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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Economic Issues In Resistance Management , Silvia Secchi Jan 2000

Economic Issues In Resistance Management , Silvia Secchi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes economic issues related to the use of agricultural pesticides and antibiotics. The efficacy of both these chemical compounds depends on the existence of susceptible targets. However, through natural selection, their utilization increases the frequency of the genes resistant to the pesticide or drug in the target population, and it decreases the available biological capital of genetic susceptibility, increasing resistance;The aim of this dissertation is to analyze the characteristics of optimal resistance management strategies. An empirical analysis is offered in case of bioengineered Bt corn, which underlines the importance of pest mobility, and the externalities it causes ...


Value-Adding Partnerships In Proprietary Value-Enhanced Specialty Grain: A Case Study Of High Oil Corn , Wenying Du Jan 2000

Value-Adding Partnerships In Proprietary Value-Enhanced Specialty Grain: A Case Study Of High Oil Corn , Wenying Du

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the value-adding partnerships in commercializing a proprietary value-enhanced specialty grain---DuPont's High Oil Corn, analyzes the decision-makings along the value chain, and explains the governance structure of the value-adding partnership from the perspective of the theory of firm. It argues that private investment efforts play an important role in determining the governance structure, and the governance structure evolves with the evolution of the importance of those efforts.


Examining Agricultural Investment , Chad Edward Hart Jan 1999

Examining Agricultural Investment , Chad Edward Hart

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using two different approaches, the relationship between a firm's investment and its financial variables is examined. Imperfections in the credit market such as asymmetric information have led researchers to explore these relationships. This study incorporates the 5 Cs of lending (character, capacity, collateral, credit rating, and capital) into the farmer's investment decision and explores the impacts of these variables on a basic data set. The data set is composed of 590 Iowa farms that are members of the Iowa Farm Business Association and have reported farm level financial and production data from 1991 to 1995;The first approach ...


Three Essays On Productivity In Post-Soviet Primary Agriculture , Lyubov Arnoldovna Kurkalova Jan 1999

Three Essays On Productivity In Post-Soviet Primary Agriculture , Lyubov Arnoldovna Kurkalova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation consists of three essays that analyze relative growth of subsidiary farming and a decline in the production of collective farms in post-Soviet Ukraine. The first two essays consider the change in the production shares of the collective and subsidiary sectors as two interrelated phenomena. The analysis is built on the observation that all the employees of the collective farms have access to subsidiary plots. We analyze whether a shift of labor from collective farming towards subsidiary farming may be explained by a rational reaction of households to income uncertainty (the first essay) and to a decline in wages ...


Estimating The Value Of "Source Verification" In Iowa Feeder Cattle Markets, Godfred Yeboah Jan 1999

Estimating The Value Of "Source Verification" In Iowa Feeder Cattle Markets, Godfred Yeboah

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Source Verification (SV) as defined by the Chariton Valley Beef project is the collection and documentation of background information that should help potential buyers determine the value of the calves. This study used data from two sources; Bloomfield auction market, Bloomfield Iowa and from Rusell, Appanoose, Winterset and Centerville, Iowa auction markets. On average the SV cattle from the Bloomfield auction market yielded higher prices compared to the non-source verified cattle. Regression estimates for the same data set showed price premiums being offered for SV cattle in 1997 for both steers and heifers. However in 1998, only the heifers showed ...


Economic Analysis Of Pesticide Regulation In The U.S. Apple Industry , Jutta Roosen Jan 1999

Economic Analysis Of Pesticide Regulation In The U.S. Apple Industry , Jutta Roosen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Several particularities of apple production systems require careful consideration of the methods used to estimate impacts of pesticide regulation. Growing conditions are geographically diverse, quality considerations are of particular importance, and dynamic aspects need to be acknowledged in production systems of perennial crops;A partial-equilibrium model of the apple industry is estimated where orchards are modeled as multiproduct firms producing apples for fresh and processed consumption. Groups of growers are distinguished by region and by pesticide use patterns. The changes of quantities and prices in the markets for fresh and processed apples that follow a technology shift are derived. Economic ...


Optimal Trade Policy, Time Consistency And Uncertainty In An Oligopsonistic World Market , Jean-Philippe Gervais Jan 1999

Optimal Trade Policy, Time Consistency And Uncertainty In An Oligopsonistic World Market , Jean-Philippe Gervais

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the strategic behavior between countries that have purchasing power on the world market for a certain good. Tariffs and quotas are not equivalent protection instruments under non-cooperative behavior. Importers would be better off by choosing their policy cooperatively. If production decisions occur before consumption decisions, the ex-ante optimal policy is not time consistent because the ex-post elasticity of the residual foreign export supply is lower than the ex-ante elasticity. However, we show that the importers' inability to commit to their trade instrument may be welfare superior to the precommitment solution;We derive the equilibrium production policies if ...


Linking Revealed And Stated Preference Data In Recreation Demand Modeling , Christopher Dean Azevedo Jan 1999

Linking Revealed And Stated Preference Data In Recreation Demand Modeling , Christopher Dean Azevedo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Valuing non-market goods is a unique economic problem. When a market exists for a good, traditional economic techniques may be utilized to determine the value society associates with the good. When that good is not traded in a market, as in the case of wetland recreation, the economist must find some way to compensate for the lack of market signals;In this dissertation, I develop a recreation demand model that is used to link two disparate sources of data. The two types of data are revealed preference data and stated preference data. Revealed preference data is data that is observed ...


Identifying The Effects Of Monetary Policy Shocks On The Farm Sector , Alaa Kamal Alshawa Jan 1999

Identifying The Effects Of Monetary Policy Shocks On The Farm Sector , Alaa Kamal Alshawa

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study concerns two potential channels for the transmission of monetary policy to the farm sector in the United States. The first one is the money channel where I use a relative-price model to explain the effect of monetary policy shocks on relative farm prices. The second one is the credit channel where I use the Flow of Funds Accounts (FOFA) data to assess the effect of monetary policy shocks on net funds raised in the farm sector;The equilibrium relative-price model provides a linkage between monetary policy shocks and relative farm prices. The model shows that monetary policy can ...


Nutrition And The Cognitive Ability Of Children: Evidence From Egypt , Maria Patricia A. Cortez Jan 1999

Nutrition And The Cognitive Ability Of Children: Evidence From Egypt , Maria Patricia A. Cortez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Investing in nutrition is desirable in itself. Adequate nutrition is essential for the proper growth and development of individuals and partly determines the quality of life and well-being of individuals. But there is also an economic rationale for investing in nutrition. Nutrition may have a direct effect on the productivity of labor and an indirect effect through educational achievement. This dissertation focused on the indirect effect of nutrition on labor productivity by examining whether nutritional factors were associated with the cognitive ability of children. The children consisted of toddlers, aged 18--30 months, and schoolers, aged 6--9 years, from a peri-urban ...


Farmland Ownership And Tenure In Iowa, 1982-1997: A Fifteen Year Perspective, Charles Anthony Pieper Jan 1999

Farmland Ownership And Tenure In Iowa, 1982-1997: A Fifteen Year Perspective, Charles Anthony Pieper

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The 1997 Farmland Ownership and Tenure study focuses on aspects of farmland ownership and tenancy in Iowa and compares 1997 data with trends from similar studies conducted in 1982 and 1992. Agricultural landholding types considered in the study include sole ownership, joint tenancy(husband and wife only), co-ownership(other joint ownership and tenants in common), partnership (including general, limited and limited liability partnership), trusts, estates,corporations, and limited liability companies. Demographics of landowners are included in the study and encompass age, gender, education, occupation, marital status, and residency. Acquisition, anticipated transfer, and management of farmland were also analyzed. A major ...


Numerical Optimization Of Recursive Systems Of Equations With An Application To Optimal Swine Genetic Selection , Richard Edmund Hawkins Jan 1999

Numerical Optimization Of Recursive Systems Of Equations With An Application To Optimal Swine Genetic Selection , Richard Edmund Hawkins

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A new dynamic programming method is developed for numerical optimization of recursive systems of equations, in which continuous choice variables determine the allowed choices in subsequent stages of the problem. The method works by dynamically creating bubbles, or subspaces, of the total search space, allowing the indexing of states visited for later use, and taking advantage of the fact that states adjacent to a visited state are likely to be visited. The method thereby allows search of spaces far larger than would traditionally be permitted by memory limitations. The search allows an infinite planning horizon, and tests at each stage ...


Exchange Rate And Market Power In Import Price , Jeong-Yun Seo Jan 1998

Exchange Rate And Market Power In Import Price , Jeong-Yun Seo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study consists of three papers in the area of international market analysis, as listed in Chapter 1, 2, and 3. Each paper has its own issue and application, but the main theme behind these papers is to figure out interactions of international firms' real decisions with respect to changes in financial variables or structure attributing to the firms' behaviors. The papers focus especially on a risk-averse international firm's decision model with respect to fluctuations in exchange rates;The first two papers relate the international firm's ex-ante real decision to the portfolio theory in correspondence to recent importance ...


An Analysis Of Commercial Bank Participation In The Farmer Mac Ii Loan Sale Program , Charles Edgar Murray Jan 1998

An Analysis Of Commercial Bank Participation In The Farmer Mac Ii Loan Sale Program , Charles Edgar Murray

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation's objective was to provide a descriptive and empirical analysis of commercial bank participation in the Farmer Mac II loan sale program for guaranteed portions of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Guaranteed Farm Loan Program loans. The descriptive analysis summarizes reasons for participation cited by bankers responding to a series of survey questions. Participants indicate the following factors as important in their decision to sell loans: enhanced liquidity, improved profitability, reduced interest rate risk, added capacity to meet heavy USDA guaranteed loan demand, and ability to pass on better loan rates and terms to their borrowers. Nonparticipants ...


Hog Industry And Hog Production Related Water Pollution Problem In Taiwan: An Application To Valuing The Willingness To Pay For Improving Water Quality, Kuo-Chang Ro Jan 1997

Hog Industry And Hog Production Related Water Pollution Problem In Taiwan: An Application To Valuing The Willingness To Pay For Improving Water Quality, Kuo-Chang Ro

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Generalized Corner Solution Models In Recreation Demand , Daniel James Phaneuf Jan 1997

Generalized Corner Solution Models In Recreation Demand , Daniel James Phaneuf

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

When examining consumer behavior using household level data, it is typical in many applications to find that consumers consume only a subset of the available goods, setting their demand to zero for the remaining goods. Examples of this include labor supply and food demand, as well as the demand for Leisure Studies; In multiple site recreation demand data sets, one usually observes that individuals visit only a subset of the available recreation sites, yet visit these sites multiple times during a season. Theoretically, these corner solutions are effectively modeled using non-negativity constraints in the utility maximization problem. Empirically estimating such ...


Aggregation Over Commodities: An Application Of The Generalized Composite Commodity Theory In A Us Food Demand System Analysis, Yanrong Wang Jan 1997

Aggregation Over Commodities: An Application Of The Generalized Composite Commodity Theory In A Us Food Demand System Analysis, Yanrong Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Economic And Financial Analysis Of Large Scale Closed Cooperative Swine Production Under Uncertainty In Iowa, Michael Charles Poray Jan 1997

Economic And Financial Analysis Of Large Scale Closed Cooperative Swine Production Under Uncertainty In Iowa, Michael Charles Poray

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research evaluates the opportunities for small grain farmers in Iowa to organize a joint large scale swine production operation. Different business organizational structures' legal and tax implications are examined for a joint large scale production operation. Based on the suitability from reviewing current the legal and tax regulations, the closed (defined membership) cooperative was selected as the organizational business structure for the proposed group of small grain farmers. The returns from establishing closed cooperatives owned by grain producers to produce hogs in Iowa are evaluate. Using a computer simulated production model incorporating both biological and price factors, the uncertainty ...


Corn And Soybean Basis Behavior And Forecasting: Fundamental And Alternative Approaches , Bingrong Jiang Jan 1997

Corn And Soybean Basis Behavior And Forecasting: Fundamental And Alternative Approaches , Bingrong Jiang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A model is developed to analyze the nearby basis behavior of corn and soybeans in several markets across the U.S. Results suggest that basis behavior has a seasonal pattern, and that different variables affect nearby corn and soybean basis at various periods. The most important factors affecting basis are storage cost (opportunity cost), transportation cost (barge rates), and supply (regional production relative to regional storage capacity). Nine conventional (naive three-year-average forecasts, econometric, ARIMA and composite forecast models) and less conventional forecasting techniques (State Space and Neural Networks models) are utilized to forecast out-of-sample basis for one-month up to 12-month ...


Rural And Urban Fiscal Patterns, Maria Alicia Failde Jan 1996

Rural And Urban Fiscal Patterns, Maria Alicia Failde

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Cooperatives And Irrigation In Vietnam , Charles Forest Nicholson Jan 1996

Cooperatives And Irrigation In Vietnam , Charles Forest Nicholson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Cooperative agricultural activity has existed in Vietnam in various forms for many decades. Under central planning, cooperative institutions provided a means for the government to extract surplus from agriculture for the development of the industrial sector. Now, under policies promoting market liberalization in agriculture, household farming units are no longer obliged to transact with the cooperative. The focus of this dissertation is on the interaction between autonomous household production units and cooperative institutions;Collective action around irrigation represents one economic motive for coop participation. Recent developments in club theory provide a conceptual framework within which analysis can be conducted. The ...


Economic Feasibility Of Growing Herbaceous Biomass Energy Crops In Iowa , Young-Woo Park Jan 1996

Economic Feasibility Of Growing Herbaceous Biomass Energy Crops In Iowa , Young-Woo Park

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Depletion of natural energy resources and environmental degradation caused by current energy resources (fossil fuels) have rekindled interest in energy availability and developing environmentally benign and renewable alternative energy resources. In addition, the reduced productive capacity of soil and environmental problems in rural areas caused by the loss of topsoil has created interest in ways to conserve soil;These concerns have generated considerable attention on the production of herbaceous energy crops on marginal land as a possible solution to meeting future energy demands, addressing environmental concerns, and reducing soil erosion;This research suggests that herbaceous energy crops, especially switchgrass, can ...


Farmer-Borrowers' Selection Of Short- And Intermediate-Term Loan Contracts: Traditional Lenders Versus Nontraditional Lenders , Jauling Tseng Jan 1996

Farmer-Borrowers' Selection Of Short- And Intermediate-Term Loan Contracts: Traditional Lenders Versus Nontraditional Lenders , Jauling Tseng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The emergence and growth of nontraditional lenders in short- and intermediate-term agricultural credit markets during the 1990s prompted a number of studies on the economic incentives and competitive strategies for input supply or manufacturing firms to create captive finance companies. Comparably, little work, however, has been done on the choice of nontraditional lenders from the borrower's perspective. This dissertation examines the farmer-borrower's decision-making process in choosing between traditional and nontraditional lenders when financing short- and intermediate-term loan contracts. The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of the factors that influence farm-level demand for traditional ...


The Location Of Marginal Production For Value-Added And Intermediate Goods: Optimal Policies And Trade Volumes , Frank Harland Fuller Jan 1996

The Location Of Marginal Production For Value-Added And Intermediate Goods: Optimal Policies And Trade Volumes , Frank Harland Fuller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

For many years the United States and other countries have used subsidies to promote exports of agricultural commodities. Although wheat exports have captured the largest share of U.S. subsidies in recent years, there has been a concerted effort in the United States to increase exports of high-value products (HVPs). To a large extent, economic analysis of export subsidies has focused on trade in final goods; however, thorough treatment of subsidized exports of HVPs must take into account the impact these policies have on markets for the intermediate inputs used to produce value-added goods;This dissertation seeks to provide both ...


Television Advertising's Effect On The Demand For Different Types Of Fresh Beef: A Gibbs Sampling Approach, Jeremy Todd Benson Jan 1996

Television Advertising's Effect On The Demand For Different Types Of Fresh Beef: A Gibbs Sampling Approach, Jeremy Todd Benson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Agricultural Policy In Russia, Sergei Strokov Jan 1996

Analysis Of Agricultural Policy In Russia, Sergei Strokov

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Determinants Of Rural Population Growth And Decline, 1950-1990: The Roles Of Government Policy, Human Capital, And Farm And Nonfarm Income , Tzu-Ling Huang Jan 1996

The Determinants Of Rural Population Growth And Decline, 1950-1990: The Roles Of Government Policy, Human Capital, And Farm And Nonfarm Income , Tzu-Ling Huang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the past few decades, changes in economic conditions for off-farm labor markets and improvements in agriculture technology have led to substantial reductions in farm population in the United States. However, rural populations are not decreasing uniformly, either across counties or over decades. Rates of change in farm and nonfarm populations vary widely across rural counties. The variation of population growth across counties and between farm and nonfarm population raise two questions in this study: (1) What affects the population growth and decline in US rural counties? (2) Do those factors affect farm and nonfarm populations differently?;This study is ...


Development Of A Price Visualization Procedure Of Cash Grain Markets Using Gis, Attila Konkoly Jan 1996

Development Of A Price Visualization Procedure Of Cash Grain Markets Using Gis, Attila Konkoly

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


An Economic Investigation Into Railroad Pricing And Car Allocation Programs , Gregory Roy Pautsch Jan 1995

An Economic Investigation Into Railroad Pricing And Car Allocation Programs , Gregory Roy Pautsch

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The movement of grain by the railroad industry is plagued by the consistent presence of car shortages and surpluses. Due to these difficulties and others the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 was passed;In the pre-Staggers system, the railroad chooses its tariff and capacity before knowing demand which creates the persistent cycle of car shortages and car surpluses. Shippers order conventional rail service, with full information, on a spot basis;Recently, railroads have instituted car ordering systems offering guaranteed service as well as conventional tariff service. Guaranteed service is ordered by shippers in advance and before possessing full grain market ...


Health Uncertainty And Food Consumption In Low-Income Households In Lima, Peru , Chris Daniel Gingrich Jan 1995

Health Uncertainty And Food Consumption In Low-Income Households In Lima, Peru , Chris Daniel Gingrich

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the relationships between health uncertainty and food consumption among low-income households in developing countries. The particular sample households are from Lima, Peru's bottom expenditure quartile. Several food and nonfood inputs are important factors affecting health status and health variance. In addition, there is strong evidence that expected health status and health risk affect the consumption of several food commodities;The model also provides a means of analyzing the effects of policy alternatives on food consumption, expected health status, and health risk. The results show that education programs and price subsidies for tubers and dairy products are ...