Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Evolution

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 651

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Tracing Evolutionary Footprints To Identify Novel Gene Functional Linkages., Yong Chen, Li Yang, Yunfeng Ding, Shuyan Zhang, Tong He, Fenglou Mao, Congyan Zhang, Huina Zhang, Chaoxing Huo, Pingsheng Liu Sep 2019

Tracing Evolutionary Footprints To Identify Novel Gene Functional Linkages., Yong Chen, Li Yang, Yunfeng Ding, Shuyan Zhang, Tong He, Fenglou Mao, Congyan Zhang, Huina Zhang, Chaoxing Huo, Pingsheng Liu

Yong Chen

Systematic determination of gene function is an essential step in fully understanding the precise contribution of each gene for the proper execution of molecular functions in the cell. Gene functional linkage is defined as to describe the relationship of a group of genes with similar functions. With thousands of genomes sequenced, there arises a great opportunity to utilize gene evolutionary information to identify gene functional linkages. To this end, we established a computational method (called TRACE) to trace gene footprints through a gene functional network constructed from 341 prokaryotic genomes. TRACE performance was validated and successfully tested to predict enzyme ...


The Finch Effect: Evolutionary Metaphors And Illiberal Democracy In Central And Eastern Europe, Abigail Woodfield Aug 2019

The Finch Effect: Evolutionary Metaphors And Illiberal Democracy In Central And Eastern Europe, Abigail Woodfield

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

In recent years, several states in Central and Eastern Europe have seen democratic digression. Such illiberal resurgences came as a surprise to the many political scientists who assumed that the future of these states was democratic. Indeed, after the fall of the Soviet Union, the world largely regarded liberal democracy as the predominant system of government. The future seemed bright, and it was tempting to understand that future in evolutionary terms—just as humans evolved under natural selection to become the dominant species, democracy had survived a similar competition and defeated all other systems of government to become the dominant ...


Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi Aug 2019

Quantifying The Predictability Of Evolution At The Genomic Level In Lycaeides Butterflies, Samridhi Chaturvedi

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stephen Jay Gould, a great scientist and evolutionary biologists, suggested that if we could replay the tape of life, we would not have observed similar course of events because evolution is stochastic and if affected by several events. Since then, the possibility that evolution is repeatable or predictable has been debated. Studies using large-scale evolution experiments, long-term data for individual populations, and controlled experiments in nature, have demonstrated phenotypic and genetic convergence in several taxa. These studies suggest that despite some randomness, predictable evolutionary patterns can emerge on a large temporal and spatial scale. However, a few cases also exist ...


Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier Aug 2019

Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Humans have transformed much of the natural landscape and are continuing to do so at an accelerated rate, compromising natural areas that serve as important habitat for many species. Roads impact much of the environment as they fragment habitat and introduce traffic noise into the acoustic environment, deferentially affecting wildlife in roadside habitat. I explored how traffic noise affects the detection of birds based on whether their vocalizations were masked by traffic noise. Masked species detection was not affected by an increase in traffic noise amplitude, while there was a negative effect of traffic noise amplitude on unmasked species detection ...


Plasticity In The Human Gut Microbiome Defies Evolutionary Constraints, Andres Gomez, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Elizabeth K. Mallott, Klara J. Petrzelkova, Carolyn A. Jost Robinson, Carl J. Yeoman, Franck Carbonero, Barbora Pafco, Jessica M. Rothman, Alexander Ulanov, Klara Vickova, Katherine R. Amato, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Nathaniel J. Dominy, David Modry, Angelique Todd, Manolito Torralba, Karen E. Nelson, Michael B. Burns, Ran Blekhman, Melissa Remis, Rebecca M. Stumpf, Brenda A. Wilson, H. Rex Gaskins, Paul A. Garber, Bryan A. White, Steven R. Leigh Jul 2019

Plasticity In The Human Gut Microbiome Defies Evolutionary Constraints, Andres Gomez, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Elizabeth K. Mallott, Klara J. Petrzelkova, Carolyn A. Jost Robinson, Carl J. Yeoman, Franck Carbonero, Barbora Pafco, Jessica M. Rothman, Alexander Ulanov, Klara Vickova, Katherine R. Amato, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Nathaniel J. Dominy, David Modry, Angelique Todd, Manolito Torralba, Karen E. Nelson, Michael B. Burns, Ran Blekhman, Melissa Remis, Rebecca M. Stumpf, Brenda A. Wilson, H. Rex Gaskins, Paul A. Garber, Bryan A. White, Steven R. Leigh

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The gut microbiome of primates, including humans, is reported to closely follow host evolutionary history, with gut microbiome composition being specific to the genetic background of its primate host. However, the comparative models used to date have mainly included a limited set of closely related primates. To further understand the forces that shape the primate gut microbiome, with reference to human populations, we expanded the comparative analysis of variation among gut microbiome compositions and their primate hosts, including 9 different primate species and 4 human groups characterized by a diverse set of subsistence patterns (n = 448 samples). The results show ...


Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill Jul 2019

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


Robert Koch, Creation, And The Specificity Of Germs, Alan L. Gillen, Douglas Oliver, Frank Sherwin Jul 2019

Robert Koch, Creation, And The Specificity Of Germs, Alan L. Gillen, Douglas Oliver, Frank Sherwin

Alan L. Gillen

Microbiology is dominated by evolution today. Just look at any text, journal article, or the topics presented at professional scientific meetings. Darwin is dominant.

Microbiology is dominated by evolution today. Just look at any text, journal article, or the topics presented at professional scientific meetings. Darwin is dominant. Many argue that “nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” (Dobzhansky 1973). But it was not always this way. In fact, a review of the major founders of microbiology has shown that they were creationists.1 We would argue that a better idea thanevolution and one of much ...


Darwin At The Drugstore? Testing The Biological Fitness Of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Alan L. Gillen, Sarah Anderson Jul 2019

Darwin At The Drugstore? Testing The Biological Fitness Of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, Alan L. Gillen, Sarah Anderson

Alan L. Gillen

The issue of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is growing. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading human pathogen. New strains of MRSA are resistant to methicillin and numerous other antibiotics, placing the patient in significant danger. Indeed, the Centers for Disease Control revealed in 2007 that the number of deaths due to MRSA exceeded that of AIDS in the United States. It is no wonder that antibiotic resistance is one of the most significant and important health care issues. The ability of bacterial pathogens to evade traditional antibiotics is faster than the drug makers’ ability to make new ...


Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer Jul 2019

Encoding Of Emotional Valence In Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa) Calls, Anne-Laure Maigrot, Edna Hillmann, Elodie Briefer

Elodie Briefer, PhD

Measuring emotions in nonhuman mammals is challenging. As animals are not able to verbally report how they feel, we need to find reliable indicators to assess their emotional state. Emotions can be described using two key dimensions: valence (negative or positive) and arousal (bodily activation or excitation). In this study, we investigated vocal expression of emotional valence in wild boars (Sus scrofa). The animals were observed in three naturally occurring situations: anticipation of a food reward (positive), affiliative interactions (positive), and agonistic interactions (negative). Body movement was used as an indicator of emotional arousal to control for the effect of ...


Beyond The Black Box: Promoting Mathematical Collaborations For Elucidating Interactions In Soil Ecology, Alison E. Bennett, Lori Biederman, Matthew Warren, Et Al. Jul 2019

Beyond The Black Box: Promoting Mathematical Collaborations For Elucidating Interactions In Soil Ecology, Alison E. Bennett, Lori Biederman, Matthew Warren, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Understanding soil systems is critical because they form the structural and nutritional foundation for plants and thus every terrestrial habitat and agricultural system. In this paper, we encourage increased use of mathematical models to drive forward understanding of interactions in soil ecological systems. We discuss several distinctive features of soil ecosystems and empirical studies of them. We explore some perceptions that have previously deterred more extensive use of models in soil ecology and some advances that have already been made using models to elucidate soil ecological interactions. We provide examples where mathematical models have been used to test the plausibility ...


Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen May 2019

Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Topology And Dynamics Of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Meta-Analysis, Claus Kadelka May 2019

Topology And Dynamics Of Gene Regulatory Networks: A Meta-Analysis, Claus Kadelka

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Defining Microbiome Health Through A Host Lens., Sean M Gibbons May 2019

Defining Microbiome Health Through A Host Lens., Sean M Gibbons

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

We are walking ecosystems, inoculated at birth with a unique set of microbes that are integral to the functioning of our bodies. The physiology of our commensal microbiota is intertwined with our metabolism, immune function, and mental state. The specifics of this entanglement remain largely unknown and are somewhat unique to individuals, and when any one piece of this complex system breaks, our health can suffer. There appear to be many ways to build a healthy, functional microbiome and several distinct ways in which it can break. Despite the hundreds of associations with human disease, there are only a handful ...


Assessing Migrations And Habitat Connectivity For Two Anadromous Species Following A Major Restoration Effort In The Penobscot River, Maine, George A. Maynard May 2019

Assessing Migrations And Habitat Connectivity For Two Anadromous Species Following A Major Restoration Effort In The Penobscot River, Maine, George A. Maynard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The construction of industrial dams across major rivers in New England began in the early 1800s with textile mills in Massachusetts. Because of its legacy of mill dams and log driving dams, New England has the highest density of dams anywhere in North America, averaging one dam for every 44 km2 of drainage area. By the early 1900s, these dams drastically limited migrations by diadromous fishes, resulting in declines in populations of migratory fishes, including Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and American shad Alosa sapidissima. Since that time, different fishway designs and river management plans have been tried around the ...


Proprioception, Non-Law, And Biolegal History, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

Proprioception, Non-Law, And Biolegal History, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

This Article explores several advantages of incorporating into law various insights from behavioral biology about how and why the brain works as it does. In particular, the Article explores the ways in which those insights can help illuminate the deep structure of human legal systems. That effort is termed "biolegal history."


On The Nature Of Norms: Biology, Morality, And The Disruption Of Order, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

On The Nature Of Norms: Biology, Morality, And The Disruption Of Order, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

This essay discusses the legal implications of bio-behavioral underpinnings to norms, morality, and economic order. It first discusses the recent book "The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order," in which Francis Fukuyama explores the importance of evolved human nature to the reconstruction of social order and a thriving economy. It then addresses the extent to which we can usefully view law-relevant norms as products of evolutionary - as well as economic - processes.


Law And Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones, Timothy H. Goldsmith Apr 2019

Law And Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones, Timothy H. Goldsmith

Owen Jones

Society uses law to encourage people to behave differently than they would behave in the absence of law. This fundamental purpose makes law highly dependent on sound understandings of the multiple causes of human behavior. The better those understandings, the better law can achieve social goals with legal tools. In this Article, Professors Jones and Goldsmith argue that many long held understandings about where behavior comes from are rapidly obsolescing as a consequence of developments in the various fields constituting behavioral biology. By helping to refine law's understandings of behavior's causes, they argue, behavioral biology can help to ...


Evolutionary Analysis In Law: Some Objections Considered, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

Evolutionary Analysis In Law: Some Objections Considered, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

This Article appears in a special issue of the Brooklyn Law Review on DNA: Lessons from the Past - Problems for the Future. It first addresses why law needs insights from behavioral biology, and then identifies and responds to a variety of structural and conceptual barriers to such evolutionary analysis in law.


Plant Mitochondrial Genome Evolution And Structure Has Been Shaped By Double-Strand Break Repair And Recombination, Emily Wynn Apr 2019

Plant Mitochondrial Genome Evolution And Structure Has Been Shaped By Double-Strand Break Repair And Recombination, Emily Wynn

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Plant mitochondrial genomes are large but contain a small number of genes. These genes have very low mutation rates, but genomes rearrange and expand at significant rates. We propose that much of the apparent complexity of plant mitochondrial genomes can be explained by the interactions of double-strand break repair, recombination, and selection. One possible explanation for the disparity between the low mutation rates of genes and the high divergence of non-genes is that synonymous mutations in genes are not truly neutral. In some species, rps14 has been duplicated in the nucleus, allowing the mitochondrial copy to become a pseudogene. By ...


A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera) And Revisions Of The Southern African Spider Beetle Genera Meziomorphum And Eutaphroptinus (Ptinidae: Coleoptera), Olivia M. Gearner Apr 2019

A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera) And Revisions Of The Southern African Spider Beetle Genera Meziomorphum And Eutaphroptinus (Ptinidae: Coleoptera), Olivia M. Gearner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Proposals for the internal relationships and classification of the bostrichoids are currently poorly supported, and almost all are based on morphology alone. This study improves upon on previous phylogenetic analyses of the group by including more taxa using the standard genes for many phylogenetic analyses. Cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 28S small subunit rRNA, and 16S small subunit rRNA mitochondrial genes were sequenced or obtained from Genbank, then analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Topologies differed depending on genes used. A three gene tree and a two gene (28S and CO1) tree both supported relationships in which a basal ...


A Closer Look At The Items Within Three Measures Of Evolution Acceptance: Analysis Of The Mate, I-Sea, And Gaene As A Single Corpus Of Items, William L. Romine, Amber Todd, Emily M. Walter Mar 2019

A Closer Look At The Items Within Three Measures Of Evolution Acceptance: Analysis Of The Mate, I-Sea, And Gaene As A Single Corpus Of Items, William L. Romine, Amber Todd, Emily M. Walter

Amber Todd

Background

Current direct Likert measures for evolution acceptance include the MATE, GAENE, and I-SEA. Pros and cons of each of these instruments have been debated, and yet there is a dearth of research teasing out their similarities and differences when they are used together in a single context beyond the fact that their measures tend to be highly correlated. We administered these to 452 college students in non-major biology classes at two research-intensive universities from the Midwestern and Western United States to investigate the measurement properties of the items within these instruments when combined as a single corpus.

Results

Factor ...


Phylogeography Of The Neotropical Fish Genus Rhoadsia (Teleostei: Characidae) In Ecuador, Roberto Valentino Cucalón Tamayo Mar 2019

Phylogeography Of The Neotropical Fish Genus Rhoadsia (Teleostei: Characidae) In Ecuador, Roberto Valentino Cucalón Tamayo

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Western Ecuador is considered a biodiversity hotspot. Nevertheless, studies of population genetic structure and variation are rare, especially in aquatic species. The genus Rhoadsia is an endemic freshwater fish in this region with two recognized species, Rhoadsia minor and R. altipinna. Little is known about the evolutionary relationships of their populations, and due to morphological similarities, their validity as distinct species has been questioned. The present study uses a phylogeographic approach to examine the evolutionary history of the genus and the validity of the two described species. Furthermore, I investigated the possible geographical origin of the genus based on patterns ...


The Deadly Influenza Virus And Its Changing Forms, Kayce Boggess Mar 2019

The Deadly Influenza Virus And Its Changing Forms, Kayce Boggess

D.U.Quark

The influenza virus has plagued humans for centuries. Recently antiviral medications, which shorten the duration of the flu, have been introduced into society. These medications along with vaccinations, which try to give the body immunity before the virus strikes, help to stop the flu before it attacks the host. The virus, however, replicates using host cells and can slightly change itself with each replication, which over time could lead to a strain immune to the current antiviral medication and vaccines. However, using more preventative measures could help slow the changing strains of the flu virus. Using vaccines to stop the ...


Evolutionary Medicine: The Egg Of Columbus For Modern Health?, Sabine Paul Mar 2019

Evolutionary Medicine: The Egg Of Columbus For Modern Health?, Sabine Paul

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


How To Build A Human Brain: Evolution, Development, And Education, Aaron P. Blaisdell Mar 2019

How To Build A Human Brain: Evolution, Development, And Education, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


The Nature Of Science As A Foundation For Fostering A Better Understanding Of Evolution, Craig E. Nelson, Lawrence C. Scharmann, Jean Beard, Lawrence I. Flammer Feb 2019

The Nature Of Science As A Foundation For Fostering A Better Understanding Of Evolution, Craig E. Nelson, Lawrence C. Scharmann, Jean Beard, Lawrence I. Flammer

Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

Misunderstandings of the nature of science (NOS) contribute greatly to resistance to evolutionary theory especially among non-scientific audiences. Here we delineate three extended instructional examples that make extensive use of NOS to establish a foundation upon which to more successfully introduce evolution. Specifically, these instructional examples enable students to consider evolutionary biology using NOS as a lens for interpretation of evolutionary concepts. We have further found, through our respective research efforts and instructional experiences, that a deep understanding of NOS helps students understand and accept the scientific validity of evolution and, conversely, that evolution provides an especially effective context for ...


Phylogenetic History Of The Amy Gene Cluster In Catarrhines, Christian M. Gagnon Feb 2019

Phylogenetic History Of The Amy Gene Cluster In Catarrhines, Christian M. Gagnon

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study phylogenetically analyzed 30 AMY-related genes from 11 primates. The results show the gradual expansion of the AMY gene family which could have allowed primates to adapt to various ecological landscapes and maximize energy intake from starch-rich foods in periods of food scarcity.


A Chromosome-Scale Assembly Of The Axolotl Genome, Jeramiah J. Smith, Nataliya Y. Timoshevskaya, Vladimir A. Timoshevskiy, Melissa C. Keinath, Drew Hardy, S. Randal Voss Feb 2019

A Chromosome-Scale Assembly Of The Axolotl Genome, Jeramiah J. Smith, Nataliya Y. Timoshevskaya, Vladimir A. Timoshevskiy, Melissa C. Keinath, Drew Hardy, S. Randal Voss

Biology Faculty Publications

The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) provides critical models for studying regeneration, evolution, and development. However, its large genome (∼32 Gb) presents a formidable barrier to genetic analyses. Recent efforts have yielded genome assemblies consisting of thousands of unordered scaffolds that resolve gene structures, but do not yet permit large-scale analyses of genome structure and function. We adapted an established mapping approach to leverage dense SNP typing information and for the first time assemble the axolotl genome into 14 chromosomes. Moreover, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization to verify the structure of these 14 scaffolds and assign each to its corresponding physical ...


Reconstruction Of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships Within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes, Malcolm S. Hill, April Hill, Jose Lopez, Kevin J. Peterson Jan 2019

Reconstruction Of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships Within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes, Malcolm S. Hill, April Hill, Jose Lopez, Kevin J. Peterson

Jose V. Lopez

Background: Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges.

Methodology/Principal Findings: We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap ...


Concept Inventories As A Resource For Teaching Evolution, Robert E. Furrow, Jeremy L. Hsu Jan 2019

Concept Inventories As A Resource For Teaching Evolution, Robert E. Furrow, Jeremy L. Hsu

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding evolution is critical to learning biology, but few college instructors take advantage of the body of peer-reviewed literature that can inform evolution teaching and assessment. Here we summarize the peer-reviewed papers on tools to assess student learning of evolutionary concepts. These published concept inventories provide a resource for instructors to design courses, gauge student preparation, identify key misconceptions in their student population, and measure the impact of a lesson, course, or broader curriculum on student learning. Because these inventories vary in their format, target audience, and degree of validation, we outline and explain these features. In addition to summarizing ...