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Iowa State University

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Switchgrass Nitrogen Response And Estimated Production Costs On Diverse Sites, John H. Fike, James W. Pease, Vance N. Owens, Rodney L. Farris, Julie L. Hansen, Emily A. Heaton, Chang O. Hong, Hilary S. Mayton, Robert B. Mitchell, Donald R. Viands Oct 2017

Switchgrass Nitrogen Response And Estimated Production Costs On Diverse Sites, John H. Fike, James W. Pease, Vance N. Owens, Rodney L. Farris, Julie L. Hansen, Emily A. Heaton, Chang O. Hong, Hilary S. Mayton, Robert B. Mitchell, Donald R. Viands

Agronomy Publications

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been the principal perennial herbaceous crop investigated for bioenergy production in North America given its high production potential, relatively low input requirements, and potential suitability for use on marginal lands. Few large trials have determined switchgrass yields at field scale on marginal lands, including analysis of production costs. Thus, a field-scale study was conducted to develop realistic yield and cost estimates for diverse regions of the USA. Objectives included measuring switchgrass response to fertility treatments (0, 56, and 112 kg N ha−1) and generating corresponding estimates of production costs for sites with diverse soil ...


Life Cycle Assessment And Techno-Economic Analysis Of Ethanol Production: A Review, Maria C. T. B. Oliveira, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2017

Life Cycle Assessment And Techno-Economic Analysis Of Ethanol Production: A Review, Maria C. T. B. Oliveira, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Fossil fuels are considered one of the most contributing for increasing the rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. On the other hand, renewable energy derived from biomass promising to reduce significantly the CO2 emissions, promoting less environmental impacts for the future generations. Nowadays, the cost and the environmental impacts of the process are the challenges for producing a green product with lower cost. Numerous research has been published over the lasts decades, but gaps remain in understanding the sustainability and the environmental impact of the ethanol production. The techno-economic analysis is designed in order to optimize one process, and the ...


Productivity Measures In Beef Cows And Calves Following A Single Subcutaneous Injection Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin, Claire Andresen Jan 2017

Productivity Measures In Beef Cows And Calves Following A Single Subcutaneous Injection Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin, Claire Andresen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effect of a single subcutaneous injection of extended-release eprinomectin for parasite control on cow/calf performance was evaluated in a pair of studies. In the first study, a fall-calving Angus herd was utilized. Mature cows were treated with either extended-release eprinomectin (EPR) or a conventional injectable anthelmintic (CONV). Cows treated with EPR had better maintenance of BCS through calving and into breeding. Subsequent pregnancy rates were greater for EPR than CONV cows. Furthermore, calves from EPR dams were younger at weaning, but had greater weaning weights than calves from CONV dams. From the same fall-calving Angus herd, replacement heifers ...


Factors Affecting Timing And Intensity Of Calving Season Of Beef Cow-Calf Producers In The Midwest, Lee L. Schulz, Claire E. Andresen, Patrick J. Gunn Jan 2016

Factors Affecting Timing And Intensity Of Calving Season Of Beef Cow-Calf Producers In The Midwest, Lee L. Schulz, Claire E. Andresen, Patrick J. Gunn

Animal Industry Report

Despite demonstrated market incentives to adopt controlled calving seasons, many producers still have herds that calve somewhat broadly throughout the year. Primarydata, collected through a coordinated survey effort withUSDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service, were usedto quantify factors that affect producers’ decisions regardingtiming and intensity of calving season. Ninety-seven, 50, 33,and 26% of farms calve in the spring (Mar, Apr, May),summer (Jun, Jul, Aug), fall (Sep, Oct, Nov), and winter(Dec, Jan, Feb), respectively. Twenty-two percent observeda calving season exclusively in the spring. Sixty-six percentof respondents indicated calving season was dictated byweather, 34% because of labor availability, and ...


New Models To Estimate Costs Of Us Farm Programs, Xiaohong Zhu Jan 2016

New Models To Estimate Costs Of Us Farm Programs, Xiaohong Zhu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I extended the stochastic model built by Babcock and Paulson (2012) to conduct a one-year cost projection for crop insurance in order to investigate its feasibility of being solely provided by private firms. Based on the 52 years’ yield data from 1961 to 2012, the risk consequences from insuring crop yield and revenue against losses are estimated to be far beyond what private insurers could bear on their own. However, reinsurance from the government provides an attractive incentive to insurance firms. Among the six insurance policies researched in this study, the minimum expected net underwriting gains to ...


Ratios And Benchmarks As Tools For Local Food Hub Decision-Making: A Comparative Case Study, Savanna May Lyons Jan 2016

Ratios And Benchmarks As Tools For Local Food Hub Decision-Making: A Comparative Case Study, Savanna May Lyons

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Food hubs, or local food aggregation and distribution businesses, are triple-bottom-line firms that play an increasingly important role in connecting small and mid-sized farmers to wholesale and retail markets. This paper explores how food hubs can use their financial data to identify and address strengths and challenges in their operations. We propose a “dashboard” of key metrics and benchmarks for food hub managers, and apply it a comparative case study of four food hubs over three years of operations. We compare and contrast the liquidity, cash flow, efficiency, solvency and repayment capacity of the four cases, and analyze cross-cutting themes ...


Beef Species Symposium: Economic Considerations Related To U.S. Beef Herd Expansion, Glynn T. Tonsor, Lee L. Schulz Sep 2015

Beef Species Symposium: Economic Considerations Related To U.S. Beef Herd Expansion, Glynn T. Tonsor, Lee L. Schulz

Economics Publications

Significant attention perpetually surrounds possible changes in breeding herd inventories in the U.S. beef cattle industry. This article outlines economic considerations of U.S. herd expansion. Factors restricting expansion include land availability, increasing production efficiency, operator demographics, capital requirements, and commodity price volatility. Several offsetting factors support herd expansion including unprecedented cow–calf returns, ongoing global beef demand growth, and timing within the current cattle cycle. In addition to these industry-wide factors, several important variations in individual ranch considerations are outlined. The authors’ expectations on future herd dynamics are provided, highlighting broader implications for individual operations, industry leaders, and ...


Suitability Of Winter Canola (Brassica Napus) For Enhancing Summer Annual Crop Rotations In Iowa, Mary H. Wiedenhoeft, Rafael A. Martinez-Feria, Thomas C. Kaspar, Keri L. Jacobs Jan 2015

Suitability Of Winter Canola (Brassica Napus) For Enhancing Summer Annual Crop Rotations In Iowa, Mary H. Wiedenhoeft, Rafael A. Martinez-Feria, Thomas C. Kaspar, Keri L. Jacobs

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

What are the prospects for winter canola as an alternative crop for Iowa farmers? This project examined the economics and costs/benefits of adding canola as a third crop or a cover crop in rotations.


Assessing Nitrogen Credits From Clover Cover Crops And Effects Of Seed Inoculation, Ajay Nair, Kathleen Delate, Georgeanne Artz, Corene Bregendahl Jan 2015

Assessing Nitrogen Credits From Clover Cover Crops And Effects Of Seed Inoculation, Ajay Nair, Kathleen Delate, Georgeanne Artz, Corene Bregendahl

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

A wide array of information is available on cover crop selection, planting date, and potential advantages, but very little data is available on cover crop performance under Iowa growing conditions. In order to expand cover crop options for Iowa growers, more precise and region-specific information is needed.


Three Essays On Modeling Biofuel Feedstock Supply, Wei Zhou Jan 2015

Three Essays On Modeling Biofuel Feedstock Supply, Wei Zhou

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The general theme of this dissertation is modeling biofuel feedstock supply. All three essays focuses on different topics relating to the theme. The first essay considers supply of corn stover for a commercial production of a cellulosic ethanol plant. The economic trade-offs in determining the plant size under uncertain future corn stover yields and cellulosic ethanol prices are analyzed. We also estimate the impacts on optimal plant sizes under two payment schemes for corn stover procurement: plant pays for transportation cost and farmers pay for the transportation cost. My second essay analyzes the impact of ethanol mandates on corn prices ...


Three Essays On Crop Yield, Crop Insurance And Climate Change, Lisha Li Jan 2015

Three Essays On Crop Yield, Crop Insurance And Climate Change, Lisha Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The main subject of this dissertation includes the study of the impact of weather on crop yields and developing crop revenue insurance product. The dissertation limits its analysis to the state of Iowa because it's a critical corn production area in the United States. Chapter 2 introduced a dynamic linear model to measure weather-adjusted trends in Iowa corn yields. The weather factors consist of the amount of rainfall, temperature and a measurement of soil moisture. Results show a significant improved yield growth in the 1990s, controlling for the impact of weather. Results also indicate that the critical temperature varies ...


Three Studies On Applying Positive Mathematical Programming And Bayesian Analysis To Model Us Crop Supply, Michael Hudak Jan 2015

Three Studies On Applying Positive Mathematical Programming And Bayesian Analysis To Model Us Crop Supply, Michael Hudak

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to find a practical way of obtaining a reasonable crop supply model for the US using a limited dataset. This model can then be used for forecasting and impact modeling. The method that is central to this model is Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) that allows for the calibration of a nonlinear programming model to mimic the observations. This method is improved by implementing Bayesian Analysis to allow for the model to consider a distribution for the supply elasticity.

Using this method a national model was formed using only five years of data. While there ...


Machinery Management For Small- And Medium-Sized Horticultural Farms, Georgeanne M. Artz, William M. Edwards, Darren H. Jarboe Jan 2014

Machinery Management For Small- And Medium-Sized Horticultural Farms, Georgeanne M. Artz, William M. Edwards, Darren H. Jarboe

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Machinery and equipment needs are far different for vegetable farms than for commodity production units. This project explored the unique machinery access options for small and mid-sized horticulture operations.


The Extent And Impact Of Trust Ownership On The Sustainability And Resiliency Of Iowa’S Agricultural Landscape, Edward Cox, Michael Duffy Jan 2014

The Extent And Impact Of Trust Ownership On The Sustainability And Resiliency Of Iowa’S Agricultural Landscape, Edward Cox, Michael Duffy

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

The popularity of trusts as a land management tactic has been increasing. Using survey results, an attorney and economics professor examined the kinds of trust arrangements that exist in Iowa and how they might be used to encourage conservation practices and sustainable agricultural management.


Innovative Equipment Solutions To Reduce Costs And Improve Productivity For Small-Scale Fruit And Vegetable Growers, Georgeanne M. Artz, Linda L. Naeve Jan 2014

Innovative Equipment Solutions To Reduce Costs And Improve Productivity For Small-Scale Fruit And Vegetable Growers, Georgeanne M. Artz, Linda L. Naeve

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

An array of equipment is available to help fruit and vegetable growers with specialized production and processing tasks. This study examined ways for these small operators to share equipment and maximize their use of the shared implements.


Potential For Machinery: A Case Study Of Fruit And Vegetable Growers In Iowa, Nicholas Jon Pates, Georgeanne M. Artz Jan 2014

Potential For Machinery: A Case Study Of Fruit And Vegetable Growers In Iowa, Nicholas Jon Pates, Georgeanne M. Artz

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

This 28-page publication describes field machinery used on six Iowa fruit and vegetable operations. The case studies looked at how size, diversification, marketing strategies and production methods impacted decisions regarding machinery.


Evaluating Impact Of Diet, Housing And Season Systems On Feedlot Cattle Finishing Programs, Josephat Gichobi Njoka Jan 2014

Evaluating Impact Of Diet, Housing And Season Systems On Feedlot Cattle Finishing Programs, Josephat Gichobi Njoka

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

A four-year study was conducted using 1,987 yearling steers of predominantly mixed British breeds with an average starting weight of approximately 700 lb. The overall objectives of this study was to evaluate feedlot performance, carcass characteristics and expected economic projections for placing steers on feed quarterly per year for a period of 4 yr in different housing-diet systems. A pen with an average of 20 steers was the experimental unit, which was replicated once at the start of every trial period. Treatments were 2-levels of diet, 3-levels of housing, and season with 4-levels per year. The two diets ...


Farm-Scale Costs And Returns For Second Generation Bioenergy Cropping Systems In The Us Corn Belt, Robert K. Manatt, Arne Hallam, Lisa A. Schulte, Emily A. Heaton, Theodore P. Gunther, Richard B. Hall, Kenneth J. Moore Sep 2013

Farm-Scale Costs And Returns For Second Generation Bioenergy Cropping Systems In The Us Corn Belt, Robert K. Manatt, Arne Hallam, Lisa A. Schulte, Emily A. Heaton, Theodore P. Gunther, Richard B. Hall, Kenneth J. Moore

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn–soybean rotation ...


Techno-Economic Modeling Of A Degummed Soybean Oil Biorefinery In 2005 & 2012, Bailley A. Richardson, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2013

Techno-Economic Modeling Of A Degummed Soybean Oil Biorefinery In 2005 & 2012, Bailley A. Richardson, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

As the biofuels industry expands, it is important to identify and quantize potential capital, operational, material, and utility costs, as well as possible sales prices for the biofuels and coproducts. Many industries use computer simulation programs for this function, as well as to see how using different operations can affect the overall production at the plant. The objective of this project was to determine how various operation scenarios affected capital, operational, material, and utility costs of a biodiesel biorefinery. These costs were examined using a techno-economic modeling program for a degummed soybean oil plant. It was clear after seeing economic ...


Techno-Economic Modeling Of Coproduct Processing In A Corn Based Ethanol Plant In 2012, Christine Wood, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan Jul 2013

Techno-Economic Modeling Of Coproduct Processing In A Corn Based Ethanol Plant In 2012, Christine Wood, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Coproducts, such as Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS), produced during ethanol production are essential to the economic sustainability of each ethanol plant as they provide an additional source of revenue. DDGS is extensively used as animal feed, but has a relatively low market value compared to the biofuel. By fractioning DDGS into lighter and heavier fractions, the overall composition changes potentially increasing the value of the coproducts as they become more desirable to different markets. Earlier studies have examined fractionating DDGS using sieves and aspirators. This project examined the techno-economics of adding fractionation systems onto an existing 40 million ...


Review Of Housing Options For Gestating Sows, Dustin J. Schau, Jeremy D. Brue, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2013

Review Of Housing Options For Gestating Sows, Dustin J. Schau, Jeremy D. Brue, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Housing options for gestating sows is an important topic affecting livestock producers, consumers, and policy makers. Producers seek to provide high quality products at affordable prices while meeting increasing public demands for animal wellbeing. Several studies have been conducted over the years to compare group and individual housing options for gestating sows. The object of this paper was to review these studies and to look specifically at the areas of animal wellbeing and economic impact of housing type. Several types of housing and feed management plans were examined from previous studies and the impact of housing type was explored. Overall ...


Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards May 2013

Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards

Integrated Crop Management News

The frequent rains that have soaked Iowa this year have left many corn and soybean fields unplanted or with flooded areas. Many producers are wondering what options they have under their multiple peril crop insurance (MPCI) policies.

In Iowa, the crop insurance “late planting period” for corn begins on June 1. Corn can still be planted after this date, but the insurance guarantee on those acres is reduced by 1 percent per day until the acres are planted. Corn acres planted after June 25 will receive insurance coverage equal to 60 percent of their original guarantee. Producers should keep accurate ...


Agronomic, Environmental And Economic Performance Of Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems, Lisa A. Schulte Moore, Kenneth J. Moore, Richard B. Hall, Arne Hallam, Matt Helmers Jan 2013

Agronomic, Environmental And Economic Performance Of Alternative Biomass Cropping Systems, Lisa A. Schulte Moore, Kenneth J. Moore, Richard B. Hall, Arne Hallam, Matt Helmers

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

If cellulosic biomass is to play a significant role in America's energy future, research needs to be conducted on the optimal production and placement practices. This project looked at a portfolio of biomass cropping systems that might be adopted for Iowa.


Aflatoxin: Crop Insurance, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Chad E. Hart Sep 2012

Aflatoxin: Crop Insurance, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Chad E. Hart

Integrated Crop Management News

Aflatoxin is covered under multi-peril crop insurance. The settlement is done as a deducted percentage of actual yield depending on the aflatoxin level. Producers will receive the grain after settlement.


Insurance Coverage For Drought-Damaged Crops, William M. Edwards Jul 2012

Insurance Coverage For Drought-Damaged Crops, William M. Edwards

Integrated Crop Management News

Nearly 90 percent of the corn and soybean acres in Iowa are covered by multiple peril crop insurance. Drought damage is an insurable loss under these policies. Producers should consult with their crop insurance agents before harvesting or destroying any drought-damaged crops, however.


Grain Producers Need To Consider Crop Insurance Options For Late Planting And Replanting, William M. Edwards Jul 2012

Grain Producers Need To Consider Crop Insurance Options For Late Planting And Replanting, William M. Edwards

Integrated Crop Management News

The frequent rains that have soaked Iowa this year have left many corn and soybean fields with areas where little or no production will be realized. Many producers are wondering what options they have under their multiple peril crop insurance policies.


Farmland Rental Rates Show Continued Strength In 2012, William M. Edwards, Ann M. Johanns May 2012

Farmland Rental Rates Show Continued Strength In 2012, William M. Edwards, Ann M. Johanns

Integrated Crop Management News

Anyone who is involved with the rental market for Iowa farmland knows that rental rates have been pushed significantly higher by the favorable corn and soybean prices that farmers have enjoyed since 2010. This trend continued in 2012.


Early Planted Acres May Lose Replant Insurance, William M. Edwards Apr 2012

Early Planted Acres May Lose Replant Insurance, William M. Edwards

Integrated Crop Management News

Unusually warm and dry weather has allowed crop producers to start spring field work earlier than can be remembered by most people. Getting an early start on tillage and planting reduces the risk of getting behind schedule later if an extended period of rainy weather occurs, but it also has its risks. The Risk Management Agency (USDA) has some specific rules about early planted crops with regard to crop insurance coverage. For each insurable crop RMA has set an “early planting date.” The earliest planting dates allowed for counties in the state of Iowa are April 11 for corn and ...


Energy Use In Pig Production: An Examination Of Current Iowa Systems, Peter J. Lammers, M. Douglas Kenealy, James B. Kliebenstein, Jay D. Harmon, Matthew J. Helmers, Mark S. Honeyman Mar 2012

Energy Use In Pig Production: An Examination Of Current Iowa Systems, Peter J. Lammers, M. Douglas Kenealy, James B. Kliebenstein, Jay D. Harmon, Matthew J. Helmers, Mark S. Honeyman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This paper compares energy use for different pig production systems in Iowa, a leader in US swine production. Pig production systems include not only the growth and performance of the pigs, but also the supporting infrastructure of pig production. This supporting infrastructure includes swine housing, facility management, feedstuff provision, swine diets, and manure management. Six different facility type × diet formulation × cropping sequence scenarios were modeled and compared. The baseline system examined produces 15,600 pigs annually using confinement facilities and a corn-soybean cropping sequence. Diet formulations for the baseline system were corn-soybean meal diets that included the synthetic AA L-lysine ...


Important Crop Insurance Dates, William M. Edwards Feb 2012

Important Crop Insurance Dates, William M. Edwards

Integrated Crop Management News

Even the best crop insurance plan is of little use if the right information is not collected and submitted on time. Likewise, if certain actions are not completed by the necessary date, producers may not receive full benefit from the risk protection that they have selected.