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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Natural Product Herbicides For Control Of Annual Vegetation Along Roadsides, Stephen L. Young Jun 2019

Natural Product Herbicides For Control Of Annual Vegetation Along Roadsides, Stephen L. Young

Stephen L. Young

Natural product herbicides for vegetation control are being considered as alternatives to synthetic herbicides by many public agencies. Studies were conducted along roadsides at the Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC) in 2001 and 2002 and on California State Route 29 (SR29) in 2002 to evaluate acetic acid, pine oil, and plant essentials compared with glyphosate for control of herbaceous vegetation. In 2001, annual grass control after a single application of pine oil at HREC was 40% or less effective, whereas acetic acid was at least 79% effective. A second application of pine oil or acetic acid did not control ...


Endowment Effects In Chimpanzees, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan, Susan P. Lambeth, Mary Catherine Mareno, Amanda S. Richardson, Steven Schapiro Apr 2019

Endowment Effects In Chimpanzees, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan, Susan P. Lambeth, Mary Catherine Mareno, Amanda S. Richardson, Steven Schapiro

Owen Jones

Human behavior is not always consistent with standard rational choice predictions. The much-investigated variety of apparent deviations from rational choice predictions provides a promising arena for the merger of economics and biology. Although little is known about the extent to which other species also exhibit these seemingly irrational patterns of human decision-making and choice behavior, similarities across species would suggest a common evolutionary root to the phenomena.

The present study investigated whether chimpanzees exhibit an endowment effect, a seemingly paradoxical behavior in which humans tend to value a good they have just come to possess more than they would have ...


Law, Biology, And Property: A New Theory Of The Endowment Effect, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan Apr 2019

Law, Biology, And Property: A New Theory Of The Endowment Effect, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan

Owen Jones

Recent work at the intersection of law and behavioral biology has suggested numerous contexts in which legal thinking could benefit by integrating knowledge from behavioral biology. In one of those contexts, behavioral biology may help to provide theoretical foundation for, and potentially increased predictive power concerning, various psychological traits relevant to law. This Article describes an experiment that explores that context.

The paradoxical psychological bias known as the endowment effect puzzles economists, skews market behavior, impedes efficient exchange of goods and rights, and thereby poses important problems for law. Although the effect is known to vary widely, there are at ...


The Impact Of Separating Fed From Nonfed Beef In An Econometric Simulation , Dyaa Kamal Adbou Ahmed Kamal-Abdou Nov 2017

The Impact Of Separating Fed From Nonfed Beef In An Econometric Simulation , Dyaa Kamal Adbou Ahmed Kamal-Abdou

Ahmed Kamal

No abstract provided.


Life Cycle Assessment And Techno-Economic Analysis Of Ethanol Production: A Review, Maria C. T. B. Oliveira, Kurt A. Rosentrater Aug 2017

Life Cycle Assessment And Techno-Economic Analysis Of Ethanol Production: A Review, Maria C. T. B. Oliveira, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Fossil fuels are considered one of the most contributing for increasing the rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. On the other hand, renewable energy derived from biomass promising to reduce significantly the CO2 emissions, promoting less environmental impacts for the future generations. Nowadays, the cost and the environmental impacts of the process are the challenges for producing a green product with lower cost. Numerous research has been published over the lasts decades, but gaps remain in understanding the sustainability and the environmental impact of the ethanol production. The techno-economic analysis is designed in order to optimize one process, and the ...


A Case Study Of Bioengineering In America: Profits, Risks And Standards Of Value In The Commercialization Of Monsanto Company's Newleaf Potato, Bridget Lyons, Teresa Ralabate, Nadhim Frangul Jan 2017

A Case Study Of Bioengineering In America: Profits, Risks And Standards Of Value In The Commercialization Of Monsanto Company's Newleaf Potato, Bridget Lyons, Teresa Ralabate, Nadhim Frangul

Bridget Lyons

Last year, approximately 45 million acres of American farmland were planted with crops that had been genetically engineered to either produce their own pesticides, or withstand herbicides. The long and short-term effects of this biotechnology on humans and the environment, are being studied, but remain unknown. Leading the way in the field of bioengineered crops is the Missouri-based Monsanto Company. Monsanto believes that current agricultural practices are inconsistent with sustainable development. The NewLeaf potato is one of three products Monsanto has created to feed the growing world population. The genetically engineered crop produces, in every cell of the plant, a ...


Nuisance Protection Law Unconstitutional, Neil E. Harl, Charles F. Curtiss Jul 2016

Nuisance Protection Law Unconstitutional, Neil E. Harl, Charles F. Curtiss

Neil E. Harl

In late September, the Iowa Supreme Court declared unanimously that an Iowa statute providing protection against nuisance suits for agricultural operations is "flagrantly" unconstitutional. The lawsuit involved the Iowa agricultural areas statute that allows counties to designate agricultural areas of at least 300 contiguous acres. Farming operations conducted within such a designated area are not subject to nuisance lawsuits if they are operated properly.


Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

The frequent rains that have soaked Iowa this year have left many corn and soybean fields unplanted or with flooded areas. Many producers are wondering what options they have under their multiple peril crop insurance (MPCI) policies. In Iowa, the crop insurance “late planting period” for corn begins on June 1. Corn can still be planted after this date, but the insurance guarantee on those acres is reduced by 1 percent per day until the acres are planted. Corn acres planted after June 25 will receive insurance coverage equal to 60 percent of their original guarantee. Producers should keep accurate ...


Late Harvest And Crop Insurance Coverage, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Late Harvest And Crop Insurance Coverage, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Iowa and other Corn Belt states are experiencing one of the latest and slowest harvest seasons on record. Some producers have had concerns about whether their crop insurance coverage will be still be in effect if harvesting drags into December.


Producer Machinery And Labor Sharing Arrangements Workshops, Roger Ginder, William M. Edwards, Georgeanne M. Artz, Darren H. Jarboe Jul 2016

Producer Machinery And Labor Sharing Arrangements Workshops, Roger Ginder, William M. Edwards, Georgeanne M. Artz, Darren H. Jarboe

William Edwards

Four case studies were developed for Iowa farm operations that have successfully used machinery and labor sharing arrangements for intergenerational transfer of farm assets. Results were shared at workshops and through publication of a resource manual.


Marketing Year Prices Cancel Acre Payments In Iowa, Chad Hart, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Marketing Year Prices Cancel Acre Payments In Iowa, Chad Hart, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Following the completion of the 2009/10 marketing year, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) released its final monthly price estimates for corn and soybeans. Over the September through August marketing year the national average price for corn was $3.55 per bushel. This is $.51 less than the average price during the 2008/09 marketing year of $4.06 per bushel. For soybeans, the 2009/10 national average price was $9.60 per bushel, which is $.37 lower than the previous year’s average price of $9.97 per bushel.


Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

The Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 contains a wide variety of legislation affecting everything from school lunches to milk checks. Some of the most immediate provisions that farmers must address are:
• New limitations on commodity payments,
• Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE),
• Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE) program.


Crop Insurance May Help Flooded And Wet Corn And Soybean Acres, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Crop Insurance May Help Flooded And Wet Corn And Soybean Acres, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Wet weather has delayed planting of corn and soybeans across the state, and flooding has severely damaged many acres that have been planted. Fortunately, nearly 90 percent of the corn and soybean acres in Iowa are covered by multiple peril crop insurance (MPCI), which can provide some relief.


Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

The Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 contains a wide variety of legislation affecting everything from school lunches to milk checks. Some of the most immediate provisions that farmers must address are: • New limitations on commodity payments,• Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE), • Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE) program.


Ag Energy: Risk Management, Energy, And Grain Issues, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Ag Energy: Risk Management, Energy, And Grain Issues, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Nearly everyone has been impacted by higher fuel prices this year. Custom corn and soybean harvesters are no exception. Their increased costs will likely be factored into custom harvesting rates this fall. Estimates of diesel fuel consumption of combining corn range from 1.5 to 2.0 gallons per acre. Soybean harvesting takes only about 1.0 to 1.5 gallons per acre. Larger, newer combines will typically use less fuel per acre.


Crop Insurance May Help Flooded And Wet Corn And Soybean Acres, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Crop Insurance May Help Flooded And Wet Corn And Soybean Acres, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Wet weather has delayed planting of corn and soybeans across the state, and flooding has severely damaged many acres that have been planted. Fortunately, nearly 90 percent of the corn and soybean acres in Iowa are covered by multiple peril crop insurance (MPCI), which can provide some relief.


Economic Impact Of Delayed And Prevented Planting, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Economic Impact Of Delayed And Prevented Planting, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Most crop producers know that to achieve optimum yields it is important to plant early. However, in years like this when cold weather or frequent rains prevented tillage and planting from being completed, some adjustments may be made to the amount of coverage provided by Multiple Peril Crop Insurance (MPCI) as well as other types of crop insurance. These adjustments are subject to revision each year by the Risk Management Agency and crop insurance vendors.


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Jul 2016

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

William Edwards

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Adjusting Hail-Damaged Crops For Crop Insurance Reporting, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Adjusting Hail-Damaged Crops For Crop Insurance Reporting, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Hail damage to crops in north central Iowa caused great losses; the total of which will become more defined with harvest. The following guidelines are intended to help farmers through the process of adjusting hail-damaged crops for crop insurance reporting.


Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Iowa farm operators were surveyed to learn what type and level of compensation they paid to full-time employees in 1997. The average total compensation paid was $26, 914, of which 79 percent consisted of cash wages.Benefits accounted for 18 percent of the compensation, and bonuses and wages in kind amounted to 3 percent.Housing and insurance plans were the most significant benefits provided


Late Harvest And Crop Insurance Coverage, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Late Harvest And Crop Insurance Coverage, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Iowa and other Corn Belt states are experiencing one of the latest and slowest harvest seasons on record. Some producers have had concerns about whether their crop insurance coverage will be still be in effect if harvesting drags into December.


Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

The frequent rains that have soaked Iowa this year have left many corn and soybean fields unplanted or with flooded areas. Many producers are wondering what options they have under their multiple peril crop insurance (MPCI) policies. In Iowa, the crop insurance “late planting period” for corn begins on June 1. Corn can still be planted after this date, but the insurance guarantee on those acres is reduced by 1 percent per day until the acres are planted. Corn acres planted after June 25 will receive insurance coverage equal to 60 percent of their original guarantee. Producers should keep accurate ...


Flood Damaged Crops, Crop Insurance Payments And Lease Contracts, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Flood Damaged Crops, Crop Insurance Payments And Lease Contracts, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Some Iowa corn and soybean producers are facing substantial if not complete crop losses due to flooding. In particular, many acres of crops in the Missouri River Valley have been under water for a month or more this year. Fortunately, nearly 90 percent of Iowa’s corn and soybean acres are protected by multiple peril crop insurance.


Farmland Rental Rates Show Continued Strength In 2012, William M. Edwards, Ann M. Johanns Jul 2016

Farmland Rental Rates Show Continued Strength In 2012, William M. Edwards, Ann M. Johanns

William Edwards

Anyone who is involved with the rental market for Iowa farmland knows that rental rates have been pushed significantly higher by the favorable corn and soybean prices that farmers have enjoyed since 2010. This trend continued in 2012.


Machinery Management For Small- And Medium-Sized Horticultural Farms, Georgeanne M. Artz, William M. Edwards, Darren H. Jarboe Jul 2016

Machinery Management For Small- And Medium-Sized Horticultural Farms, Georgeanne M. Artz, William M. Edwards, Darren H. Jarboe

William Edwards

Machinery and equipment needs are far different for vegetable farms than for commodity production units. This project explored the unique machinery access options for small and mid-sized horticulture operations.


Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

The frequent rains that have soaked Iowa this year have left many corn and soybean fields unplanted or with flooded areas. Many producers are wondering what options they have under their multiple peril crop insurance (MPCI) policies. In Iowa, the crop insurance “late planting period” for corn begins on June 1. Corn can still be planted after this date, but the insurance guarantee on those acres is reduced by 1 percent per day until the acres are planted. Corn acres planted after June 25 will receive insurance coverage equal to 60 percent of their original guarantee. Producers should keep accurate ...


Economic Impact Of Delayed And Prevented Planting, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Economic Impact Of Delayed And Prevented Planting, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Most crop producers know that to achieve optimum yields it is important to plant early. However, in years like this when cold weather or frequent rains prevented tillage and planting from being completed, some adjustments may be made to the amount of coverage provided by Multiple Peril Crop Insurance (MPCI) as well as other types of crop insurance. These adjustments are subject to revision each year by the Risk Management Agency and crop insurance vendors.


Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

The Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 contains a wide variety of legislation affecting everything from school lunches to milk checks. Some of the most immediate provisions that farmers must address are:
• New limitations on commodity payments,
• Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE),
• Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE) program.


Crop Insurance Decisions Related To Delayed And Prevented Planting, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Crop Insurance Decisions Related To Delayed And Prevented Planting, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

In some years cold weather or frequent rains prevent tillage and planting from being completed as early as desired to achieve optimum yields. When this happens some adjustments may be made to the amount of coverage provided by Multiple Peril Crop Insurance (MPCI) as well as other types of crop insurance. These adjustments are subject to revision each year by the Risk Management Agency and crop insurance vendors.


Insurance Coverage For Drought-Damaged Crops, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Insurance Coverage For Drought-Damaged Crops, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Nearly 90 percent of the corn and soybean acres in Iowa are covered by multiple peril crop insurance. Drought damage is an insurable loss under these policies. Producers should consult with their crop insurance agents before harvesting or destroying any drought-damaged crops, however.