogaster, Stacie Chue, Neha Mehta, Samantha Poon, Heather Trazino May 2018

Egfr Polymorphisms In Drosophila Melanogaster, Stacie Chue, Neha Mehta, Samantha Poon, Heather Trazino

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro May 2018

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro

Senior Honors Projects

In recent years, advancements in genetic testing methods have revolutionized the medical field by enhancing the ability to identify persons with an inherited predisposition to cancer. According to the American Society for Clinical Oncology, individuals should undergo genetic testing when he or she meets the following criteria: the individual demonstrates familial history that indicates a predisposition to certain cancers, the test can be adequately interpreted, and the results will aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or management of the patient or additional family members at risk. Genetic testing can be done on samples of hair, skin, blood, amniotic fluid, or other ...


Unseen Science: Modern Discoveries Too Far Away Or Tiny For Human Eyes, Lucy Huang Dec 2017

Unseen Science: Modern Discoveries Too Far Away Or Tiny For Human Eyes, Lucy Huang

Capstones

As science has progressed, scientists have realized that evidence goes beyond the realms of physical sight. Whether it is too small or difficult to find, scientists have developed different ways to get around this problem. We see this in cancer genomics and in extrasolar planetary research. Scientists use what they know and what they measure to validate their work.

https://lucy-huang-9tge.squarespace.com/


Pleiotropy Of Genetic Variants On Obesity And Smoking Phenotypes: Results From The Oncoarray Project Of The International Lung Cancer Consortium, Tao Wang, Jee-Young Moon, Yiqun Wu, Christopher I. Amos, Rayjean J. Hung, Adonina Tardon, Angeline Andrew, Chu Chen, David C. Christiani, Demetrios Albanes, Erik H. F. M. Van Der Heijden, Eric Duell, Gadi Rennert, Gary Goodman, Geoffrey Liu, James D. Mckay, Jian-Min Yuan, John K. Field, Jonas Manjer, Kjell Grankvist, Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Loic Le Marchand, M. Dawn Teare, Matthew B. Schabath, Mattias Johansson, Melinda C. Aldrich, Michael Davies, Mikael Johansson, Ming-Sound Tsao, Neil Caporaso, Susanne Arnold Sep 2017

Pleiotropy Of Genetic Variants On Obesity And Smoking Phenotypes: Results From The Oncoarray Project Of The International Lung Cancer Consortium, Tao Wang, Jee-Young Moon, Yiqun Wu, Christopher I. Amos, Rayjean J. Hung, Adonina Tardon, Angeline Andrew, Chu Chen, David C. Christiani, Demetrios Albanes, Erik H. F. M. Van Der Heijden, Eric Duell, Gadi Rennert, Gary Goodman, Geoffrey Liu, James D. Mckay, Jian-Min Yuan, John K. Field, Jonas Manjer, Kjell Grankvist, Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Loic Le Marchand, M. Dawn Teare, Matthew B. Schabath, Mattias Johansson, Melinda C. Aldrich, Michael Davies, Mikael Johansson, Ming-Sound Tsao, Neil Caporaso, Susanne Arnold

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Obesity and cigarette smoking are correlated through complex relationships. Common genetic causes may contribute to these correlations. In this study, we selected 241 loci potentially associated with body mass index (BMI) based on the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium data and calculated a BMI genetic risk score (BMI-GRS) for 17,037 individuals of European descent from the Oncoarray Project of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). Smokers had a significantly higher BMI-GRS than never-smokers (p = 0.016 and 0.010 before and after adjustment for BMI, respectively). The BMI-GRS was also positively correlated with pack-years of smoking (p ...


Clinical And Experimental Studies Of A Novel P525r Fus Mutation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lisha Kuang, Marisa Kamelgarn, Alexandra Arenas, Jozsef Gal, Deborah Taylor, Weiming Gong, Martin Brown, Daret St. Clair, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu Aug 2017

Clinical And Experimental Studies Of A Novel P525r Fus Mutation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lisha Kuang, Marisa Kamelgarn, Alexandra Arenas, Jozsef Gal, Deborah Taylor, Weiming Gong, Martin Brown, Daret St. Clair, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Objective: To describe the clinical features of a novel fused in sarcoma (FUS) mutation in a young adult female amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient with rapid progression of weakness and to experimentally validate the consequences of the P525R mutation in cellular neuronal models.

Methods: We conducted sequencing of genomic DNA from the index patient and her family members. Immunocytochemistry was performed in various cellular models to determine whether the newly identified P525R mutant FUS protein accumulated in cytoplasmic inclusions. Clinical features of the index patient were compared with 19 other patients with ALS carrying the P525L mutation in the same ...


Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson May 2017

Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson

David Grünwald

The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been repurposed for genome engineering, transcription modulation, and chromosome imaging in eukaryotic cells. However, the nuclear dynamics of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) guide RNAs and target interrogation are not well defined in living cells. Here, we deployed a dual-color CRISPR system to directly measure the stability of both Cas9 and guide RNA. We found that Cas9 is essential for guide RNA stability and that the nuclear Cas9-guide RNA complex levels limit the targeting efficiency. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed that single mismatches in the guide RNA seed ...


Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of The Drosophila Anterior Determinant, Bicoid, John Mclaughlin Feb 2017

Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of The Drosophila Anterior Determinant, Bicoid, John Mclaughlin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In a wide variety of biological contexts, messenger RNA (mRNA) is known to have a complex and dynamic life cycle. In particular, the localization and translational control of mRNA are essential for proper development in eukaryotes. The fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for studying these processes. During D. melanogaster oogenesis, several mRNAs are trafficked and localized within the developing egg chamber, and regulated at the translational level to enable embryo patterning. One such mRNA, bicoid, is localized at the anterior of the oocyte and translated in the early embryo, where its encoded protein directs formation of the fly ...


Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson Aug 2016

Crispr-Cas9 Nuclear Dynamics And Target Recognition In Living Cells, Hanhui Ma, Li-Chun Tu, Ardalan Naseri, Maximiliaan Huisman, Shaojie Zhang, David Grünwald, Thoru Pederson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been repurposed for genome engineering, transcription modulation, and chromosome imaging in eukaryotic cells. However, the nuclear dynamics of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) guide RNAs and target interrogation are not well defined in living cells. Here, we deployed a dual-color CRISPR system to directly measure the stability of both Cas9 and guide RNA. We found that Cas9 is essential for guide RNA stability and that the nuclear Cas9-guide RNA complex levels limit the targeting efficiency. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed that single mismatches in the guide RNA seed ...


A Genetic Analysis Of Cichlid Scale Morphology, Kenta C. Kawasaki Jan 2016

A Genetic Analysis Of Cichlid Scale Morphology, Kenta C. Kawasaki

Masters Theses

Epidermal appendages are found on every vertebrate this world has to offer. In fish, these are commonly represented by scales. While we have a solid grasp of how scales develop, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms behind these phenotypic changes. Using two species of African cichlids (Labeotropheus fuelleborni and Tropheops “red cheek”) with varying scale phenotypes, we sought to examine their F2 hybrid offspring and statistically link the responsible genetic elements to their respective parental phenotypes through Quantitative Loci Trait (QTL) analysis.

Scales were removed from six different locations across the midline of each individual. Then, numerous traits ...


Tno1 & Vps45: Snare-Associated Proteins Required For Plant Growth, Rahul Roy Jan 2016

Tno1 & Vps45: Snare-Associated Proteins Required For Plant Growth, Rahul Roy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cellular trafficking of cargo vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is required for multiple processes such as cell expansion, stress responses and hormonal transport in plants. Activity of membrane proteins known as SNAREs drives membrane fusion events. Associated proteins such as tethering factors and Sec1/Munc18 proteins aid the fidelity and efficiency of these fusion events by interacting with SNAREs. The TGN-localized SYP41/SYP61/VTI12 SNARE complex is required for vacuolar and secretory cargo trafficking.

TNO1, a putative tethering factor, associates with SYP41 and is required for TGN membrane fusion dynamics and proper SYP61 localization. My dissertation research discovered a ...


Principles Of Biology, Robert Bear, David Rintoul, Bruce Snyder, Martha Smith-Caldas, Christopher Herren, Eva Horne Jan 2016

Principles Of Biology, Robert Bear, David Rintoul, Bruce Snyder, Martha Smith-Caldas, Christopher Herren, Eva Horne

Open Access Textbooks

This textbook is designed specifically for Kansas State's Biology 198 Class. The course is taught using the studio approach and based on active learning. The studio manual contains all of the learning objectives for each class period and is the record of all student activities. Hence, this textbook is more of a reference tool while the studio manual is the learning tool.

The textbook was originally published and is also available to download at http://cnx.org/contents/db89c8f8-a27c-4685-ad2a-19d11a2a7e2e@24.1.It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license.


Yeast Integral Membrane Proteins Apq12, Brl1, And Brr6 Form A Complex Important For Regulation Of Membrane Homeostasis And Nuclear Pore Complex Biogenesis, Museer A. Lone, Aaron E. Atkinson, Christine A. Hodge, Stéphanie Cottier, Fernando Martínez-Montañés, Shelley Maithel, Laurent Mène-Saffrané, Cole Cole, Roger Schneiter Oct 2015

Yeast Integral Membrane Proteins Apq12, Brl1, And Brr6 Form A Complex Important For Regulation Of Membrane Homeostasis And Nuclear Pore Complex Biogenesis, Museer A. Lone, Aaron E. Atkinson, Christine A. Hodge, Stéphanie Cottier, Fernando Martínez-Montañés, Shelley Maithel, Laurent Mène-Saffrané, Cole Cole, Roger Schneiter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Proper functioning of intracellular membranes is critical for many cellular processes. A key feature of membranes is their ability to adapt to changes in environmental conditions by adjusting their composition so as to maintain constant biophysical proper- ties, including fluidity and flexibility. Similar changes in the biophysical properties of membranes likely occur when intracellular processes, such as vesicle formation and fusion, require dramatic changes in membrane curvature. Similar modifications must also be made when nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are constructed within the existing nuclear membrane, as occurs during in- terphase in all eukaryotes. Here we report on the role of ...


Polyq-Dependent Rna–Protein Assemblies Control Symmetry Breaking, Changhwan Lee, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter Jul 2015

Polyq-Dependent Rna–Protein Assemblies Control Symmetry Breaking, Changhwan Lee, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Dendritic growth in fungi and neurons requires that multiple axes of polarity are established and maintained within the same cytoplasm. We have discovered that transcripts encoding key polarity factors including a formin, Bni1, and a polarisome scaffold, Spa2, are nonrandomly clustered in the cytosol to initiate and maintain sites of polarized growth in the fungus Ashbya gossypii. This asymmetric distribution requires the mRNAs to interact with a polyQ-containing protein, Whi3, and a Pumilio protein with a low-complexity sequence, Puf2. Cells lacking Whi3 or Puf2 had severe defects in establishing new sites of polarity and failed to localize Bni1 protein. Interaction ...


Tctex1d2 Mutations Underlie Jeune Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy With Impaired Retrograde Intraflagellar Transport, Miriam Schmidts, Yuqing Hou, Hannah M. Mitchison, George B. Witman Jun 2015

Tctex1d2 Mutations Underlie Jeune Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy With Impaired Retrograde Intraflagellar Transport, Miriam Schmidts, Yuqing Hou, Hannah M. Mitchison, George B. Witman

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under ...


High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes Jan 2015

High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project was developed to identify novel methods for high-throughput culturing and screening of C. elegans to investigate age-related metabolic changes and to survey the proteomic and metabolomic factors associated with age-related changes. To accomplish these goals we developed a novel way to grow C. elegans in liquid culture in 96-well microplates for several weeks without suffering significant fluid loss due to evaporation and without needing to shake or unseal the plates for aeration. We also developed methods for assaying the total volume of live C. elegans in microplate cultures using a fluorescence microplate reader and for performing RNAi experiments ...


Developing A Gene Editing System To Study Haplodiploidy In The Jewel Wasp, Nasonia Vitripennis, Emily A. Muller Jan 2015

Developing A Gene Editing System To Study Haplodiploidy In The Jewel Wasp, Nasonia Vitripennis, Emily A. Muller

Scripps Senior Theses

Hymenopteran insects, which include all ants, bees and wasps, reproduce through a poorly understood form of reproduction known as haplodiploidy. A promising experimental system for understanding this developmental process is the jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis. A critical aspect of using Nasonia as a model is establishing an effective means for editing specific genes of interest so that their functions can be studied through genetic means. For my thesis research, I performed a pilot study of the gene editing method known as CRISPR in Nasonia. I targeted the single heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) gene present in the Nasonia genome in order ...


Analysis Of Cytokinin-Induced Maize Leaf Developmental Changes And Interacting Genetic Modifiers, James Francis Cahill Jan 2015

Analysis Of Cytokinin-Induced Maize Leaf Developmental Changes And Interacting Genetic Modifiers, James Francis Cahill

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Four distinct segments define the maize leaf along the proximal-distal axis: the proximal sheath and the distal blade, which are separated by the ligule and auricle. The process of maize leaf morphogenesis, patterning and development requires the coordination of a number of proteins and hormones. The semi-dominant gain-of-function mutant Hairy sheath frayed1 (Hsf1) disrupts a number of leaf growth parameters: (i) leaves are shorter and more narrow, (ii) an increased density of macrohairs are apparent on the abaxial sheath and adaxial blade and (iii) the normal proximal-distal leaf pattern is disrupted, resulting in outgrowths, or prongs, of ectopic sheath, auricle ...


Regulation Of Shoot Development In Maize Via Brassinosteroid Signaling, Gokhan Kir Jan 2015

Regulation Of Shoot Development In Maize Via Brassinosteroid Signaling, Gokhan Kir

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brassinosteroids (BR) are a class of phytohormones with many important roles in plant growth and development. Compared to other model organisms BR signaling is poorly understood in maize. To study BR signaling's role in maize growth and development we suppressed two members of the BR signaling pathway, BRI1 and BIN2, by RNAi approach. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses suggested that there are two BRI1 copies and three BRI1-like genes (BRL) homologs in maize. bri1b, which is located on chr 5, was incomplete in databases, but via subsequent cloning and sequencing was found to be an intact and expressed gene ...


Polycystin-2 (Pkd2), Eccentric (Xnta), And Meckelin (Mks3) In The Ciliated Model Organism Paramecium Tetraurelia, Megan Smith Valentine Jan 2015

Polycystin-2 (Pkd2), Eccentric (Xnta), And Meckelin (Mks3) In The Ciliated Model Organism Paramecium Tetraurelia, Megan Smith Valentine

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Paramecium tetraurelia is a ciliated single cell used as a model organism for the study of ciliopathies. Ciliopathies are mammalian diseases involving the dysfunction of cilia, including cilia maintenance, construction, and signaling. P. tetraurelia and its cilia provides an excellent non-canonical system for the investigation and elucidation of proteins important for the structure, maintenance and function of cilia and ciliary beating. We utilize features of this cell such as its 1000's of cilia and highly organized and patterned cell surface to observe changes in swimming behavior or disruptions in the ordered cell surface which are not feasible in mammalian ...


Trip/Nopo E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Promotes Ubiquitylation Of Dna Polymerase Η, Heather A. Wallace, Julie A. Merkle, Michael C. Yu, Taloa G. Berg, Ethan Lee, Giovanni Bosco, Laura A. Lee Jan 2014

Trip/Nopo E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Promotes Ubiquitylation Of Dna Polymerase Η, Heather A. Wallace, Julie A. Merkle, Michael C. Yu, Taloa G. Berg, Ethan Lee, Giovanni Bosco, Laura A. Lee

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We previously identified a Drosophila maternal effect-lethal mutant named ‘no poles’ (nopo). Embryos from nopo females undergo mitotic arrest with barrel-shaped, acentrosomal spindles during the rapid cycles of syncytial embryogenesis because of activation of a Chk2-mediated DNA checkpoint. NOPO is the Drosophila homolog of human TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein (TRIP), which has been implicated in TNF signaling. NOPO and TRIP contain RING domains closely resembling those of known E3 ubiquitin ligases. We herein sought to elucidate the mechanism by which TRIP/NOPO promotes genomic stability by performing a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify potential substrates/interactors. We ...


Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess Jan 2014

Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is a remarkable organ system that is required for almost all animal life. In vertebrates, skeletal muscle can alter its functional and molecular characteristics in response to pathologic and physiologic stimuli. Additionally, adult muscle retains the ability to regenerate following injury, activating progenitor cells much like the process of muscle formation during embryonic development. Much work has been done to characterize the changes in gene expression that occur during regeneration, and this knowledge has been invaluable in treatment of muscle wasting diseases, such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Further expanding the complexity of gene expression changes is the discovery ...


Identification Of Set1 Target Genes, William Beyer, Scott D. Briggs Oct 2013

Identification Of Set1 Target Genes, William Beyer, Scott D. Briggs

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Set1 complex, a histone methyltransferase complex found in S. cerevisiae (budding yeast), is the only histone methyltransferase responsible for catalyzing methylation of histone H3 at Lysine 4. It possesses homologues in other species, humans included. While yeast only have the Set1 complex, the human homologues of the yeast Set1 complex include mixed-lineage leukemia family (MLL1-4), Set1 A, Set1 B, among others. MLL1-4 has been shown to play a role in transcription, cell type specification, and the development of leukemia. One application of characterizing the role of a protein is that the information gained can provide insight into the function ...


P53'S Choice Of Myocardial Death Or Survival: Oxygen Protects Infarct Myocardium By Recruiting P53 On Nos3 Promoter Through Regulation Of P53-Lys118 Acetylation, Rajan Gogna, Esha Madan, Mahmood Khan, Uttam Pati, Periannan Kuppusamy Aug 2013

P53'S Choice Of Myocardial Death Or Survival: Oxygen Protects Infarct Myocardium By Recruiting P53 On Nos3 Promoter Through Regulation Of P53-Lys118 Acetylation, Rajan Gogna, Esha Madan, Mahmood Khan, Uttam Pati, Periannan Kuppusamy

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Myocardial infarction, an irreversible cardiac tissue damage, involves progressive loss of cardiomyocytes due to p53-mediated apoptosis. Oxygenation is known to promote cardiac survival through activation of NOS3 gene. We hypothesized a dual role for p53, which, depending on oxygenation, can elicit apoptotic death signals or NOS3-mediated survival signals in the infarct heart. p53 exhibited a differential DNA-binding, namely, BAX-p53RE in the infarct heart or NOS3-p53RE in the oxygenated heart, which was regulated by oxygen-induced, post- translational modification of p53. In the infarct heart, p53 was heavily acetylated at Lys118 residue, which was exclusively reversed in the oxygenated heart, apparently regulated ...


The Importance Of Epigenetic Phenomena In Regulating Activity Of The Genetic Material, Sin Chan Aug 2013

The Importance Of Epigenetic Phenomena In Regulating Activity Of The Genetic Material, Sin Chan

Senior Honors Projects

Genetics has taught us that genes are represented as discrete sequences within a larger DNA molecule found embedded within the chromosomes of a living cell. Collectively these chromosomes and their associated genes carry all of the instructions for life. Until recently, the prevailing thought has been that genes are destiny in the life of an individual since the genes carry the information that determines the general traits and characteristics associated with that individual. The relatively recent understanding of mechanisms that underlie epigenetic phenomena has led to a rethinking of this concept. Epigenetics describes cellular mechanisms that explain how two individuals ...


Use Of Image Cytometry For Quantification Of Pathogenic Fungi In Association With Host Cells, Charlotte A. Berkes, Leo Li-Ying Chan, Alisha Wilkinson, Benjamin Paradis Jun 2013

Use Of Image Cytometry For Quantification Of Pathogenic Fungi In Association With Host Cells, Charlotte A. Berkes, Leo Li-Ying Chan, Alisha Wilkinson, Benjamin Paradis

Biology Faculty Publications

Studies of the cellular pathogenesis mechanisms of pathogenic yeasts such as Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus neoformans commonly employ infection of mammalian hosts or host cells (i.e. macrophages) followed by yeast quantification using colony forming unit analysis or flow cytometry. While colony forming unit enumeration has been the most commonly used method in the field, this technique has disadvantages and limitations, including slow growth of some fungal species on solid media and low and/or variable plating efficiencies, which is of particular concern when comparing growth of wild-type and mutant strains. Flow cytometry can provide rapid quantitative information ...