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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Ecological And Economic Implications Of Increased Storm Frequency And Severity For Boreal Lakes, Kathryn Warner May 2019

Ecological And Economic Implications Of Increased Storm Frequency And Severity For Boreal Lakes, Kathryn Warner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In boreal regions, increased precipitation events have been linked to increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however less is known about the extent and implications of these events on lakes. We assessed the effects of precipitation events on six drinking water lakes in Maine, USA to better understand how DOC concentration and quality change in response to precipitation events. Our results revealed three types of responses: (1) an initial spike in DOC concentrations and quality metrics; (2) a sustained increase in DOC concentrations and quality metrics and; (3) no change during all sampling periods. Lake residence time was a ...


Endowment Effects In Chimpanzees, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan, Susan P. Lambeth, Mary Catherine Mareno, Amanda S. Richardson, Steven Schapiro Apr 2019

Endowment Effects In Chimpanzees, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan, Susan P. Lambeth, Mary Catherine Mareno, Amanda S. Richardson, Steven Schapiro

Owen Jones

Human behavior is not always consistent with standard rational choice predictions. The much-investigated variety of apparent deviations from rational choice predictions provides a promising arena for the merger of economics and biology. Although little is known about the extent to which other species also exhibit these seemingly irrational patterns of human decision-making and choice behavior, similarities across species would suggest a common evolutionary root to the phenomena.

The present study investigated whether chimpanzees exhibit an endowment effect, a seemingly paradoxical behavior in which humans tend to value a good they have just come to possess more than they would have ...


Law, Biology, And Property: A New Theory Of The Endowment Effect, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan Apr 2019

Law, Biology, And Property: A New Theory Of The Endowment Effect, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan

Owen Jones

Recent work at the intersection of law and behavioral biology has suggested numerous contexts in which legal thinking could benefit by integrating knowledge from behavioral biology. In one of those contexts, behavioral biology may help to provide theoretical foundation for, and potentially increased predictive power concerning, various psychological traits relevant to law. This Article describes an experiment that explores that context.

The paradoxical psychological bias known as the endowment effect puzzles economists, skews market behavior, impedes efficient exchange of goods and rights, and thereby poses important problems for law. Although the effect is known to vary widely, there are at ...


The Marin County Livestock Protection Program: 15 Years In Review, Stephanie Larson, Devan A. Mcgranahan, Robert M. Timm Jan 2019

The Marin County Livestock Protection Program: 15 Years In Review, Stephanie Larson, Devan A. Mcgranahan, Robert M. Timm

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Predation by wild carnivores challenges livestock producers worldwide. To reduce or offset losses due to predation, a variety of predator control methods and compensation schemes have been developed. In 2001, Marin County, California, USA replaced its U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services (WS) cooperative predator damage management program with a county-run program that emphasized nonlethal methods for preventing and controlling coyote (Canis latrans) predation on domestic sheep (Ovis aries). This new Livestock Protection Program (LPP) cost-shared with livestock producers’ efforts to improve fencing, obtain and maintain guard animals, and other such nonlethal methods, and initially it compensated producers for ...


An Examination Of The Death Penalty, Alexandra N. Kremer Dec 2018

An Examination Of The Death Penalty, Alexandra N. Kremer

The Downtown Review

The death penalty, or capital punishment, is the use of execution through hanging, beheading, drowning, gas chambers, lethal injection, and electrocution among others in response to a crime. This has spurred much debate on whether it should be used for reasons such as ethics, revenge, economics, effectiveness as a deterrent, and constitutionality. Capital punishment has roots that date back to the 18th century B.C., but, as of 2016, has been abolished in law or practice by more than two thirds of the world’s countries and several states within the United States. Here, the arguments for and against ...


Quantitative Appraisal Of Non-Irrigated Cropland In South Dakota, Shelby Riggs Oct 2018

Quantitative Appraisal Of Non-Irrigated Cropland In South Dakota, Shelby Riggs

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This appraisal attempts to remove subjectivity from the appraisal process and replace it with quantitative analysis of known data to generate a fair market value of the subject property. Two methods of appraisal were used, the income approach and the comparable sales approach. For the income approach, I used the average cash rent for the region, the current property taxes for the subject property, and a capitalization rate based on Stokes' (2018) capitalization rate formula to arrive at my income-based valuation. For the comparable sales approach, I utilized Stokes' (2018) research in optimization modeling to estimate a market value for ...


An Empirical Analysis Of Climatic, Geographic, And Cultural Determinants Of International Tourism, Ethan Straus Jun 2018

An Empirical Analysis Of Climatic, Geographic, And Cultural Determinants Of International Tourism, Ethan Straus

Honors Theses

Each year, billions of people visit different countries all around the world. For many of those countries, tourism is their primary industry, leading to millions of jobs and dollars in revenue. It is expected that by 2020 total International Tourism Receipts will reach 2 trillion US dollars annually. Currently, tourism employs an estimated 200 million people around the world. With the continued progression of climate change, the tourism industry is facing a newfound threat. Global temperatures and the seal level are both expected to rise significantly by the end of the century. Additionally, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has ...


On-Farm Utilization Of Precision Dairy Monitoring: Usefulness, Accuracy, And Affordability, Elizabeth A. Eckelkamp Jan 2018

On-Farm Utilization Of Precision Dairy Monitoring: Usefulness, Accuracy, And Affordability, Elizabeth A. Eckelkamp

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Precision dairy monitoring is used to supplement or replace human observation of dairy cattle. This study examined the value dairy producers placed on disease alerts generated from a precision dairy monitoring technology. A secondary objective was calculating the accuracy of technology-generated disease alerts compared against observed disease events. A final objective was determining the economic viability of investing in a precision dairy monitoring technology for detecting estrus and diseases.

A year-long observational study was conducted on four Kentucky dairy farms. All lactating dairy cows were equipped with a neck and leg tri-axial accelerometer. Technologies measured eating time, lying time, standing ...


Optimize Your Fitness, Optimize Your Business: The Balanced Scorecard, Analysis And Application For The Crossfit Affiliate, Jordan G. Aronowitz Jan 2018

Optimize Your Fitness, Optimize Your Business: The Balanced Scorecard, Analysis And Application For The Crossfit Affiliate, Jordan G. Aronowitz

CMC Senior Theses

The Balanced Scorecard for the CrossFit Affiliate will provide unprepared or inexperienced managers with the necessary information to make informed operational decisions. The Balanced Scorecard incorporates financial data, customer satisfaction, internal operations, and future growth to create a series of cause-and-effect relationships that illustrate how decisions in one aspect of a business affect others. The Balanced Scorecard particularly benefits inexperienced managers leading small businesses. As overall small business growth increased, the boutique fitness industry expanded. The CrossFit brand rose in conjunction, but because corporate leaders insist on a hands-off licensing model, affiliate owners do not receive assistance from CrossFit corporate ...


Time Series Forecast Analysis In Wholesale Broiler Markets, Christopher R. Sims Dec 2017

Time Series Forecast Analysis In Wholesale Broiler Markets, Christopher R. Sims

Theses and Dissertations

In 2016 the chicken industry provided nearly 1.2 million jobs, 68 billion dollars in wages, 313 billion dollars in economic activity and 24 billion dollars in government revenue (John Dunham & Associates, Inc., 2016). Broiler production has changed dramatically from the early 90’s to the turn of the 21st century. Technological advancements, continuous improvements, production efficiencies and industry changes have made the industry the global market it is today. The poultry industry is an extremely volatile market with prices constantly fluctuating in response to input price volatility and demand and supply changes. These changes are often driven by world economic conditions which impacts the roughly 20% of U.S. production that is exported. Due to these variations, accurate forecasting of poultry prices is difficult. Economic modeling is complex at best; this paper examines a comparison between vector autoregression (VAR) and autoregressive (AR) techniques. Urner Barry average monthly northeast wholesale poultry parts price data was used for this research. Parts analyzed are; drumstick (DRUM), jumbo boneless skinless breast tender out (BSBTO), leg quarter (LQ), thigh (THIGH), small wing (SMWING), jumbo wing (JMWING), tender (TENDER) and whole bird without giblets weighing 2 ¼ lbs. (WOG). This modeling will focus on the ...


The Impact Of Separating Fed From Nonfed Beef In An Econometric Simulation , Dyaa Kamal Adbou Ahmed Kamal-Abdou Nov 2017

The Impact Of Separating Fed From Nonfed Beef In An Econometric Simulation , Dyaa Kamal Adbou Ahmed Kamal-Abdou

Ahmed Kamal

No abstract provided.


Switchgrass Nitrogen Response And Estimated Production Costs On Diverse Sites, John H. Fike, James W. Pease, Vance N. Owens, Rodney L. Farris, Julie L. Hansen, Emily A. Heaton, Chang O. Hong, Hilary S. Mayton, Robert B. Mitchell, Donald R. Viands Oct 2017

Switchgrass Nitrogen Response And Estimated Production Costs On Diverse Sites, John H. Fike, James W. Pease, Vance N. Owens, Rodney L. Farris, Julie L. Hansen, Emily A. Heaton, Chang O. Hong, Hilary S. Mayton, Robert B. Mitchell, Donald R. Viands

Agronomy Publications

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been the principal perennial herbaceous crop investigated for bioenergy production in North America given its high production potential, relatively low input requirements, and potential suitability for use on marginal lands. Few large trials have determined switchgrass yields at field scale on marginal lands, including analysis of production costs. Thus, a field-scale study was conducted to develop realistic yield and cost estimates for diverse regions of the USA. Objectives included measuring switchgrass response to fertility treatments (0, 56, and 112 kg N ha−1) and generating corresponding estimates of production costs for sites with diverse soil ...


Overview Of The Us Forest Service Programs And Opportunities For Partnership, Cultivating A Culture Of Success In Natural Resources: Moving Outreach Forward In Conversation, Tony Tooke Sep 2017

Overview Of The Us Forest Service Programs And Opportunities For Partnership, Cultivating A Culture Of Success In Natural Resources: Moving Outreach Forward In Conversation, Tony Tooke

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

No abstract provided.


Life Cycle Assessment And Techno-Economic Analysis Of Ethanol Production: A Review, Maria C. T. B. Oliveira, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2017

Life Cycle Assessment And Techno-Economic Analysis Of Ethanol Production: A Review, Maria C. T. B. Oliveira, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Fossil fuels are considered one of the most contributing for increasing the rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. On the other hand, renewable energy derived from biomass promising to reduce significantly the CO2 emissions, promoting less environmental impacts for the future generations. Nowadays, the cost and the environmental impacts of the process are the challenges for producing a green product with lower cost. Numerous research has been published over the lasts decades, but gaps remain in understanding the sustainability and the environmental impact of the ethanol production. The techno-economic analysis is designed in order to optimize one process, and the ...


Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia May 2017

Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia

Theses and Dissertations

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) presents a substantial economic risk to the poultry industry. Domesticated fowl contract HPAI initially through exposure, direct or indirect with migratory waterfowl and outbreaks can result in significant economic losses to growers and the poultry industry at large. A HPAI outbreak occurred in Minnesota and Iowa and spread across over 13 other states in 2014 and 2015. This caused an estimated $1.6 billion in losses (CDC, 2016) and led to shortages of eggs and turkeys together with elevated prices (Anni et al. 2005). Even small outbreaks of HPAI inflict substantial damages as USDA-APHIS guidelines ...


Cost Benefit Analysis Of Genetic Markers In Cattle, Josh Crystal May 2017

Cost Benefit Analysis Of Genetic Markers In Cattle, Josh Crystal

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

Genetic sequencing in beef cattle (L. Bos Taurus) is expected to aid producers select cattle with traits that enhance profitability. Using data from experimental trials conducted with Angus, Brahman, and their reciprocal cross, this project analyzes the profitability of grazing endophyte infected tall Fescue (L. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) vs. Bermuda grass (L. Cynodon dactylon) pasture. The study is unique in the sense that actual cow-calf breeding failure rates (open cows were not culled) were tracked from 1991 to 1997 on herds that were bred to calf in spring and either exposed to fungal endophyte (L.Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams ...


Playing-With The World: Toy Story's Aesthetics And Metaphysics Of Play, Jonathan Hendricks Mar 2017

Playing-With The World: Toy Story's Aesthetics And Metaphysics Of Play, Jonathan Hendricks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pixar’s Toy Story (John Lassiter, 1995) is not just a story about toys and the children that play with them, but a demonstration of how we interact with the world. This thesis looks at the way in which both main children, Andy and Sid, interact with their toys and how this interaction is one that is structured by way of what Martin Heidegger calls “Enframing.” In this modality of playing, toys and other things and entities in the world, and the world itself, appear to the children as on-hand resources for use at any time and can be molded ...


Dawn Of The Lawn, David M. Guy Feb 2017

Dawn Of The Lawn, David M. Guy

Exigence

Drawing on both electronic and print sources, this research seeks to explore the cultural, economic, and environmental implications of the American lawn and suggest the need to awaken a cultural discussion aimed at harmonizing one’s landscape with reality. The lawn penetrates the American’s daily life, yet few stop to examine the origins and effects of the lawn. Involving many of the leading academic voices in this subject, this work further aims to ignite a diverse discussion of the lawn’s connection to oil, fertilizers, pesticides, drinking water, and individual’s behavior. Considerable evidence supports the notion that the ...


Global Primate Species Decline In The Anthropocene: Threats And Triage, Kevin Bracy Knight Jan 2017

Global Primate Species Decline In The Anthropocene: Threats And Triage, Kevin Bracy Knight

Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The Anthropocene mass extinction, or sixth mass extinction, represents a threat to global biodiversity. The only precedents for extinction at this pace are events similar to the K-Pg extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and over 75% of the other species on Earth at the time. To be effective, conservation science needs to rapidly change focus to a larger scale. In this dissertation, I explore several conservation avenues through the lenses of ecology and economics using global primate species to examine my hypotheses. In Chapter II, I assess shared traits among primates that may indicate increased extinction risk using a hierarchical ...


Productivity Measures In Beef Cows And Calves Following A Single Subcutaneous Injection Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin, Claire Andresen Jan 2017

Productivity Measures In Beef Cows And Calves Following A Single Subcutaneous Injection Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin, Claire Andresen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effect of a single subcutaneous injection of extended-release eprinomectin for parasite control on cow/calf performance was evaluated in a pair of studies. In the first study, a fall-calving Angus herd was utilized. Mature cows were treated with either extended-release eprinomectin (EPR) or a conventional injectable anthelmintic (CONV). Cows treated with EPR had better maintenance of BCS through calving and into breeding. Subsequent pregnancy rates were greater for EPR than CONV cows. Furthermore, calves from EPR dams were younger at weaning, but had greater weaning weights than calves from CONV dams. From the same fall-calving Angus herd, replacement heifers ...


Impact Of The Zambian Agricultural Policy On Grain Trade, Onesphore Karuho Jan 2017

Impact Of The Zambian Agricultural Policy On Grain Trade, Onesphore Karuho

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The agricultural sector in Zambia is supported through the government use of public expenditure programs to spur the production and subsidize the consumption of key grains to stabilize prices. Previous research has documented the effects of public spending on agriculture in terms of food prices and food security. The effects of government spending on the trade of key grains, however, is not well understood. As such, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the impact of agricultural policy on the agricultural trade. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Zambian agricultural policy on grain trade. A ...


Building From The Hiv Response Toward Universal Health Coverage, Jonathon Jay, Kent Buse, Marielle Hart, Robert Marten, Scott Kellerman, Morolake Odetoyinbo, Jonathan D. Quick, Timothy Evans, Peter Piot, Mark Dybul, Agnes Binagwaho Aug 2016

Building From The Hiv Response Toward Universal Health Coverage, Jonathon Jay, Kent Buse, Marielle Hart, Robert Marten, Scott Kellerman, Morolake Odetoyinbo, Jonathan D. Quick, Timothy Evans, Peter Piot, Mark Dybul, Agnes Binagwaho

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Universal health coverage (UHC) has gained prominence as a global health priority. The UHC movement aims to increase access to quality, needed health services while reducing financial hardship from health spending, particularly in low- and middle- income countries.
As a policy agenda, UHC has been identified primarily with prepayment and risk-pool- ing programs. While financing policies provide important benefits, increasing access to health services will require broader reforms.
For lessons, the UHC movement should look to the global HIV response, which has confronted many of the same barriers to access in weak health systems. Considerable success on HIV has resulted ...


Nuisance Protection Law Unconstitutional, Neil E. Harl, Charles F. Curtiss Jul 2016

Nuisance Protection Law Unconstitutional, Neil E. Harl, Charles F. Curtiss

Neil E. Harl

In late September, the Iowa Supreme Court declared unanimously that an Iowa statute providing protection against nuisance suits for agricultural operations is "flagrantly" unconstitutional. The lawsuit involved the Iowa agricultural areas statute that allows counties to designate agricultural areas of at least 300 contiguous acres. Farming operations conducted within such a designated area are not subject to nuisance lawsuits if they are operated properly.


Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Delayed Planting, Prevented Planting And Replanting Crop Insurance Coverage, Steven D. Johnson, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

The frequent rains that have soaked Iowa this year have left many corn and soybean fields unplanted or with flooded areas. Many producers are wondering what options they have under their multiple peril crop insurance (MPCI) policies. In Iowa, the crop insurance “late planting period” for corn begins on June 1. Corn can still be planted after this date, but the insurance guarantee on those acres is reduced by 1 percent per day until the acres are planted. Corn acres planted after June 25 will receive insurance coverage equal to 60 percent of their original guarantee. Producers should keep accurate ...


Late Harvest And Crop Insurance Coverage, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Late Harvest And Crop Insurance Coverage, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Iowa and other Corn Belt states are experiencing one of the latest and slowest harvest seasons on record. Some producers have had concerns about whether their crop insurance coverage will be still be in effect if harvesting drags into December.


Producer Machinery And Labor Sharing Arrangements Workshops, Roger Ginder, William M. Edwards, Georgeanne M. Artz, Darren H. Jarboe Jul 2016

Producer Machinery And Labor Sharing Arrangements Workshops, Roger Ginder, William M. Edwards, Georgeanne M. Artz, Darren H. Jarboe

William Edwards

Four case studies were developed for Iowa farm operations that have successfully used machinery and labor sharing arrangements for intergenerational transfer of farm assets. Results were shared at workshops and through publication of a resource manual.


Marketing Year Prices Cancel Acre Payments In Iowa, Chad Hart, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Marketing Year Prices Cancel Acre Payments In Iowa, Chad Hart, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Following the completion of the 2009/10 marketing year, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) released its final monthly price estimates for corn and soybeans. Over the September through August marketing year the national average price for corn was $3.55 per bushel. This is $.51 less than the average price during the 2008/09 marketing year of $4.06 per bushel. For soybeans, the 2009/10 national average price was $9.60 per bushel, which is $.37 lower than the previous year’s average price of $9.97 per bushel.


Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

The Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 contains a wide variety of legislation affecting everything from school lunches to milk checks. Some of the most immediate provisions that farmers must address are:
• New limitations on commodity payments,
• Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE),
• Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE) program.


Crop Insurance May Help Flooded And Wet Corn And Soybean Acres, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Crop Insurance May Help Flooded And Wet Corn And Soybean Acres, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

Wet weather has delayed planting of corn and soybeans across the state, and flooding has severely damaged many acres that have been planted. Fortunately, nearly 90 percent of the corn and soybean acres in Iowa are covered by multiple peril crop insurance (MPCI), which can provide some relief.


Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards Jul 2016

Isu Extension Offers Information About New Farm Bill Programs, William M. Edwards

William Edwards

The Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 contains a wide variety of legislation affecting everything from school lunches to milk checks. Some of the most immediate provisions that farmers must address are: • New limitations on commodity payments,• Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE), • Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE) program.