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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Iowa farm operators were surveyed to learn what type and level of compensation they paid to full-time employees in 1997. The average total compensation paid was $26, 914, of which 79 percent consisted of cash wages.Benefits accounted for 18 percent of the compensation, and bonuses and wages in kind amounted to 3 percent.Housing and insurance plans were the most significant benefits provided


Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Iowa farm operators were surveyed to learn what type and level of compensation they paid to full-time employees in 1997. The average total compensation paid was $26, 914, of which 79 percent consisted of cash wages.Benefits accounted for 18 percent of the compensation, and bonuses and wages in kind amounted to 3 percent.Housing and insurance plans were the most significant benefits provided


Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Iowa farm operators were surveyed to learn what type and level of compensation they paid to full-time employees in 1997. The average total compensation paid was $26, 914, of which 79 percent consisted of cash wages.Benefits accounted for 18 percent of the compensation, and bonuses and wages in kind amounted to 3 percent.Housing and insurance plans were the most significant benefits provided


Three Essays On Contract Farming In China, Jianhua Zhu Jan 2007

Three Essays On Contract Farming In China, Jianhua Zhu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Contract farming in China has grown rapidly over the past 10 years. The first part of this dissertation examines the evolution of contract farming, and explores the incentives to engage in contract farming, preferred contract provisions, and contract performance from the perspective of both Chinese farmers and contracting firms. Firm and household perceptions of contracting are assessed using data obtained from village and firm level surveys. Farmers identify price stability and market access as the key advantages to contracts, while firms consider improved product quality as the primary incentive to use contracts.;In Part II, the survey data are used ...


Three Essays On Rural Economic Growth , Georgeanne Michael Artz Jan 2005

Three Essays On Rural Economic Growth , Georgeanne Michael Artz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a collection of three papers, each analyzing a particular issue related to economic growth in rural America. The first paper explores the problem of defining rural and the implications for measuring rural growth. It discusses the sample selection problem inherent in using classification methods based on population that change over time. Fast growing rural areas grow out of their rural status, so using the most recent definition of rural in an analysis of growth excludes the most successful places. The findings demonstrate that average economic performance of the areas remaining rural significantly understates the true performance of ...


Identifying The Driving Forces Of Rural Economic Growth: The Impact Of Intellectual Spillovers, Technology, And Amenities On Employment Growth In The Us Midwest , Daniel Charles Monchuk Jan 2003

Identifying The Driving Forces Of Rural Economic Growth: The Impact Of Intellectual Spillovers, Technology, And Amenities On Employment Growth In The Us Midwest , Daniel Charles Monchuk

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines a number of issues related to economic growth in rural regions. The major themes explored are the roles of spatial technological externalities in the creation of new knowledge, the impacts of technology and technology spillovers on non-farm employment growth, and the role of amenities influencing non-farm employment growth. The theoretical model examines the interaction between rural and urban areas in an overlapping generations model allowing migration of high skill workers. The major theoretical conclusions reached suggests: (1) if technology spillovers exist in the urban market then high skill individuals will seek employment in the urban area where ...


Value-Adding Partnerships In Proprietary Value-Enhanced Specialty Grain: A Case Study Of High Oil Corn , Wenying Du Jan 2000

Value-Adding Partnerships In Proprietary Value-Enhanced Specialty Grain: A Case Study Of High Oil Corn , Wenying Du

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the value-adding partnerships in commercializing a proprietary value-enhanced specialty grain---DuPont's High Oil Corn, analyzes the decision-makings along the value chain, and explains the governance structure of the value-adding partnership from the perspective of the theory of firm. It argues that private investment efforts play an important role in determining the governance structure, and the governance structure evolves with the evolution of the importance of those efforts.


Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards Jan 1999

Compensation Of Farm Employees, William M. Edwards

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

Iowa farm operators were surveyed to learn what type and level of compensation they paid to full-time employees in 1997. The average total compensation paid was $26, 914, of which 79 percent consisted of cash wages.Benefits accounted for 18 percent of the compensation, and bonuses and wages in kind amounted to 3 percent.Housing and insurance plans were the most significant benefits provided


The Determinants Of Rural Population Growth And Decline, 1950-1990: The Roles Of Government Policy, Human Capital, And Farm And Nonfarm Income , Tzu-Ling Huang Jan 1996

The Determinants Of Rural Population Growth And Decline, 1950-1990: The Roles Of Government Policy, Human Capital, And Farm And Nonfarm Income , Tzu-Ling Huang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the past few decades, changes in economic conditions for off-farm labor markets and improvements in agriculture technology have led to substantial reductions in farm population in the United States. However, rural populations are not decreasing uniformly, either across counties or over decades. Rates of change in farm and nonfarm populations vary widely across rural counties. The variation of population growth across counties and between farm and nonfarm population raise two questions in this study: (1) What affects the population growth and decline in US rural counties? (2) Do those factors affect farm and nonfarm populations differently?;This study is ...


Cooperatives And Irrigation In Vietnam , Charles Forest Nicholson Jan 1996

Cooperatives And Irrigation In Vietnam , Charles Forest Nicholson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Cooperative agricultural activity has existed in Vietnam in various forms for many decades. Under central planning, cooperative institutions provided a means for the government to extract surplus from agriculture for the development of the industrial sector. Now, under policies promoting market liberalization in agriculture, household farming units are no longer obliged to transact with the cooperative. The focus of this dissertation is on the interaction between autonomous household production units and cooperative institutions;Collective action around irrigation represents one economic motive for coop participation. Recent developments in club theory provide a conceptual framework within which analysis can be conducted. The ...


Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz Jan 1993

Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

A number of (present or former) analytical Marxists, such as Jon Elster, have argued that functional explanation has almost no place in the social sciences. (Although the discussion is framed in terms of a debate among analytical Marxists, the point is quite general, and Marxism is used for illustrative purposes.) Functional explanation accounts for what is to be explained by reference to its function; thus, sighted organism have eyes because eyes enable them to see. Elster and other critics of functional explanation argue that this pattern of explanation is inconsistent with "methodological individualism," the idea, as they understand it, that ...


Predicting Future Farm Labor In Iowa For Small Geographical Areas, Jennifer Johnston Jan 1972

Predicting Future Farm Labor In Iowa For Small Geographical Areas, Jennifer Johnston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


An Examination Of Hired Farm Workers On Iowa Farms, Kenneth Harry Heitmann Jan 1969

An Examination Of Hired Farm Workers On Iowa Farms, Kenneth Harry Heitmann

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Characteristics And Experiences Of Operators Retiring From Iowa Farms, 1959-1961, L.A. (Lee A.) Christensen Jan 1966

Characteristics And Experiences Of Operators Retiring From Iowa Farms, 1959-1961, L.A. (Lee A.) Christensen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


A Statistical Study Of Cost In Labor Intensive Farming: With Special Reference To Paddy Farms Of Formosa, Steven A. Y. Lin Jan 1965

A Statistical Study Of Cost In Labor Intensive Farming: With Special Reference To Paddy Farms Of Formosa, Steven A. Y. Lin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Machinery And Labor Economies On Large Scale Farms, Jack M. Alexander Jan 1960

Machinery And Labor Economies On Large Scale Farms, Jack M. Alexander

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.