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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Information On Genetically Modified Foods And How It Affects Consumers: Evidence From Experimental Auctions , Matthew Christopher Rousu Jan 2002

Information On Genetically Modified Foods And How It Affects Consumers: Evidence From Experimental Auctions , Matthew Christopher Rousu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Genetically modified (GM) foods have been at the center of a contentious debate. One side of the debate includes environmental groups like Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth, who are opposed to GM foods---these groups would like GM foods banned, or at the very least they want GM foods to be clearly labeled as such. On the other side of the debate are agribusiness companies like Monsanto and Syngenta, who view GM foods positively. They think GM foods help the environment and could help feed the malnourished. Both groups actively disseminate information on genetically modified foods.;This dissertation reports on ...


Three Essays On Food Security, Food Demand And Welfare Program Participation , Suwen Pan Jan 2002

Three Essays On Food Security, Food Demand And Welfare Program Participation , Suwen Pan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The relationship among food security, food away from home and welfare program participation is examined in the dissertation. Current Population Survey data are used to identify and compare the effects of family structure, income sources, and demographic information on food stamp program participation and food consumption based on different food security status. In addition, Iowa administration data are used to compare the effects of local socioeconomic situation on family investment program participation between rural and non-rural areas. Analysis in the first paper uses a bivariate ordered probit model and the results show that the effects of family structure, income sources ...


An Economic Analysis Of Inter-Regional And Inter-Sectoral R&D Spillovers As Sources Of Economic Growth , Alan Lowell Mccunn Jan 2001

An Economic Analysis Of Inter-Regional And Inter-Sectoral R&D Spillovers As Sources Of Economic Growth , Alan Lowell Mccunn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between research activity and economic well-being are examined within the U.S. manufacturing and agricultural sectors for the periods 1950--1982 and 1964--1986. State crop, livestock, and aggregate agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) data, 1950--1982, are examined for evidence of convergence to a single TFP level (sigma-convergence) or to a steady state rate of growth (beta-or conditional convergence). Empirical results do not support sigma-convergence but do support beta-convergence. The rate of beta-convergence is variable and depends on research and development (R&D) spillins from other states, private R&D, and farmers' schooling. U.S. aggregate manufacturing and agricultural data ...


Four Papers On Agricultural Finance And Adoption Of Biotechnology , Alexander Ernestovich Saak Jan 2001

Four Papers On Agricultural Finance And Adoption Of Biotechnology , Alexander Ernestovich Saak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The four papers comprising this thesis are entirely self-contained. Paper I investigates financial measures of a projects' worth in a standard static setting. We identify conditions such that net present value is monotone in the discount rate applied to evaluate a project. We also formulate a linear dominance condition on projects' cash flows sufficient to order projects according to the internal rate of return criterion. Paper II develops a firmer understanding of the economics underlying the relationship between rental rates sensitivity to output price and land quality. Using two measures of land quality: distance to market and yield productivity, we ...


Factors Of Success Of Small Farms And The Relationship Between Financial Success And Perceived Success, Virginie Youkoujouo Nanhou Jan 2001

Factors Of Success Of Small Farms And The Relationship Between Financial Success And Perceived Success, Virginie Youkoujouo Nanhou

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the factors of farm success, determines the profile of small successful farmers and also explores the factors affecting farmers' perception of success. Farm size was measured in terms of gross sales and a profit index (equal to ratio of gross profit over gross profit minus management return) was used as a measure of financial efficiency and also as a proxy for farmers' profitability. A sample of seventy-three farmers, further divided in four groups based on a combination of farm size and profit levels, was used in the analyses. Means comparisons using t-tests to identify success factors, a ...


Agricultural And Trade Policy Reform In Mexico: Procampo, Nafta, And Pre-Gatt , James Mark Hansen Jan 2000

Agricultural And Trade Policy Reform In Mexico: Procampo, Nafta, And Pre-Gatt , James Mark Hansen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Changes in Mexico's domestic agricultural policy (PROCAMPO) and continued liberalization of trade through GATT and NAFTA have had strong effects on Mexico's agricultural production, consumption, and trade with the United States. The main objective of this study is to analyze these effects in Mexico's grain and livestock sectors. Policies within the NAFTA and GATT international trade agreements may overlap to some degree, and Mexico's domestic agricultural liberalization program (PROCAMPO) may include policies that overlap those in one or both of the international trade agreements. This study analyzes the effects of PROCAMPO, NAFTA, and pre-GATT policies compared ...


Estimation And Attenuation Of Reinsurance Risk In The Crop Insurance Market , Charles Edwin Mason Iv Jan 2000

Estimation And Attenuation Of Reinsurance Risk In The Crop Insurance Market , Charles Edwin Mason Iv

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Because of the high level of systemic risk in farming, crop insurance has failed to be provided by the market without government involvement. Currently, in addition to subsidy support the Federal government aids the crop insurance industry by providing reinsurance services to crop insurance companies. This means that the government will reimburse insurers for a large portion of their losses in years when indemnities to farmers are high. In exchange, portions of firms' profits are paid to the government when indemnities are below premiums;This study measures the level of risk accepted by the government in its role as reinsurer ...


Value-Adding Partnerships In Proprietary Value-Enhanced Specialty Grain: A Case Study Of High Oil Corn , Wenying Du Jan 2000

Value-Adding Partnerships In Proprietary Value-Enhanced Specialty Grain: A Case Study Of High Oil Corn , Wenying Du

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the value-adding partnerships in commercializing a proprietary value-enhanced specialty grain---DuPont's High Oil Corn, analyzes the decision-makings along the value chain, and explains the governance structure of the value-adding partnership from the perspective of the theory of firm. It argues that private investment efforts play an important role in determining the governance structure, and the governance structure evolves with the evolution of the importance of those efforts.


Economic Issues In Resistance Management , Silvia Secchi Jan 2000

Economic Issues In Resistance Management , Silvia Secchi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes economic issues related to the use of agricultural pesticides and antibiotics. The efficacy of both these chemical compounds depends on the existence of susceptible targets. However, through natural selection, their utilization increases the frequency of the genes resistant to the pesticide or drug in the target population, and it decreases the available biological capital of genetic susceptibility, increasing resistance;The aim of this dissertation is to analyze the characteristics of optimal resistance management strategies. An empirical analysis is offered in case of bioengineered Bt corn, which underlines the importance of pest mobility, and the externalities it causes ...


Market Potential For Pork Products With Embedded Environmental Attributes: An Experimental Approach , Sean Patrick Hurley Jan 2000

Market Potential For Pork Products With Embedded Environmental Attributes: An Experimental Approach , Sean Patrick Hurley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on determining benefits or value of environmental improvements in agricultural production, specifically, with an application to the pork industry. Values or benefits from reduced odor, reduced manure run-off, and reduced manure spills were elicited from consumers from Iowa, Kansas, Vermont, Oregon, and North Carolina. For the study, two pound packages of pork chops with selected combinations of air, ground water, and surface water environmental attributes were used to obtain consumer willingness-to-pay for environmental improvements. These benefits or willingness-to-pay for improved environmental practices have been obtained through research using a multiple trial second-price sealed-bid auction;A focus of ...


Farmland Ownership And Tenure In Iowa, 1982-1997: A Fifteen Year Perspective, Charles Anthony Pieper Jan 1999

Farmland Ownership And Tenure In Iowa, 1982-1997: A Fifteen Year Perspective, Charles Anthony Pieper

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The 1997 Farmland Ownership and Tenure study focuses on aspects of farmland ownership and tenancy in Iowa and compares 1997 data with trends from similar studies conducted in 1982 and 1992. Agricultural landholding types considered in the study include sole ownership, joint tenancy(husband and wife only), co-ownership(other joint ownership and tenants in common), partnership (including general, limited and limited liability partnership), trusts, estates,corporations, and limited liability companies. Demographics of landowners are included in the study and encompass age, gender, education, occupation, marital status, and residency. Acquisition, anticipated transfer, and management of farmland were also analyzed. A major ...


Three Essays On Productivity In Post-Soviet Primary Agriculture , Lyubov Arnoldovna Kurkalova Jan 1999

Three Essays On Productivity In Post-Soviet Primary Agriculture , Lyubov Arnoldovna Kurkalova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation consists of three essays that analyze relative growth of subsidiary farming and a decline in the production of collective farms in post-Soviet Ukraine. The first two essays consider the change in the production shares of the collective and subsidiary sectors as two interrelated phenomena. The analysis is built on the observation that all the employees of the collective farms have access to subsidiary plots. We analyze whether a shift of labor from collective farming towards subsidiary farming may be explained by a rational reaction of households to income uncertainty (the first essay) and to a decline in wages ...


Economic Analysis Of Pesticide Regulation In The U.S. Apple Industry , Jutta Roosen Jan 1999

Economic Analysis Of Pesticide Regulation In The U.S. Apple Industry , Jutta Roosen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Several particularities of apple production systems require careful consideration of the methods used to estimate impacts of pesticide regulation. Growing conditions are geographically diverse, quality considerations are of particular importance, and dynamic aspects need to be acknowledged in production systems of perennial crops;A partial-equilibrium model of the apple industry is estimated where orchards are modeled as multiproduct firms producing apples for fresh and processed consumption. Groups of growers are distinguished by region and by pesticide use patterns. The changes of quantities and prices in the markets for fresh and processed apples that follow a technology shift are derived. Economic ...


Optimal Trade Policy, Time Consistency And Uncertainty In An Oligopsonistic World Market , Jean-Philippe Gervais Jan 1999

Optimal Trade Policy, Time Consistency And Uncertainty In An Oligopsonistic World Market , Jean-Philippe Gervais

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the strategic behavior between countries that have purchasing power on the world market for a certain good. Tariffs and quotas are not equivalent protection instruments under non-cooperative behavior. Importers would be better off by choosing their policy cooperatively. If production decisions occur before consumption decisions, the ex-ante optimal policy is not time consistent because the ex-post elasticity of the residual foreign export supply is lower than the ex-ante elasticity. However, we show that the importers' inability to commit to their trade instrument may be welfare superior to the precommitment solution;We derive the equilibrium production policies if ...


Estimating The Value Of "Source Verification" In Iowa Feeder Cattle Markets, Godfred Yeboah Jan 1999

Estimating The Value Of "Source Verification" In Iowa Feeder Cattle Markets, Godfred Yeboah

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Source Verification (SV) as defined by the Chariton Valley Beef project is the collection and documentation of background information that should help potential buyers determine the value of the calves. This study used data from two sources; Bloomfield auction market, Bloomfield Iowa and from Rusell, Appanoose, Winterset and Centerville, Iowa auction markets. On average the SV cattle from the Bloomfield auction market yielded higher prices compared to the non-source verified cattle. Regression estimates for the same data set showed price premiums being offered for SV cattle in 1997 for both steers and heifers. However in 1998, only the heifers showed ...


The Theory And Practice Of Green Insurance: Insurance To Encourage The Adoption Of Corn Rootworm Ipm , Paul David Mitchell Jan 1999

The Theory And Practice Of Green Insurance: Insurance To Encourage The Adoption Of Corn Rootworm Ipm , Paul David Mitchell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Best management practices exist that increase profit and improve the environmental performance of agriculture by increasing input use efficiency. Nevertheless, few producers adopt these best management practices. The risks involved with the adoption and use of these new best management practices are often thought to contribute to this low adoption rate. This dissertation theoretically and empirically analyzes the potential for best management practice insurance---green insurance---to provide insurance coverage against the failure of the practice, thus substantially reducing the risks involved with its adoption and use. Best management practice insurance removes, or at least reduces, a potentially significant factor hindering the ...


Linking Revealed And Stated Preference Data In Recreation Demand Modeling , Christopher Dean Azevedo Jan 1999

Linking Revealed And Stated Preference Data In Recreation Demand Modeling , Christopher Dean Azevedo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Valuing non-market goods is a unique economic problem. When a market exists for a good, traditional economic techniques may be utilized to determine the value society associates with the good. When that good is not traded in a market, as in the case of wetland recreation, the economist must find some way to compensate for the lack of market signals;In this dissertation, I develop a recreation demand model that is used to link two disparate sources of data. The two types of data are revealed preference data and stated preference data. Revealed preference data is data that is observed ...


Numerical Optimization Of Recursive Systems Of Equations With An Application To Optimal Swine Genetic Selection , Richard Edmund Hawkins Jan 1999

Numerical Optimization Of Recursive Systems Of Equations With An Application To Optimal Swine Genetic Selection , Richard Edmund Hawkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A new dynamic programming method is developed for numerical optimization of recursive systems of equations, in which continuous choice variables determine the allowed choices in subsequent stages of the problem. The method works by dynamically creating bubbles, or subspaces, of the total search space, allowing the indexing of states visited for later use, and taking advantage of the fact that states adjacent to a visited state are likely to be visited. The method thereby allows search of spaces far larger than would traditionally be permitted by memory limitations. The search allows an infinite planning horizon, and tests at each stage ...


Identifying The Effects Of Monetary Policy Shocks On The Farm Sector , Alaa Kamal Alshawa Jan 1999

Identifying The Effects Of Monetary Policy Shocks On The Farm Sector , Alaa Kamal Alshawa

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study concerns two potential channels for the transmission of monetary policy to the farm sector in the United States. The first one is the money channel where I use a relative-price model to explain the effect of monetary policy shocks on relative farm prices. The second one is the credit channel where I use the Flow of Funds Accounts (FOFA) data to assess the effect of monetary policy shocks on net funds raised in the farm sector;The equilibrium relative-price model provides a linkage between monetary policy shocks and relative farm prices. The model shows that monetary policy can ...


Nutrition And The Cognitive Ability Of Children: Evidence From Egypt , Maria Patricia A. Cortez Jan 1999

Nutrition And The Cognitive Ability Of Children: Evidence From Egypt , Maria Patricia A. Cortez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Investing in nutrition is desirable in itself. Adequate nutrition is essential for the proper growth and development of individuals and partly determines the quality of life and well-being of individuals. But there is also an economic rationale for investing in nutrition. Nutrition may have a direct effect on the productivity of labor and an indirect effect through educational achievement. This dissertation focused on the indirect effect of nutrition on labor productivity by examining whether nutritional factors were associated with the cognitive ability of children. The children consisted of toddlers, aged 18--30 months, and schoolers, aged 6--9 years, from a peri-urban ...


Examining Agricultural Investment , Chad Edward Hart Jan 1999

Examining Agricultural Investment , Chad Edward Hart

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using two different approaches, the relationship between a firm's investment and its financial variables is examined. Imperfections in the credit market such as asymmetric information have led researchers to explore these relationships. This study incorporates the 5 Cs of lending (character, capacity, collateral, credit rating, and capital) into the farmer's investment decision and explores the impacts of these variables on a basic data set. The data set is composed of 590 Iowa farms that are members of the Iowa Farm Business Association and have reported farm level financial and production data from 1991 to 1995;The first approach ...


Exchange Rate And Market Power In Import Price , Jeong-Yun Seo Jan 1998

Exchange Rate And Market Power In Import Price , Jeong-Yun Seo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study consists of three papers in the area of international market analysis, as listed in Chapter 1, 2, and 3. Each paper has its own issue and application, but the main theme behind these papers is to figure out interactions of international firms' real decisions with respect to changes in financial variables or structure attributing to the firms' behaviors. The papers focus especially on a risk-averse international firm's decision model with respect to fluctuations in exchange rates;The first two papers relate the international firm's ex-ante real decision to the portfolio theory in correspondence to recent importance ...


An Analysis Of Commercial Bank Participation In The Farmer Mac Ii Loan Sale Program , Charles Edgar Murray Jan 1998

An Analysis Of Commercial Bank Participation In The Farmer Mac Ii Loan Sale Program , Charles Edgar Murray

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation's objective was to provide a descriptive and empirical analysis of commercial bank participation in the Farmer Mac II loan sale program for guaranteed portions of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Guaranteed Farm Loan Program loans. The descriptive analysis summarizes reasons for participation cited by bankers responding to a series of survey questions. Participants indicate the following factors as important in their decision to sell loans: enhanced liquidity, improved profitability, reduced interest rate risk, added capacity to meet heavy USDA guaranteed loan demand, and ability to pass on better loan rates and terms to their borrowers. Nonparticipants ...


Valuing Environmental Amenities With Nonparametric And Semiparametric Methods , John Russell Crooker Jan 1998

Valuing Environmental Amenities With Nonparametric And Semiparametric Methods , John Russell Crooker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation consists of three essays. Each essay is presented in its own chapter beginning with chapter II. While each chapter is written as a stand alone document, the essays complement each other in subject matter, methodology and relevance to the econometrics and natural resource economics literature. In particular, the most fundamental problem investigated is how can we, as precisely as possible, value non-market goods without making parametric assumptions that may influence welfare estimates;The three essays comprising this dissertation contribute to the knowledge of the economics valuation literature in several important ways. First, semi-nonparametric and nonparametric estimators are rigorously ...


Aggregation Over Commodities: An Application Of The Generalized Composite Commodity Theory In A Us Food Demand System Analysis, Yanrong Wang Jan 1997

Aggregation Over Commodities: An Application Of The Generalized Composite Commodity Theory In A Us Food Demand System Analysis, Yanrong Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Economic And Financial Analysis Of Large Scale Closed Cooperative Swine Production Under Uncertainty In Iowa, Michael Charles Poray Jan 1997

Economic And Financial Analysis Of Large Scale Closed Cooperative Swine Production Under Uncertainty In Iowa, Michael Charles Poray

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research evaluates the opportunities for small grain farmers in Iowa to organize a joint large scale swine production operation. Different business organizational structures' legal and tax implications are examined for a joint large scale production operation. Based on the suitability from reviewing current the legal and tax regulations, the closed (defined membership) cooperative was selected as the organizational business structure for the proposed group of small grain farmers. The returns from establishing closed cooperatives owned by grain producers to produce hogs in Iowa are evaluate. Using a computer simulated production model incorporating both biological and price factors, the uncertainty ...


Hog Industry And Hog Production Related Water Pollution Problem In Taiwan: An Application To Valuing The Willingness To Pay For Improving Water Quality, Kuo-Chang Ro Jan 1997

Hog Industry And Hog Production Related Water Pollution Problem In Taiwan: An Application To Valuing The Willingness To Pay For Improving Water Quality, Kuo-Chang Ro

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Generalized Corner Solution Models In Recreation Demand , Daniel James Phaneuf Jan 1997

Generalized Corner Solution Models In Recreation Demand , Daniel James Phaneuf

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

When examining consumer behavior using household level data, it is typical in many applications to find that consumers consume only a subset of the available goods, setting their demand to zero for the remaining goods. Examples of this include labor supply and food demand, as well as the demand for Leisure Studies; In multiple site recreation demand data sets, one usually observes that individuals visit only a subset of the available recreation sites, yet visit these sites multiple times during a season. Theoretically, these corner solutions are effectively modeled using non-negativity constraints in the utility maximization problem. Empirically estimating such ...


Corn And Soybean Basis Behavior And Forecasting: Fundamental And Alternative Approaches , Bingrong Jiang Jan 1997

Corn And Soybean Basis Behavior And Forecasting: Fundamental And Alternative Approaches , Bingrong Jiang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A model is developed to analyze the nearby basis behavior of corn and soybeans in several markets across the U.S. Results suggest that basis behavior has a seasonal pattern, and that different variables affect nearby corn and soybean basis at various periods. The most important factors affecting basis are storage cost (opportunity cost), transportation cost (barge rates), and supply (regional production relative to regional storage capacity). Nine conventional (naive three-year-average forecasts, econometric, ARIMA and composite forecast models) and less conventional forecasting techniques (State Space and Neural Networks models) are utilized to forecast out-of-sample basis for one-month up to 12-month ...


The Location Of Marginal Production For Value-Added And Intermediate Goods: Optimal Policies And Trade Volumes , Frank Harland Fuller Jan 1996

The Location Of Marginal Production For Value-Added And Intermediate Goods: Optimal Policies And Trade Volumes , Frank Harland Fuller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

For many years the United States and other countries have used subsidies to promote exports of agricultural commodities. Although wheat exports have captured the largest share of U.S. subsidies in recent years, there has been a concerted effort in the United States to increase exports of high-value products (HVPs). To a large extent, economic analysis of export subsidies has focused on trade in final goods; however, thorough treatment of subsidized exports of HVPs must take into account the impact these policies have on markets for the intermediate inputs used to produce value-added goods;This dissertation seeks to provide both ...