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Ecology

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 47

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts Dec 2014

The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The influence of topographic and temporal variables on cetacean distribution at a fine-scale is still poorly understood. To study the spatial and temporal distribution of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and the poorly known Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus we carried out land-based observations from Bardsey Island (Wales, UK) in summer (2001–2007). Using Kernel analysis and Generalized Additive Models it was shown that porpoises and Risso’s appeared to be linked to topographic and dynamic cyclic variables with both species using different core areas (dolphins to the West and porpoises to the East off Bardsey). Depth, slope and aspect and ...


Ciliates Of Sagebrush-Steppe Soils Of Southwestern Idaho: Species Richness And Its Relationship To Changed Soil Variables After Wildfire Events, Laura G. Wendell Dec 2014

Ciliates Of Sagebrush-Steppe Soils Of Southwestern Idaho: Species Richness And Its Relationship To Changed Soil Variables After Wildfire Events, Laura G. Wendell

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

I conducted a pilot study to examine species richness of terrestrial ciliates associated with big sagebrush habitat (Artemisia tridentata) in southwestern Idaho, USA. As wildland fires are a naturally occurring disturbance in this area, soil variables associated with these fires (% C, % N, pH, soil texture, and % clay) were measured at three sites, both in burned and unburned areas. These soil characteristics were compared to corresponding ciliate diversity and ratios of r-selected colpodeans to K-selected polyhymenophorans (C/P) in non-flooded Petri dish preparations. A total of 85 ciliate taxa were observed across the three sites, including one potentially novel species ...


Population Genetics, Distributions And Phenology Of Bombus Latreille, 1802 And Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Amber Dawn Tripodi Dec 2014

Population Genetics, Distributions And Phenology Of Bombus Latreille, 1802 And Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Amber Dawn Tripodi

Theses and Dissertations

This work addresses multiple knowledge gaps in bee ecology, population health and phylogeography in order to provide insights into the changing distributions of native bees. A comparison of Arkansas bumble bee records mirrors range-wide surveys, with records of stable species (Bombus bimaculatus Cresson, 1863 and B. impatiens Cresson, 1863) increasing three-fold, and records of the declining B. pensylvanicus (DeGeer, 1773) dropping to 60% of historical levels. However, nationally-recommended conservation-genetics tools did not mirror these results on a regional level. Stable and declining species had equivalent genetic diversity in samples from Arkansas and Tennessee (HS range: 0.46-0.63). Diploid ...


Fire Induced Reproductive Mechanisms Of A Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae) Shrub After Dormant Season Burning, John Derek Scasta, David M. Engle, Ryan N. Harr, Diane M. Debinski Dec 2014

Fire Induced Reproductive Mechanisms Of A Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae) Shrub After Dormant Season Burning, John Derek Scasta, David M. Engle, Ryan N. Harr, Diane M. Debinski

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: Symphoricarpos, a genus of the Caprifoliaceae family, consists of about 15 species of clonal deciduous shrubs in North America and 1 species endemic to China. In North American tallgrass prairie, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (buckbrush) is the dominant shrub often forming large colonies via sexual and asexual reproductive mechanisms. Symphoricarpos shrubs, in particular S. orbiculatus, use a unique sexual reproductive mechanism known as layering where vertical stems droop and the tips root upon contact with the soil. Because of conflicting societal values of S. orbiculatus for conservation and agriculture and the current attempt to restore historical fire regimes, there is a ...


Habitat Use Of The Key Largo Woodrat (Neotoma Floridana Smalli), Lauren J. Barth Nov 2014

Habitat Use Of The Key Largo Woodrat (Neotoma Floridana Smalli), Lauren J. Barth

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Key Largo woodrats are an endangered subspecies with an extremely limited habitat. This study sought to understand woodrat habitat preferences in order to guide management. Woodrats build stick nests from natural and artificial materials, so nest distribution and nest occupancy were used as indicators of preference. Distribution was determined by nest surveys, and remote cameras were used to assess occupancy. Forest structure, human disturbance, nest, and animal presence metrics were also collected. More nests were found along abandoned roads than along forest transects and more artificial nests were occupied than natural nests. These findings indicate that woodrats prefer areas with ...


Influences Of Yard Management Intensity On Urban Soil Biogeochemistry, Viviana Penuela Useche Nov 2014

Influences Of Yard Management Intensity On Urban Soil Biogeochemistry, Viviana Penuela Useche

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soils are critical to ecosystem function as they provide essential nutrients for primary producers, habitat and organic energy for decomposers, and storage of organic matter. Irrigation with reclaimed water is an increasingly popular water conservation strategy; yet its high salinity and nutrient content potentially affect soil properties. In this study, set in a residential neighborhood of Tampa (U.S.). I tested whether there are distinct lawn system management strategies characterized by systematic differences in reclaimed water usage and irrigation and fertilization practices. I then investigated whether soil biogeochemistry responds to lawn system management strategy.

My results indicated that amendment strategy ...


Jackson Lake Limnology, Wayne Wurtsbaugh Oct 2014

Jackson Lake Limnology, Wayne Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

The limnology of Jackson Lake has been studied very little, despite the fact that it is the uppermost large lake on the headwaters of the Snake River, one of the larger rivers in the country (Hayden 1969). It is also an important fishery, largely for introduced lake trout. In 2014 we took our incoming graduate students to the Jackson Hole and one part of this introductory course focused on the limnology of the lake. Prior to the arrival of the students, a nutrient addition bioassay was initiated to demonstrate an experimental approach to understanding what nutrients might control production processes ...


High-Performance Spider Webs: Integrating Biomechanics, Ecology And Behaviour, Todd Blackledge, Aaron Harmer, Joshua Madin, Marie Herberstein Oct 2014

High-Performance Spider Webs: Integrating Biomechanics, Ecology And Behaviour, Todd Blackledge, Aaron Harmer, Joshua Madin, Marie Herberstein

Todd A. Blackledge

Spider silks exhibit remarkable properties, surpassing most natural and synthetic materials in both strength and toughness. Orb-web spider dragline silk is the focus of intense research by material scientists attempting to mimic these naturally produced fibres. However, biomechanical research on spider silks is often removed from the context of web ecology and spider foraging behaviour. Similarly, evolutionary and ecological research on spiders rarely considers the significance of silk properties. Here, we highlight the critical need to integrate biomechanical and ecological perspectives on spider silks to generate a better understanding of (i) how silk biomechanics and web architectures interacted to influence ...


Review Of The Face Of The Earth, Ann E. Lundberg Oct 2014

Review Of The Face Of The Earth, Ann E. Lundberg

Faculty Publications

Review of SueEllen Campbell, et al. The Face of the Earth: Natural Landscapes, Science, and Culture. Published review is at Western American Literature.


The Ecology Of Infancy And Early Childhood In Rural Senegal; A Five Year Old Can Boot But Not Foot, An Exploration Of Where Biology Meets Culture, Heather Mills Oct 2014

The Ecology Of Infancy And Early Childhood In Rural Senegal; A Five Year Old Can Boot But Not Foot, An Exploration Of Where Biology Meets Culture, Heather Mills

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research project explores the life stages of infancy and early childhood in the village of Ndiane in the Thies region of Senegal. I will discuss how biology meets culture to influence children, parenting styles, and expectations of the life stage. How does ecology, the interaction of physical, biological and cultural landscapes, characterize childhood and the intertwined belief systems that influence parenting? The information was gathered using a combination of participant observation and free list interviews.


Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe Sep 2014

Permaculture Design: On The Practice Of Radical Imagination, Katja Rothe

communication +1

Permaculture design is a concept that aims at transforming not only agriculture, but also city planning, architecture, development, etc. In short it aims to change human habitats. It is part of a new ecological paradigm that is currently spreading in popularity from the urban gardening movement to various other alternative movements such as the slow movement, sustainable architecture, etc. Permaculture design defines itself as building on systems theory (as formulated in particular by Howard Thomas Odum and Christopher Alexander). However I would like to propose that the afterlife of systems theory as expressed in the concept of permaculture, first developed ...


Turning Up The Heat On The Little Things That Run The World: Evaluating The Impacts Of Climate Change On Ant Biodiversity In The Temperate Forest Communities Of The Northeastern United States, Israel Del Toro Sep 2014

Turning Up The Heat On The Little Things That Run The World: Evaluating The Impacts Of Climate Change On Ant Biodiversity In The Temperate Forest Communities Of The Northeastern United States, Israel Del Toro

Doctoral Dissertations

Climatic change threatens biodiversity worldwide. In the forests of the northeastern United States, climate change is expected to increase mean annual temperatures by up to 4.5˚C and change precipitation seasonality. These changes in climate are likely to have impacts on the biodiversity of the region. In order to better understand the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, I used ants, an indicator taxonomic group, to predict how ant communities and ant-mediated ecosystem processes change as the climate warms. In the first chapter of this dissertation, I review the major ecosystem processes and services mediated by ants using the ...


Facing The Wreck: Death, Optimism, And The Fragmented Form, Rachael Marie Schaffner Aug 2014

Facing The Wreck: Death, Optimism, And The Fragmented Form, Rachael Marie Schaffner

Theses and Dissertations

Walter Benjamin described history as a winged angel who faces backwards, staring perpetually into the past as the violent winds of destiny carry him into the future (Illuminations). Despite a western, post-enlightenment myth of eternal progress, the wreckage of human contributions to history is clearly evident in our 21st-century understanding of anthropogenic impact on global ecology. In the context of these ecological crises (and the resulting political and economic questions), postmodern novels reveal a powerful ability to imagine different ways of living and interacting with the world. This thesis traces the relationship between fragmentation, death, and liminal experiences through Frederick ...


Connecting Through Consilience: Ecology, Society, Culture And Technology, Ruth Mirams, Alexander Hayes Jul 2014

Connecting Through Consilience: Ecology, Society, Culture And Technology, Ruth Mirams, Alexander Hayes

Alexander Hayes Mr.

Amongst linguistic, cultural and geographic diversity, humanity is characterised by inquisitiveness, communication and a deep desire to connect with each other. Despite our advanced intelligence and technological capacity, we are creatures of nature - a species which occupies a habitat, depends on consumable resources and fragile in many ways. As a species, we currently face challenges including overpopulation, diminishing resources and habitat degradation. In essence, we are exhausting the resources we depend on. [1] Resource depletion, disruption, famine, growth and sustainability are all observable in other species and natural systems. Human societies and systems can be described through the same scaling ...


Impacts Of Groundwater Discharge At Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) On The Phenolic Metabolism Of Eelgrass, Zostera Muelleri, And Grazing By The Juvenile Rabbitfish, Siganus Fuscescens, Thomas M. Arnold, Grace Freundlich, Taylor Weilnau, Arielle Verdi, Ian R. Tibbetts Jul 2014

Impacts Of Groundwater Discharge At Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) On The Phenolic Metabolism Of Eelgrass, Zostera Muelleri, And Grazing By The Juvenile Rabbitfish, Siganus Fuscescens, Thomas M. Arnold, Grace Freundlich, Taylor Weilnau, Arielle Verdi, Ian R. Tibbetts

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH / high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did ...


Areographic Representation Of Faunal Characteristics Through A "Second Order" Relational Approach, Charles H. Smith Jun 2014

Areographic Representation Of Faunal Characteristics Through A "Second Order" Relational Approach, Charles H. Smith

Charles H. Smith

Areographic analysis has traditionally depended on primary data consisting of location-specific tallies of presence or absence of given forms. In the present work, an alternate manner of representing distributions is suggested. Regional units are first established, and presence and absence of the forms under consideration in these units is noted. The relation of the biota at any given point location to all others is then established through examination of the former's characteristics of inclusion in the latter. This is accomplished by detailing regional level trends of inclusion and setting up a "second-order" distribution of associations. Two kinds of descriptive ...


Comparing Population Density Estimation Techniques For Columbia Black-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus Columbianus): Fecal Standing Crop And Distance Sampling Methods, Jubilee D. Brenneman Jun 2014

Comparing Population Density Estimation Techniques For Columbia Black-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus Columbianus): Fecal Standing Crop And Distance Sampling Methods, Jubilee D. Brenneman

Honors Projects

I estimated deer density and population size on Blakely Island, WA, using the fecal standing crop (FSC) method described by Martin et al. (2011). I compared the FSC method with a well established and broadly applicable estimation method, distance sampling. Additionally, architecture of a commonly browsed shrub, Ocean Spray (Holodiscus discolor), was measured as an indicator of browsing pressure. Fecal standing crop was estimated by counting pellet groups along 26, 100 x 2m line transects. Deer density was estimated using these data and the equation derived by Martin et al. (2011). Distance sampling consisted of recording perpendicular distance from transect ...


Body Shape Divergence In Invasive Round Goby, Cat Collins Jun 2014

Body Shape Divergence In Invasive Round Goby, Cat Collins

DePaul Discoveries

The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, originally native to the Black and Caspian seas, was introduced into the Great Lakes via ballast water in the 1990’s. Since then, the species has spread to all of the Great Lakes, thriving in the Lake Michigan region and spreading to surrounding bays and rivers. Invasive species are considered to have a high evolutionary potential. Differences in environmental conditions between native and introduced ranges stimulate adaptive evolution. Multiple introductions of an exotic species can result in separate instances of founder effects, further increasing the chance of evolutionary change. A total of 267 round goby ...


Pollutants And Foraminiferal Assemblages In Torrecillas Lagoon: An Environmental Micropaleontology Approach, Michael Martinez-Colon May 2014

Pollutants And Foraminiferal Assemblages In Torrecillas Lagoon: An Environmental Micropaleontology Approach, Michael Martinez-Colon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Torrecillas Lagoon in the North Coast of Puerto Rico has experienced extensive anthropogenic influence over the past 400 years. Elevated concentrations of Potential Toxic Elements (PTEs) have been reported in surficial sediments. The main goal of this dissertation was to implement in Puerto Rico the use of benthic foraminifers as a bioindicators of PTEs and to compare the impact of Cu(II) on field samples with results of experimental work using cultures.

Analyses included geochemical assessment for bulk and carbonate- soluble bioavailable concentrations of PTEs in surface, core and pore-water samples, as well as analyses of grain-size, Percent Total Organic ...


Relative Intestine Length And Feeding Ecology Of Freshwater Fishes, David O. Ribble, M H. Smith May 2014

Relative Intestine Length And Feeding Ecology Of Freshwater Fishes, David O. Ribble, M H. Smith

David O Ribble

There is a significant relationship between the intestine length (Y) and total body length (X) for 11 species of freshwater fish (Y = 0.08X1.42). Sufficient variation exists about this relationship to indicate important differences among the species' diets. The diets for each species, ranked on a Trophic Index scale determined from literature data, are negatively rank order correlated with the mean relative intestine lengths (rs = -0.67). There is no significant rank order correlation between the Trophic Indices determined from data on stomach contents and the mean relative intestine lengths for fish from a single creek.


Spatial And Habitat Responses Of Canada Lynx In Maine To A Decline In Snowshoe Hare Density, David G. Mallett May 2014

Spatial And Habitat Responses Of Canada Lynx In Maine To A Decline In Snowshoe Hare Density, David G. Mallett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous studies of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) within the northern boreal forest region have documented that lynx respond spatially to a decline in snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) density, as exhibited by expansion of territories and changes in social structure. I compared home range area and spatial overlap in the southeastern portion of their geographic range during periods of relatively high and relatively low hare density. Home range areas of lynx did not change between periods of high and low hare density, except that home ranges of females during the denning season expanded during the low period. The presence of kittens ...


Range Collapse, Genetic Differentiation, And Climate Change: An Ecological History Of The Diana Fritillary, Speyeria Diana And Projections For Its Future, Carrie Wells May 2014

Range Collapse, Genetic Differentiation, And Climate Change: An Ecological History Of The Diana Fritillary, Speyeria Diana And Projections For Its Future, Carrie Wells

All Dissertations

The geographic ranges of most plant and animal species are tied closely to climatic factors, including temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture. For this reason, recent changes in the global climate due to human activities are predicted to have profound effects on natural populations, communities and ecosystems over a relatively short period of time. Combined effects from global warming and other anthropogenic activities such as land-use changes, pollution, and habitat loss/fragmentation, are altering species' distributions faster than they can be documented. Recent climate change has also been shown to alter species' breeding behaviors and alter the synchrony and timing of ...


Investigating The Impact Of Novel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles On Legionella Pneumophila Biofilms And Trophic Interactions, Brennen Jenkins May 2014

Investigating The Impact Of Novel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles On Legionella Pneumophila Biofilms And Trophic Interactions, Brennen Jenkins

All Theses

Microbial biofilms serve as the base of food webs and are important for nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems. Nanoparticles (NPs) that enter into these aquatic systems have the potential to settle and become trapped within biofilms. As NPs become further integrated into consumer products, understanding their fate and effects on aquatic ecosystems is of paramount importance. Previous studies from our lab show that gold NPs induce dispersal of Legionella pneumophila biofilms. NPs with platinum and iron oxide core chemistries also lead to similar dispersal events, however, silver core NPs do not seem to induce these events due to NP aggregation ...


Synthesizing Research And Education: Ecology And Genetics Of Independent Fern Gametophytes And Teaching Science Inquiry And Content Through Simulations, Aaron M. Duffy May 2014

Synthesizing Research And Education: Ecology And Genetics Of Independent Fern Gametophytes And Teaching Science Inquiry And Content Through Simulations, Aaron M. Duffy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The mission statements of Utah State University and the Department of Biology, as well as the requirements of funding agencies like the National Science Foundation encourage an integration of teaching and research. I have attempted to achieve that in my dissertation work by using tools I originally created to support and inform my biological research projects to teach science content and inquiry to middle school and undergraduate students.

Chapter 2 of this dissertation reports the results of surveys for Hymenophyllum wrightii, a fern with independent gametophyte populations in the Pacific Northwest, which improved our understanding of the range, distribution, and ...


Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) And The Long-Tongued Fly Pollination Guild: Coevolution And Polymorphism In A Specialized Pollination System, Emily M. Blank May 2014

Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) And The Long-Tongued Fly Pollination Guild: Coevolution And Polymorphism In A Specialized Pollination System, Emily M. Blank

Honors Scholar Theses

In South Africa, a group of long-tongued flies and the flowering plants they pollinate form a unique and diverse pollination guild system almost entirely endemic to the Greater Cape Floristic Region. This system makes up only a small portion of the biodiversity of the Region, but it is likely a key to understanding the evolutionary processes that have lead to the observed biodiversity. Aside from its unusual pollinators, this guild system is of particular interest due to the extremely labile morphology of both the fly species and the associated flowering plant species, which geographically vary significantly in proboscis lengths and ...


Foraging Ecology Of Cougars In The Pryor Mountains Of Wyoming And Montana, Linsey Blake May 2014

Foraging Ecology Of Cougars In The Pryor Mountains Of Wyoming And Montana, Linsey Blake

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cougars (Puma concolor) are elusive top-level predators and their predation patterns, particularly upon sensitive species, can be a source of concern to wildlife managers. Predation patterns, however, vary widely in accordance with differing landscape attributes, prey community composition, and preferences of individual cougars. The objective of this study was to better understand the impact of cougars upon their prey in the Pryor Mountains of Wyoming and Montana. Managers were concerned that cougar predation was having a negative impact upon a small, isolated Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) population and were hoping predation might be limiting a burgeoning feral ...


Naturalized Offspring From An 85-Year-Old Chinese Chestnut (Castanea Mollissima) Planting: Stand Dynamics And Genetic Relationships, Amy Christel Miller Apr 2014

Naturalized Offspring From An 85-Year-Old Chinese Chestnut (Castanea Mollissima) Planting: Stand Dynamics And Genetic Relationships, Amy Christel Miller

Open Access Theses

Chestnuts, members of the genus Castanea , family Fagaceae, are valuable worldwide, and all species have noteworthy ecological, economic, and cultural importance in their native ranges. Historically, American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.) was an abundant tree species in eastern North America until its decimation in the early 20 th century by chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica . To regain the benefits of this prized species in North America, efforts are ongoing to produce and introduce blight-resistant hybrids of C. dentata and the blight-resistant Chinese chestnut ( C. mollissima Blume). It is important that the C. mollissimaportion of hybrids ...


Overwintering And Early Season Amplification Of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus In The Southeastern United States, Andrea Bingham Mar 2014

Overwintering And Early Season Amplification Of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus In The Southeastern United States, Andrea Bingham

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that causes severe disease, with a mortality rate of approximately 30-35% in humans and 80-90% in horses. Studies dating back to the 1930's have identified many of the epidemiological and ecological aspects of the virus. However, there are several aspects of EEEV's transmission cycle that remain unclear. In the northeastern states, transmission is seasonal, peaking in the late summer months, while in Florida there is year-round transmission of EEEV. Recent phylogenetic studies have also suggested that Florida may serve as a reservoir for EEEV; the virus may periodically ...


Mechanisms Of Diatom Assembly In A Hydrologically-Managed Subtropical Wetland, Sylvia S. Lee Mar 2014

Mechanisms Of Diatom Assembly In A Hydrologically-Managed Subtropical Wetland, Sylvia S. Lee

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Diatoms are useful indicators of ecological conditions but the mechanisms driving assemblage distribution are not clearly defined. Understanding the mechanisms underlying assemblage distribution is necessary to make accurate predictions about the effects of environmental change, such as hydrologic management, restoration, and climate change. The examination of diatom distribution and key drivers across a large wetland over several years can provide a resolved spatio-temporal framework for determining the relative importance of environmental and spatial factors influencing assemblage patterns. I examined a 6-year record of diatom distribution across the Everglades, a large hydrologically-managed subtropical wetland. Successful restoration of this ecosystem depends on ...


Review: The Rediscovery Of The Wild, Jillian M. Slater Mar 2014

Review: The Rediscovery Of The Wild, Jillian M. Slater

Marian Library Faculty Publications

Copyright (c) 2014, Jillian Slater. This review is available for non-commercial, educational use, provided that the user identify the author and the publication listed as the place of first publication, along with the volume and the year of the work's publication.