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Effect Of Variation In An Essential Folding Element On The Cobalamin Riboswitch, Marcus Urquijo Jan 2018

Effect Of Variation In An Essential Folding Element On The Cobalamin Riboswitch, Marcus Urquijo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Riboswitches are RNA-based genetic regulatory elements that control gene expression without the need for protein cofactors. These RNA motifs are found within the 5’ untranslated regions of mRNA and promote genetic regulation by altering the structure of RNA through binding small molecule effector ligands that cause conformational changes that repress or activate translation/transcription. The env8 cobalamin riboswitch binds cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) to repress gene expression of the downstream mRNA. It accomplishes this through an interplay of two separate domains; an aptamer domain which binds the effector ligand and a regulatory domain which contains the genetic switch. Within the aptamer domain ...


Deletion Of Nfnab In Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum And Its Effect On Metabolism, Jonathan Lo, Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G. Olson, Natalie Ruppertsberger, Shital Tripathi, Adam Guss, Lee Lynd Jun 2015

Deletion Of Nfnab In Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum And Its Effect On Metabolism, Jonathan Lo, Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G. Olson, Natalie Ruppertsberger, Shital Tripathi, Adam Guss, Lee Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

NfnAB catalyzes the reversible transfer of electrons from reduced ferredoxin and NADH to 2 NADP+. The NfnAB complex has been hypothesized to be the main enzyme for ferredoxin oxidization in strains of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum engineered for increased ethanol production. NfnAB complex activity was detectable in crude cell extracts of T. saccharolyticum. Activity was also detected using activity staining of native PAGE gels. The nfnAB gene was deleted in different strains of T. saccharolyticum to determine its effect on end product formation. In wild-type T. saccharolyticum, deletion of nfnAB resulted in a 46% increase in H2 formation but otherwise little ...


Cofactor Specificity Of The Bifunctional Alcohol And Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (Adhe) In Wild-Type And Mutant Clostridium Thermocellum And Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum, Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G. Olson, Liang Tian, Yannick J. Bomble, Michael Himmel, Jonathan Lo, Shuen Hon, A. Joe Shaw, Johannes P. Van Dijken, Lee Lynd May 2015

Cofactor Specificity Of The Bifunctional Alcohol And Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (Adhe) In Wild-Type And Mutant Clostridium Thermocellum And Thermoanaerobacterium Saccharolyticum, Tianyong Zheng, Daniel G. Olson, Liang Tian, Yannick J. Bomble, Michael Himmel, Jonathan Lo, Shuen Hon, A. Joe Shaw, Johannes P. Van Dijken, Lee Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum are thermophilic bacteria that have been engineered to produce ethanol from the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of biomass, respectively. Although engineered strains of T. saccharolyticum produce ethanol with a yield of 90% of the theoretical maximum, engineered strains of C. thermocellum produce ethanol at lower yields (∼50% of the theoretical maximum). In the course of engineering these strains, a number of mutations have been discovered in their adhE genes, which encode both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. To understand the effects of these mutations, the adhE genes from six strains of C ...


Structural Features Of The Pseudomonas Fluorescens Biofilm Adhesin Lapa Required For Lapg-Dependent Cleavage, Biofilm Formation, And Cell Surface Localization, Chelsea D. Boyd, T. Jarrod Smith, Sofiane El-Kirat-Chatel, Peter D. Newell, Yves F. Dufrêne, George A. O'Toole May 2014

Structural Features Of The Pseudomonas Fluorescens Biofilm Adhesin Lapa Required For Lapg-Dependent Cleavage, Biofilm Formation, And Cell Surface Localization, Chelsea D. Boyd, T. Jarrod Smith, Sofiane El-Kirat-Chatel, Peter D. Newell, Yves F. Dufrêne, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The localization of the LapA protein to the cell surface is a key step required by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 to irreversibly attach to a surface and form a biofilm. LapA is a member of a diverse family of predicted bacterial adhesins, and although lacking a high degree of sequence similarity, family members do share common predicted domains. Here, using mutational analysis, we determine the significance of each domain feature of LapA in relation to its export and localization to the cell surface and function in biofilm formation. Our previous work showed that the N terminus of LapA is required for ...


Role Of The Cipa Scaffoldin Protein In Cellulose Solubilization, As Determined By Targeted Gene Deletion And Complementation In Clostridium Thermocellum, Daniel G. Olson, Richard J. Giannone, Robert L. Hettich, Lee R. Lynd Nov 2013

Role Of The Cipa Scaffoldin Protein In Cellulose Solubilization, As Determined By Targeted Gene Deletion And Complementation In Clostridium Thermocellum, Daniel G. Olson, Richard J. Giannone, Robert L. Hettich, Lee R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The CipA scaffoldin protein plays a key role in the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome. Previous studies have revealed that mutants deficient in binding or solubilizing cellulose also exhibit reduced expression of CipA. To confirm that CipA is, in fact, necessary for rapid solubilization of crystalline cellulose, the gene was deleted from the chromosome using targeted gene deletion technologies. The CipA deletion mutant exhibited a 100-fold reduction in cellulose solubilization rate, although it was eventually able to solubilize 80% of the 5 g/liter cellulose initially present. The deletion mutant was complemented by a copy of cipA expressed from a replicating plasmid ...


Characterization Of Brer Interaction With The Bile Response Promoters Breab And Brer In Vibrio Cholerae, Francisca A. Cerda-Maira, Gabriela Kovacikova, Brooke A. Jude, Karen Skorupski, Ronald Taylor Jan 2013

Characterization Of Brer Interaction With The Bile Response Promoters Breab And Brer In Vibrio Cholerae, Francisca A. Cerda-Maira, Gabriela Kovacikova, Brooke A. Jude, Karen Skorupski, Ronald Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The Vibrio cholerae BreR protein is a transcriptional repressor of the breAB efflux system operon, which encodes proteins involved in bile resistance. In a previous study (F. A. Cerda-Maira, C. S. Ringelberg, and R. K. Taylor, J. Bacteriol. 190:7441-7452, 2008), we used gel mobility shift assays to determine that BreR binds at two independent binding sites at the breAB promoter and a single site at its own promoter. Here it is shown, by DNase I footprinting and site-directed mutagenesis, that BreR is able to bind at a distal and a proximal site in the breAB promoter. However, only one ...


The Evolution Of Host Specificity In The Vertebrate Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus Reuteri, Steven Frese Nov 2012

The Evolution Of Host Specificity In The Vertebrate Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus Reuteri, Steven Frese

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The vertebrate gut is home to one of the densest populations of life on Earth. This microbial community has a profound effect on host health, nutrition, development, behavior, and evolution. However, very little is known about how these microbes have evolved with their vertebrate hosts, how and whether they select hosts or how they remain associated with their hosts. Recent work identified Lactobacillus reuteri as an organism that is composed of host-specific sub-populations, each population associated with a different host animal. Representatives from each host-associated population were tested for their ability to colonize gnotobiotic mice, which only rodent strains could ...


Minor Pilins Of The Type Iv Pilus System Participate In The Negative Regulation Of Swarming Motility, S L. Kuchma, E. F. Griffin, G. A. O'Toole Aug 2012

Minor Pilins Of The Type Iv Pilus System Participate In The Negative Regulation Of Swarming Motility, S L. Kuchma, E. F. Griffin, G. A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits distinct surface-associated behaviors, including biofilm formation, flagellum-mediated swarming motility, and type IV pilus-driven twitching. Here, we report a role for the minor pilins, PilW and PilX, components of the type IV pilus assembly machinery, in the repression of swarming motility. Mutating either the pilW or pilX gene alleviates the inhibition of swarming motility observed for strains with elevated levels of the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) due to loss of BifA, a c-di-GMP-degrading phosphodiesterase. Blocking PilD peptidase-mediated processing of PilW and PilX renders the unprocessed proteins defective for pilus assembly but still functional in c-di-GMP-mediated swarming ...


Epoxide-Mediated Cifr Repression Of Cif Gene Expression Utilizes Two Binding Sites In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Alicia E. Ballok, Christopher D. Bahl, Emily L. Dolben, Allia K. Lindsay, Jessica D. St. Laurent, Deborah Hogan, Dean Madden, George A. O'Toole Jul 2012

Epoxide-Mediated Cifr Repression Of Cif Gene Expression Utilizes Two Binding Sites In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Alicia E. Ballok, Christopher D. Bahl, Emily L. Dolben, Allia K. Lindsay, Jessica D. St. Laurent, Deborah Hogan, Dean Madden, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes an epoxide hydrolase virulence factor that reduces the apical membrane expression of ABC transporters such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This virulence factor, named CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif), is regulated by a TetR-family, epoxide-responsive repressor known as CifR via direct binding and repression. We identified two sites of CifR binding in the intergenic space between cifR and morB, the first gene in the operon containing the cif gene. We have mapped these binding sites and found they are 27 bp in length, and they overlap the -10 and +1 sites of both the cifR ...


Coordinated Regulation By Agra, Sara, And Sarr To Control Agr Expression In Staphylococcus Aureus, Dindo Reyes, Diego O. Andrey, Antoinette Monod, William L. Kelley, Gongyi Zhang, Ambrose L. Cheung Sep 2011

Coordinated Regulation By Agra, Sara, And Sarr To Control Agr Expression In Staphylococcus Aureus, Dindo Reyes, Diego O. Andrey, Antoinette Monod, William L. Kelley, Gongyi Zhang, Ambrose L. Cheung

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The agr locus of Staphylococcus aureus is composed of two divergent transcripts (RNAII and RNAIII) driven by the P2 and P3 promoters. The P2-P3 intergenic region comprises the SarA/SarR binding sites and the four AgrA boxes to which AgrA binds. We reported here the role of AgrA, SarA, and SarR on agr P2 and P3 transcription. Using real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and promoter fusion studies with selected single, double, triple, and complemented mutants, we showed that AgrA is indispensable to agr P2 and P3 transcription, whereas SarA activates and SarR represses P2 transcription. In vitro runoff transcription assays ...


Systematic Analysis Of Diguanylate Cyclases That Promote Biofilm Formation By Pseudomonas Fluorescens Pf0-1, Peter D. Newell, Shiro Yoshioka, Kelli L. Hvorecny, Russell D. Monds, George A. O'Toole Jul 2011

Systematic Analysis Of Diguanylate Cyclases That Promote Biofilm Formation By Pseudomonas Fluorescens Pf0-1, Peter D. Newell, Shiro Yoshioka, Kelli L. Hvorecny, Russell D. Monds, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a broadly conserved, intracellular second-messenger molecule that regulates biofilm formation by many bacteria. The synthesis of c-di-GMP is catalyzed by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) containing the GGDEF domain, while its degradation is achieved through the phosphodiesterase activities of EAL and HD-GYP domains. c-di-GMP controls biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 by promoting the cell surface localization of a large adhesive protein, LapA. LapA localization is regulated posttranslationally by a c-di-GMP effector system consisting of LapD and LapG, which senses cytoplasmic c-di-GMP and modifies the LapA protein in the outer membrane. Despite the apparent requirement for c-di-GMP for ...


Non-Identity-Mediated Crispr-Bacteriophage Interaction Mediated Via The Csy And Cas3 Proteins, Kyle C. Cady, George A. O'Toole Mar 2011

Non-Identity-Mediated Crispr-Bacteriophage Interaction Mediated Via The Csy And Cas3 Proteins, Kyle C. Cady, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Studies of the Escherichia, Neisseria, Thermotoga, and Mycobacteria clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) subtypes have resulted in a model whereby CRISPRs function as a defense system against bacteriophage infection and conjugative plasmid transfer. In contrast, we previously showed that the Yersinia-subtype CRISPR region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 plays no detectable role in viral immunity but instead is required for bacteriophage DMS3-dependent inhibition of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. The goal of this study is to define the components of the Yersinia-subtype CRISPR region required to mediate this bacteriophage-host interaction. We show that the Yersinia-subtype-specific CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins ...


H-Ns Binding And Repression Of The Ctx Promoter In Vibrio Cholerae, Emily A. Stonehouse, Robin R. Hulbert, Melinda B. Nye, Karen Skorupski, Ronald K. Taylor Dec 2010

H-Ns Binding And Repression Of The Ctx Promoter In Vibrio Cholerae, Emily A. Stonehouse, Robin R. Hulbert, Melinda B. Nye, Karen Skorupski, Ronald K. Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Expression of the ctx and tcp genes, which encode cholera toxin and the toxin coregulated pilus, the Vibrio cholerae O1 virulence determinants having the largest contribution to cholera disease, is repressed by the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS and activated by the AraC-like transcriptional regulator ToxT. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which H-NS controls transcription of the ctxAB operon, H-NS repression and binding were characterized by using a promoter truncation series, gel mobility shift assays, and DNase I footprinting. Promoter regions found to be important for H-NS repression correlated with in vitro binding. Four main H-NS binding regions are present at ...


Natural Competence In Thermoanaerobacter And Thermoanaerobacterium Species, A Joe Shaw, David A. Hogsett, Lee R. Lynd May 2010

Natural Competence In Thermoanaerobacter And Thermoanaerobacterium Species, A Joe Shaw, David A. Hogsett, Lee R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Low-G+C thermophilic obligate anaerobes in the class Clostridia are considered among the bacteria most resistant to genetic engineering due to the difficulty of introducing foreign DNA, thus limiting the ability to study and exploit their native hydrolytic and fermentative capabilities. Here, we report evidence of natural genetic competence in 13 Thermoanaerobacter and Thermoanaerobacterium strains previously believed to be difficult to transform or genetically recalcitrant.

In Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum JW/SL-YS485, natural competence- mediated DNA incorporation occurs during the exponential growth phase with both replicating plasmid and homologous recombination-based integration, and circular or linear DNA. In T. saccharolyticum, disruptions of genes ...


Role Of Flgt In Anchoring The Flagellum Of Vibrio Cholerae, Raquel M. Martinez, Brooke A. Jude, Thomas J. Kirn, Karen Skorupski, Ronald K. Taylor Apr 2010

Role Of Flgt In Anchoring The Flagellum Of Vibrio Cholerae, Raquel M. Martinez, Brooke A. Jude, Thomas J. Kirn, Karen Skorupski, Ronald K. Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Flagellar motility has long been regarded as an important virulence factor. In Vibrio cholerae, the single polar flagellum is essential for motility as well as for proper attachment and colonization. In this study, we demonstrate that the novel flagellar protein FlgT is involved in anchoring the flagellum to the V. cholerae cell. A screen for novel colonization factors by use of TnphoA mutagenesis identified flgT. An in-frame deletion of flgT established that FlgT is required for attachment, colonization, and motility. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that while the flgT mutant is capable of assembling a phenotypically normal flagellum, the flgT ...


Characterization Of Two Outer Membrane Proteins, Flgo And Flgp, That Influence Vibrio Cholerae Motility, Raquel M. Martinez, Madushini N. Dharmasena, Thomas J. Kirn, Ronald K. Taylor Sep 2009

Characterization Of Two Outer Membrane Proteins, Flgo And Flgp, That Influence Vibrio Cholerae Motility, Raquel M. Martinez, Madushini N. Dharmasena, Thomas J. Kirn, Ronald K. Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Vibrio cholerae is highly motile by the action of a single polar flagellum. The loss of motility reduces the infectivity of V. cholerae, demonstrating that motility is an important virulence factor. FlrC is the sigma-54-dependent positive regulator of flagellar genes. Recently, the genes VC2206 (flgP) and VC2207 (flgO) were identified as being regulated by FlrC via a microarray analysis of an flrC mutant (D. C. Morris, F. Peng, J. R. Barker, and K. E. Klose, J. Bacteriol. 190:231-239, 2008). FlgP is reported to be an outer membrane lipoprotein required for motility that functions as a colonization factor. The study ...


Lapd Is A Bis-(3′,5′)-Cyclic Dimeric Gmp-Binding Protein That Regulates Surface Attachment By Pseudomonas Fluorescens Pf0–1, Peter D. Newell, Russell D. Monds, George A. O'Toole Mar 2009

Lapd Is A Bis-(3′,5′)-Cyclic Dimeric Gmp-Binding Protein That Regulates Surface Attachment By Pseudomonas Fluorescens Pf0–1, Peter D. Newell, Russell D. Monds, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates surface attachment and biofilm formation by many bacteria. For Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1, c-di-GMP impacts the secretion and localization of the adhesin LapA, which is absolutely required for stable surface attachment and biofilm formation by this bacterium. In this study we characterize LapD, a unique c-di-GMP effector protein that controls biofilm formation by communicating intracellular c-di-GMP levels to the membrane-localized attachment machinery via its periplasmic domain. LapD contains degenerate and enzymatically inactive diguanylate cyclase and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase (EAL) domains and binds to c-di-GMP through a degenerate EAL domain. We present evidence that LapD ...


Overexpression Of Mazfsa In Staphylococcus Aureus Induces Bacteriostasis By Selectively Targeting Mrnas For Cleavage, Zhibiao Fu, Sandeep Tamber, Guido Memmi, Niles P. Donegan, Ambrose L. Cheung Jan 2009

Overexpression Of Mazfsa In Staphylococcus Aureus Induces Bacteriostasis By Selectively Targeting Mrnas For Cleavage, Zhibiao Fu, Sandeep Tamber, Guido Memmi, Niles P. Donegan, Ambrose L. Cheung

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The role of chromosomally encoded toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci in bacterial physiology has been under debate, with the toxin proposed as either an inducer of bacteriostasis or a mediator of programmed cell death (PCD). We report here that ectopic expression of MazFSa, a toxin of the TA module from Staphylococcus aureus, led to a rapid decrease in CFU counts but most cells remained viable as determined by differential Syto 9 and propidium iodide staining after MazFSa induction. This finding suggested that the toxin MazFSa induced cell stasis rather than cell death. We also showed that MazFSa selectively cleaves cellular mRNAs in ...


Identification Of Two Gene Clusters And A Transcriptional Regulator Required For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Glycine Betaine Catabolism, Matthew J. Wargo, Benjamin S. Szwergold, Deborah A. Hogan Oct 2008

Identification Of Two Gene Clusters And A Transcriptional Regulator Required For Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Glycine Betaine Catabolism, Matthew J. Wargo, Benjamin S. Szwergold, Deborah A. Hogan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Glycine betaine (GB), which occurs freely in the environment and is an intermediate in the catabolism of choline and carnitine, can serve as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Twelve mutants defective in growth on GB as the sole carbon source were identified through a genetic screen of a nonredundant PA14 transposon mutant library. Further growth experiments showed that strains with mutations in two genes, gbcA (PA5410) and gbcB (PA5411), were capable of growth on dimethylglycine (DMG), a catabolic product of GB, but not on GB itself. Subsequent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with 1,2- ...


The Bile Response Repressor Brer Regulates Expression Of The Vibrio Cholerae Breab Efflux System Operon, Francisca A. Cerda-Maira, Carol S. Ringelberg, Ronald K. Taylor Sep 2008

The Bile Response Repressor Brer Regulates Expression Of The Vibrio Cholerae Breab Efflux System Operon, Francisca A. Cerda-Maira, Carol S. Ringelberg, Ronald K. Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Enteric pathogens have developed several resistance mechanisms to survive the antimicrobial action of bile. We investigated the transcriptional profile of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strain C6706 under virulence gene-inducing conditions in the presence and absence of bile. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 119 genes was affected by bile. The mRNA levels of genes encoding proteins involved in transport were increased in the presence of bile, whereas the mRNA levels of genes encoding proteins involved in pathogenesis and chemotaxis were decreased. This study identified genes encoding transcriptional regulators from the TetR family (vexR and breR) and multidrug efflux ...


Integration Host Factor Positively Regulates Virulence Gene Expression In Vibrio Cholerae, Emily Stonehouse, Gabriela Kovacikova, Ronald K. Taylor, Karen Skorupski Apr 2008

Integration Host Factor Positively Regulates Virulence Gene Expression In Vibrio Cholerae, Emily Stonehouse, Gabriela Kovacikova, Ronald K. Taylor, Karen Skorupski

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae is dependent upon a complex transcriptional cascade that is influenced by both specific and global regulators in response to environmental stimuli. Here, we report that the global regulator integration host factor (IHF) positively affects virulence gene expression in V. cholerae. Inactivation of ihfA and ihfB, the genes encoding the IHF subunits, decreased the expression levels of the two main virulence factors tcpA and ctx and prevented toxin-coregulated pilus and cholera toxin production. IHF was found to directly bind to and bend the tcpA promoter region at an IHF consensus site centered at position 162 ...


A Serratia Marcescens Oxyr Homolog Mediates Surface Attachment And Biofilm Formation, Robert M. Q. Shanks, Nicholas A. Stella, Eric J. Kalivoda, Megan R. Doe Aug 2007

A Serratia Marcescens Oxyr Homolog Mediates Surface Attachment And Biofilm Formation, Robert M. Q. Shanks, Nicholas A. Stella, Eric J. Kalivoda, Megan R. Doe

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

OxyR is a conserved bacterial transcription factor with a regulatory role in oxidative stress response. From a genetic screen for genes that modulate biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens, mutations in an oxyR homolog and predicted fimbria structural genes were identified. S. marcescens oxyR mutants were severely impaired in biofilm formation, in contrast to the hyperbiofilm phenotype exhibited by oxyR mutants of Escherichia coli and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Further analysis revealed that OxyR plays a role in the primary attachment of cells to a surface. Similar to what is observed in other bacterial species, S. marcescens OxyR is required ...


Bifa, A Cyclic-Di-Gmp Phosphodiesterase, Inversely Regulates Biofilm Formation And Swarming Motility By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14, Sherry L. Kuchma, Kimberly M. Brothers, Judith H. Merritt, Nicole T. Liberati, Frederick M. Ausubel, George A. O'Toole Jun 2007

Bifa, A Cyclic-Di-Gmp Phosphodiesterase, Inversely Regulates Biofilm Formation And Swarming Motility By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14, Sherry L. Kuchma, Kimberly M. Brothers, Judith H. Merritt, Nicole T. Liberati, Frederick M. Ausubel, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The intracellular signaling molecule, cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), has been shown to influence bacterial behaviors, including motility and biofilm formation. We report the identification and characterization of PA4367, a gene involved in regulating surface-associated behaviors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The PA4367 gene encodes a protein with an EAL domain, associated with c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity, as well as a GGDEF domain, which is associated with a c-di-GMP-synthesizing diguanylate cyclase activity. Deletion of the PA4367 gene results in a severe defect in swarming motility and a hyperbiofilm phenotype; thus, we designate this gene bifA, for biofilm formation. We show that BifA localizes to the inner ...


Crystal Structure Of The Vibrio Cholerae Quorum-Sensing Regulatory Protein Hapr, Rukman S. De Silva, Gabriela Kovacikova, Wei Lin, Ronald K. Taylor, Karen Skorupski, F. Jon Kull May 2007

Crystal Structure Of The Vibrio Cholerae Quorum-Sensing Regulatory Protein Hapr, Rukman S. De Silva, Gabriela Kovacikova, Wei Lin, Ronald K. Taylor, Karen Skorupski, F. Jon Kull

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae involves signaling between two-component sensor protein kinases and the response regulator LuxO to control the expression of the master regulator HapR. HapR, in turn, plays a central role in regulating a number of important processes, such as virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. We have determined the crystal structure of HapR to 2.2-Å resolution. Its structure reveals a dimeric, two-domain molecule with an all-helical structure that is strongly conserved with members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. The N-terminal DNA-binding domain contains a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and alteration of certain residues in this ...


Membrane Association And Multimerization Of Tcpt, The Cognate Atpase Ortholog Of The Vibrio Cholerae Toxin-Coregulated-Pilus Biogenesis Apparatus, Shital A. Tripathi, Ronald K. Taylor Apr 2007

Membrane Association And Multimerization Of Tcpt, The Cognate Atpase Ortholog Of The Vibrio Cholerae Toxin-Coregulated-Pilus Biogenesis Apparatus, Shital A. Tripathi, Ronald K. Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) is one of the major virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. Biogenesis of this type 4 pilus (Tfp) requires a number of structural components encoded by the tcp operon. TcpT, the cognate putative ATPase, is required for TCP biogenesis and all TCP-mediated functions. We studied the stability and localization of TcpT in cells containing in-frame deletions in each of the tcp genes. TcpT was detectable in each of the biogenesis mutants except the ΔtcpT strain. TcpT was localized to the inner membrane (IM) in a TcpR-dependent manner. TcpR is a predicted bitopic inner membrane protein of ...


Inverse Regulation Of Biofilm Formation And Swarming Motility By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14, Nicky C. Caiazza, Judith H. Merritt, Kimberly M. Brothers, George A. O'Toole Mar 2007

Inverse Regulation Of Biofilm Formation And Swarming Motility By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pa14, Nicky C. Caiazza, Judith H. Merritt, Kimberly M. Brothers, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We previously reported that SadB, a protein of unknown function, is required for an early step in biofilm formation by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we report that a mutation in sadB also results in increased swarming compared to the wild-type strain. Our data are consistent with a model in which SadB inversely regulates biofilm formation and swarming motility via its ability both to modulate flagellar reversals in a viscosity-dependent fashion and to influence the production of the Pel exopolysaccharide. We also show that SadB is required to properly modulate flagellar reversal rates via chemotaxis cluster IV (CheIV cluster ...


Sara Positively Controls Bap-Dependent Biofilm Formation In Staphylococcus Aureus, María P. Trotonda, Adhar C. Manna, Ambrose L. Cheung, Iñigo Lasa, José R. Penadés Aug 2005

Sara Positively Controls Bap-Dependent Biofilm Formation In Staphylococcus Aureus, María P. Trotonda, Adhar C. Manna, Ambrose L. Cheung, Iñigo Lasa, José R. Penadés

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The biofilm-associated protein Bap is a staphylococcal surface protein involved in biofilm formation. We investigated the influence of the global regulatory locus sarA on bap expression and Bap-dependent biofilm formation in three unrelated Staphylococcus aureus strains. The results showed that Bap-dependent biofilm formation was diminished in the sarA mutants by an agr-independent mechanism. Complementation studies using a sarA clone confirmed that the defect in biofilm formation was due to the sarA mutation. As expected, the diminished capacity to form biofilms in the sarA mutants correlated with the decreased presence of Bap in the bacterial surface. Using transcriptional fusion and ...


Sara Is An Essential Positive Regulator Of Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilm Development, Maria A. Tormo, Miguel Marti, Jaione Valle, Adhar C. Manna Apr 2005

Sara Is An Essential Positive Regulator Of Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilm Development, Maria A. Tormo, Miguel Marti, Jaione Valle, Adhar C. Manna

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation is associated with the production of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)--poly-N-acetylglucosamine polysaccharide (PNAG) by the products of the icaADBC operon. Recent evidence indicates that SarA, a central regulatory element that controls the production of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, is essential for the synthesis of PIA/PNAG and the ensuing biofilm development in this species. Based on the presence of a sarA homolog, we hypothesized that SarA could also be involved in the regulation of the biofilm formation process in S. epidermidis. To investigate this, we constructed nonpolar sarA deletions in two genetically unrelated S. epidermidis ...


A Three-Component Regulatory System Regulates Biofilm Maturation And Type Iii Secretion In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Sherry L. Kuchma, John P. Connolly, George A. O'Toole Feb 2005

A Three-Component Regulatory System Regulates Biofilm Maturation And Type Iii Secretion In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Sherry L. Kuchma, John P. Connolly, George A. O'Toole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Biofilms are structured communities found associated with a wide range of surfaces. Here we report the identification of a three-component regulatory system required for biofilm maturation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14. A transposon mutation that altered biofilm formation in a 96-well dish assay originally defined this locus, which is comprised of genes for a putative sensor histidine kinase and two response regulators and has been designated sadARS. Nonpolar mutations in any of the sadARS genes result in biofilms with an altered mature structure but do not confer defects in growth or early biofilm formation, swimming, or twitching motility. After 2 ...


Electrotransformation Of Clostridium Thermocellum, Michael V. Tyurin, Sunil G. Desai, Lee R. Lynd Nov 2004

Electrotransformation Of Clostridium Thermocellum, Michael V. Tyurin, Sunil G. Desai, Lee R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Electrotransformation of several strains of Clostridium thermocellum was achieved using plasmid pIKm1 with selection based on resistance to erythromycin and lincomycin. A custom-built pulse generator was used to apply a square 10-ms pulse to an electrotransformation cuvette consisting of a modified centrifuge tube. Transformation was verified by recovery of the shuttle plasmid pIKm1 from presumptive transformants of C. thermocellum with subsequent PCR specific to the mls gene on the plasmid, as well as by retransformation of Escherichia coli. Optimization carried out with strain DSM 1313 increased transformation efficiencies from <1 to (2.2 􏰍 0.5) 􏰎 105 transformants per 􏰃g of plasmid DNA. Factors conducive to achieving high transformation efficiencies included optimized periods of incubation both before and after electric pulse application, chilling during cell collection and washing, subculture in the presence of isoniacin prior to electric pulse application, a custom-built cuvette embedded in an ice block during pulse application, use of a high (25-kV/cm) field strength, and induction of the mls gene before plating the cells on selective medium. The protocol and preferred conditions developed for strain DSM 1313 resulted in transformation efficiencies of (5.0 􏰍 1.8) 􏰎 104 transformants per 􏰃g of plasmid DNA for strain ATCC 27405 and 􏰁1 􏰎 103 transformants per 􏰃g of plasmid DNA for strains DSM 4150 and 7072. Cell viability under optimal conditions was 􏰁50% of that of controls not exposed to an electrical pulse. Dam methylation had a beneficial but modest (7-fold for strain ATCC 27405; 40-fold for strain DSM 1313) effect on transformation efficiency. The effect of isoniacin was also strain specific. The results reported here provide for the first time a gene transfer method functional in C. thermocellum that is suitable for molecular manipulations involving either the introduction of genes associated with foreign gene products or knockout of native genes.