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Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson Jan 2008

Alternative Approaches For Sharing Machinery, Labor, And Other Resources Among Small- And Medium-Sized Agricultural Producers, Greg Colson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the U.S. agriculture industry continues to become increasingly concentrated, the viability of small- and medium-sized farms faced with diminishing profit margins per unit of output hinges in part on their ability to expand operations. In this study, the solution to this problem of taking advantage of economies of scale through farm-level resource sharing arrangements is considered. Through a two phase data collection procedure, Midwestern farmer groups engaged in resource sharing arrangements were identified and investigated through a case study approach. Evidence from the case studies suggest that sharing of equipment and labor can yield not only financial benefits ...


Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova Jan 2008

Essays On Fall Fertilizer Application, Mira Nurmakhanova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increased use of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural production has contributed to increased food production but also contributed to elevated concentration levels of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. High concentration levels of nitrates in drinking water supplied from groundwater and surface water have become a public concern because of their risks to human health.;One way to reduce nitrogen losses is to develop and apply technologies that enable farmers to more accurately match the amount and timing of fertilizer application to crop growth needs. It is best to apply nitrogen as close as possible to when crop needs it most ...


A Simulation Model Evaluating Costs Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) For A Typical U.S. Cow-Calf Producer And Benefits Of Multiple Test And Cull Strategies, Kelsey James Wittenberger Jan 2007

A Simulation Model Evaluating Costs Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) For A Typical U.S. Cow-Calf Producer And Benefits Of Multiple Test And Cull Strategies, Kelsey James Wittenberger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly, veterinarian organizations in the United States recommend the control and eradication of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). Cow-calf producers comprise 35% of U.S. cattle; however, research on the effects of BVDV in these herds is limited. To gain a better understanding of the pathology of BVDV in cow-calf producers, a stochastic simulation model was developed in C++ to measure epidemiological and financial outcomes. Additional simulations were run to evaluate changes in producer profit for several test and cull strategies. Introducing a PI animal decreased profit by an average of {dollar}13,971 over 10 years. When a second ...


Three Essays On Contract Farming In China, Jianhua Zhu Jan 2007

Three Essays On Contract Farming In China, Jianhua Zhu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Contract farming in China has grown rapidly over the past 10 years. The first part of this dissertation examines the evolution of contract farming, and explores the incentives to engage in contract farming, preferred contract provisions, and contract performance from the perspective of both Chinese farmers and contracting firms. Firm and household perceptions of contracting are assessed using data obtained from village and firm level surveys. Farmers identify price stability and market access as the key advantages to contracts, while firms consider improved product quality as the primary incentive to use contracts.;In Part II, the survey data are used ...


Three Essays On Risk And Uncertainty In Agriculture, Nicholas David Paulson Jan 2007

Three Essays On Risk And Uncertainty In Agriculture, Nicholas David Paulson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The general theme of this dissertation is risk and uncertainty in agriculture, with each chapter addressing a specific topic related to agricultural risk and uncertainty. Chapter 2 examines the effects of production uncertainty on the types of contract structures used in specialty grain markets. A theoretical model of a contractual relationship between a monopsonistic processor and risk-neutral producers is presented. Two common contract structures, and their resulting effects on the sharing of production risk between buyer and seller, are compared. The spatial structure of yields and farm-level yield volatility are shown to have significant impacts on the processor's preferred ...


Incentives And Contract Design: A Case Study Of Farmland Lease Contracts In Us Agriculture , Keita Fukunaga Jan 2006

Incentives And Contract Design: A Case Study Of Farmland Lease Contracts In Us Agriculture , Keita Fukunaga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I have studied farmland lease contracts in U.S. agriculture. Using the data from the 1999 Agricultural Economics and Land Ownership Survey, I investigated the empirical determinants of contract design from the perspective of the principal-agent framework, which emphasizes the role of incentives. In the empirical analyses, I found evidence that incentives indeed play an important role in contract design. In chapter 2, I investigated the role of risk, transaction costs, and endogenous matching between the landlord and tenant in contract choice. I found that both risk and transaction costs affect contract choice. Furthermore, I found evidence ...


Three Essays On Rural Economic Growth , Georgeanne Michael Artz Jan 2005

Three Essays On Rural Economic Growth , Georgeanne Michael Artz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a collection of three papers, each analyzing a particular issue related to economic growth in rural America. The first paper explores the problem of defining rural and the implications for measuring rural growth. It discusses the sample selection problem inherent in using classification methods based on population that change over time. Fast growing rural areas grow out of their rural status, so using the most recent definition of rural in an analysis of growth excludes the most successful places. The findings demonstrate that average economic performance of the areas remaining rural significantly understates the true performance of ...


Investment In The Stock Market And Value-Added Agricultural Businesses As Portfolio Investment Alternatives To Farm Expansion, Joshua David Roe Jan 2005

Investment In The Stock Market And Value-Added Agricultural Businesses As Portfolio Investment Alternatives To Farm Expansion, Joshua David Roe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the past decade, farmers have increasingly invested in value-added agriculture. Analysis of these investments compared to farm expansion by farmers was conducted from a portfolio optimization standpoint. Farms with similar investment patterns were identified by cluster analysis. When individual farm characteristics were analyzed to determine how these attributes affected investment choices, clear influences were found. In general, value-added agricultural investments were found to be an efficient investment alternative to farm expansion. Because of their larger risk, stock market investments play a smaller role in an optimized producer portfolio.


The Food Chain Of Sheep And Policy Implications On The Sheep Sector In Syria In Highlight Of International Arrangements, Samir Grad Jan 2004

The Food Chain Of Sheep And Policy Implications On The Sheep Sector In Syria In Highlight Of International Arrangements, Samir Grad

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The sheep sector in Syria is considered as one of the most important sectors in animal production because it is the first source of meat, the second source of milk, and an export-oriented sector. Therefore, the need has emerged to study its supply chain in order to identify its weaknesses and bottlenecks and make suggestions for improvement. Accordingly, the theoretical background of food marketing is briefly presented including the functions and tools used by analyzing the marketing process. Hereby, the focus is on the approaches used by analyzing the food chains from various perspectives. In this context, the major actors ...


Supply Chain Management Of Differentiated Agricultural Products Under Imperfect Information , Miguel Alberto Carriquiry Jan 2004

Supply Chain Management Of Differentiated Agricultural Products Under Imperfect Information , Miguel Alberto Carriquiry

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Participants in a supply chain of agricultural value added products face two significant challenges. First, many of the costly distinctive traits being desired by consumers are difficult (if not impossible) to observe even after consumption. In order for markets for these classes of goods to develop, firms touting the quality of the product need to be trusted. Hence, maintaining an excellent reputation is essential for firms to keep their customers' good will. Secondly, production is conducted in an environment of yield uncertainty, making it impossible for producers and processors to predict with certainty either the quantity or the quality of ...


Insuring Uncertainty In Value-Added Agriculture: Ethanol, Nicholas David Paulson Jan 2004

Insuring Uncertainty In Value-Added Agriculture: Ethanol, Nicholas David Paulson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A wide variety of insurance products are currently available for agricultural producers to insure against yield or price risks in the markets for the raw commodities they produce. Value-added enterprises, such as ethanol production, have become increasingly popular among farmers over the last decade; however, insurance against declines in the value-added portion of their crops is not yet available. This paper outlines the development of an insurance product aimed at corn producers who are members of an ethanol production cooperative. The product mimics the gross margin level of a typical ethanol production facility, and has the potential to provide producers ...


A Statistical Regression Model To Determine Financial Cash Flow For Wind Energy Based On Tax Structure, Matthew Dae Joong Ritsema Jan 2004

A Statistical Regression Model To Determine Financial Cash Flow For Wind Energy Based On Tax Structure, Matthew Dae Joong Ritsema

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A financial cash flow for wind turbines is based on an energy entity's tax structure. Using statistical regression of various wind turbines and wind maps, a theoretical model for energy output was calculated. The turbines were separated by the rated size of the turbine. With the theoretical model, financial output was generated for four different types of tax structures. A total of eight test cases were simulated. Special consideration was given to the impact of Production Tax Credits (PTC) and Renewable Energy Production Incentives (REPI). The object is to determine what type of business and tax structure would have ...


The Economic Potential Of Switchgrass As A Viable Biofuel Alternative, Jennifer E. Reutzel Jan 2004

The Economic Potential Of Switchgrass As A Viable Biofuel Alternative, Jennifer E. Reutzel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To be commercially viable as a bioenergy feedstock, switchgrass must be cost-competitive. Switchgrass production and delivery costs are calculated for the Chariton Valley Switchgrass Biomass Project located in the Chariton Valley, Iowa. Sensitivity analyses are performed to determine which variables have the greatest impact on cost. Switchgrass production costs would require higher than expected market prices, and therefore various incentive payment options are considered. The incentive payments attempt to encapsulate the positive environmental attributes from the production of switchgrass as well as using switchgrass as a clean energy coal substitute. A modified CRP payment, carbon payment, and green tag payment ...


The Impact Of Improved Nutrition On Labor Productivity And Gdp Growth Rate In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Majd Abdulla Jan 2004

The Impact Of Improved Nutrition On Labor Productivity And Gdp Growth Rate In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Majd Abdulla

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effects of nutrition on the growth rate of country economies over time. Previous studies on this topic have resulted in debates among researchers over how significant nutritional effects are on individual country economies. For this study, data were collected for four decades (1960s, 1970, 1980s, and 1990s) for 43 low- and middle-income countries. The data were analyzed to determine the effect of nutrition, represented by dietary energy supply (DES), on the growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) per worker and on labor productivity. The research utilized ordinary least squares, instrumental variables, and random effects regressions ...


Second Moment Characterization Of Agricultural Export And Income Projection Models, Andrew Dean Miller Jan 2003

Second Moment Characterization Of Agricultural Export And Income Projection Models, Andrew Dean Miller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Agricultural outlook baseline projections published by FAPRI, USDA and the OECD are intended as policy analysis tools. It is shown that projections have been used as forecasts. Therefore, users of baseline projections need information about the past performance of baseline projections. This thesis measures the projection errors of baseline projections using RMSE and MAPE and assesses the ability of models to predict directional movements. The baseline model results are compared to corresponding results of naive models. For projection errors, a mixed model is used to estimate the mean bias and confidence intervals about the mean. Projections of corn, soybean, wheat ...


A Stochastic Model Of Maize Gene Dispersal, David G. Ripplinger Jan 2003

A Stochastic Model Of Maize Gene Dispersal, David G. Ripplinger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The spatial distribution of maize genes is predicted using a two dimensional Lagrangian stochastic (LS) model that meets sub-inertial and well-mixed conditions. Using wind data from central Iowa, a Weibull distribution is fit. From this distribution, a series of Monte Carlo simulations are run using the LS model in three forms. The final two forms of the model are based on USDA regulations for the production of pharmaceutical producing corn, demonstrating the model's suitability for analyzing the risk of transgene dispersal in maize. Special considerations are given to the large size of maize pollen, the likelihood of pollen seepage ...


Investment Analysis Of Deferring A Farmer Owned Ethanol Plant: Using Real Options, Ramanathan Shunmugavelu Jan 2003

Investment Analysis Of Deferring A Farmer Owned Ethanol Plant: Using Real Options, Ramanathan Shunmugavelu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A farmers owned value-added (FOVA) business is often subject to changes in the political situations. So an investment analysis tool that incorporates uncertainty, such as real options is more appropriate. Application of real options is limited in FOVA businesses. In this thesis, the concept of real options is applied under the framework of a farmer owned ethanol plant. The impact of changes in the policy or political situations on ethanol industry is well known. Farmer investors that are currently interested in investing in an ethanol plant should decide whether it is worthwhile to invest now or wait for a year ...


An Economic Perspective On Iowa Farm Diversification In The Twentieth Century, Matthew Edward Miller Jan 2003

An Economic Perspective On Iowa Farm Diversification In The Twentieth Century, Matthew Edward Miller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The thesis examines farm-level diversification in Iowa over the past century. Economic theory is employed to propose explanations for observed trends in diversification. The hypothesis says that agricultural production technology has been the driving force behind the emergence of large, highly specialized farms in Iowa. Applications from portfolio theory, the theory of the farm, and agronomics are also utilized to flesh out the theory section. Two indexes, entropy and the Hirschman-Herfindahl index, are constructed using production and price data from the Census of Agriculture. The indices show diversification as relatively constant from 1885 to 1930, after which, a strong specialization ...


Factors Affecting Symbolic And Use Adoption Of Local Foods For Consumers In Black Hawk County, Iowa, Erin M. Tegtmeier Jan 2003

Factors Affecting Symbolic And Use Adoption Of Local Foods For Consumers In Black Hawk County, Iowa, Erin M. Tegtmeier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A local food system may be an alternative to the increasingly globalized and concentrated food market and a means to augment the availability of fresh foods, create economically viable options for farmers and enhance the health of local ecosystems. Consumers are a vital component of these systems. Insight into the decision-making process surrounding the purchase of local foods can aid in efforts to build thriving local food systems. Studies on consumer attitudes show that, in general, consumers are aware and supportive of local foods. Abstract or civic factors, such as concern for the environment or food safety, are often identified ...


Expected Returns From Starting A Large Scale Closed Dairy Cooperative Under Price And Biological Uncertainties , Marty James Dreischmeier Jan 2002

Expected Returns From Starting A Large Scale Closed Dairy Cooperative Under Price And Biological Uncertainties , Marty James Dreischmeier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this paper is to determine if it is economically feasible to form a large-scale closed dairy cooperative in the upper Midwest. Simulations were performed for both price and biological variables to calculate the cash flows for a large-scale closed dairy cooperative over the 1st 10 years of operation. The cash flows were calculated using a farm level financial model that was developed to incorporate the biologically driven production process into the cash flow model. The distribution of returns for the cooperative members were estimated and reported for different starting equity levels and different production growth paths. In ...


Three Essays On Food Security, Food Demand And Welfare Program Participation , Suwen Pan Jan 2002

Three Essays On Food Security, Food Demand And Welfare Program Participation , Suwen Pan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The relationship among food security, food away from home and welfare program participation is examined in the dissertation. Current Population Survey data are used to identify and compare the effects of family structure, income sources, and demographic information on food stamp program participation and food consumption based on different food security status. In addition, Iowa administration data are used to compare the effects of local socioeconomic situation on family investment program participation between rural and non-rural areas. Analysis in the first paper uses a bivariate ordered probit model and the results show that the effects of family structure, income sources ...


Information On Genetically Modified Foods And How It Affects Consumers: Evidence From Experimental Auctions , Matthew Christopher Rousu Jan 2002

Information On Genetically Modified Foods And How It Affects Consumers: Evidence From Experimental Auctions , Matthew Christopher Rousu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Genetically modified (GM) foods have been at the center of a contentious debate. One side of the debate includes environmental groups like Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth, who are opposed to GM foods---these groups would like GM foods banned, or at the very least they want GM foods to be clearly labeled as such. On the other side of the debate are agribusiness companies like Monsanto and Syngenta, who view GM foods positively. They think GM foods help the environment and could help feed the malnourished. Both groups actively disseminate information on genetically modified foods.;This dissertation reports on ...


Contract Design In Soybean Production, Nandini Ramesh Jan 2002

Contract Design In Soybean Production, Nandini Ramesh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although there is considerable interest in component pricing of soybeans from both the industry and the academia, it is not commonly observed in the soybean industry. In this thesis, the Principal Agent model is used to design a contract between a processor and grower. The processor provides incentives to growers to produce soybeans with higher components (protein and oil) in them. Under the assumption that growers are risk neutral, a contract is designed where the grower faces all the risk in the production of components. The contract also compensates the grower for the yield drag as a result of production ...


Four Papers On Agricultural Finance And Adoption Of Biotechnology , Alexander Ernestovich Saak Jan 2001

Four Papers On Agricultural Finance And Adoption Of Biotechnology , Alexander Ernestovich Saak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The four papers comprising this thesis are entirely self-contained. Paper I investigates financial measures of a projects' worth in a standard static setting. We identify conditions such that net present value is monotone in the discount rate applied to evaluate a project. We also formulate a linear dominance condition on projects' cash flows sufficient to order projects according to the internal rate of return criterion. Paper II develops a firmer understanding of the economics underlying the relationship between rental rates sensitivity to output price and land quality. Using two measures of land quality: distance to market and yield productivity, we ...


Factors Of Success Of Small Farms And The Relationship Between Financial Success And Perceived Success, Virginie Youkoujouo Nanhou Jan 2001

Factors Of Success Of Small Farms And The Relationship Between Financial Success And Perceived Success, Virginie Youkoujouo Nanhou

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the factors of farm success, determines the profile of small successful farmers and also explores the factors affecting farmers' perception of success. Farm size was measured in terms of gross sales and a profit index (equal to ratio of gross profit over gross profit minus management return) was used as a measure of financial efficiency and also as a proxy for farmers' profitability. A sample of seventy-three farmers, further divided in four groups based on a combination of farm size and profit levels, was used in the analyses. Means comparisons using t-tests to identify success factors, a ...


Agricultural And Trade Policy Reform In Mexico: Procampo, Nafta, And Pre-Gatt , James Mark Hansen Jan 2000

Agricultural And Trade Policy Reform In Mexico: Procampo, Nafta, And Pre-Gatt , James Mark Hansen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Changes in Mexico's domestic agricultural policy (PROCAMPO) and continued liberalization of trade through GATT and NAFTA have had strong effects on Mexico's agricultural production, consumption, and trade with the United States. The main objective of this study is to analyze these effects in Mexico's grain and livestock sectors. Policies within the NAFTA and GATT international trade agreements may overlap to some degree, and Mexico's domestic agricultural liberalization program (PROCAMPO) may include policies that overlap those in one or both of the international trade agreements. This study analyzes the effects of PROCAMPO, NAFTA, and pre-GATT policies compared ...


Estimation And Attenuation Of Reinsurance Risk In The Crop Insurance Market , Charles Edwin Mason Iv Jan 2000

Estimation And Attenuation Of Reinsurance Risk In The Crop Insurance Market , Charles Edwin Mason Iv

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Because of the high level of systemic risk in farming, crop insurance has failed to be provided by the market without government involvement. Currently, in addition to subsidy support the Federal government aids the crop insurance industry by providing reinsurance services to crop insurance companies. This means that the government will reimburse insurers for a large portion of their losses in years when indemnities to farmers are high. In exchange, portions of firms' profits are paid to the government when indemnities are below premiums;This study measures the level of risk accepted by the government in its role as reinsurer ...


Value-Adding Partnerships In Proprietary Value-Enhanced Specialty Grain: A Case Study Of High Oil Corn , Wenying Du Jan 2000

Value-Adding Partnerships In Proprietary Value-Enhanced Specialty Grain: A Case Study Of High Oil Corn , Wenying Du

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the value-adding partnerships in commercializing a proprietary value-enhanced specialty grain---DuPont's High Oil Corn, analyzes the decision-makings along the value chain, and explains the governance structure of the value-adding partnership from the perspective of the theory of firm. It argues that private investment efforts play an important role in determining the governance structure, and the governance structure evolves with the evolution of the importance of those efforts.


Market Potential For Pork Products With Embedded Environmental Attributes: An Experimental Approach , Sean Patrick Hurley Jan 2000

Market Potential For Pork Products With Embedded Environmental Attributes: An Experimental Approach , Sean Patrick Hurley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on determining benefits or value of environmental improvements in agricultural production, specifically, with an application to the pork industry. Values or benefits from reduced odor, reduced manure run-off, and reduced manure spills were elicited from consumers from Iowa, Kansas, Vermont, Oregon, and North Carolina. For the study, two pound packages of pork chops with selected combinations of air, ground water, and surface water environmental attributes were used to obtain consumer willingness-to-pay for environmental improvements. These benefits or willingness-to-pay for improved environmental practices have been obtained through research using a multiple trial second-price sealed-bid auction;A focus of ...


Farmland Ownership And Tenure In Iowa, 1982-1997: A Fifteen Year Perspective, Charles Anthony Pieper Jan 1999

Farmland Ownership And Tenure In Iowa, 1982-1997: A Fifteen Year Perspective, Charles Anthony Pieper

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The 1997 Farmland Ownership and Tenure study focuses on aspects of farmland ownership and tenancy in Iowa and compares 1997 data with trends from similar studies conducted in 1982 and 1992. Agricultural landholding types considered in the study include sole ownership, joint tenancy(husband and wife only), co-ownership(other joint ownership and tenants in common), partnership (including general, limited and limited liability partnership), trusts, estates,corporations, and limited liability companies. Demographics of landowners are included in the study and encompass age, gender, education, occupation, marital status, and residency. Acquisition, anticipated transfer, and management of farmland were also analyzed. A major ...